华东师范大学学报(教育科学版) ›› 2020, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (2): 114-125.doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.02.011

• 农村教育 • 上一篇    

教育精准扶贫:“一村一园”计划对农村儿童学业成绩的长效影响研究

赵晨1,2, 陈思3, 曹艳1, [美]凯瑟琳·斯诺3, 卢迈1   

  1. 1. 中国发展研究基金会, 北京 100010;
    2. 中国科学院心理研究所, 北京 100101;
    3. 哈佛大学教育学院, 剑桥 MA 02138
  • 发布日期:2020-01-21

Targeted Poverty Alleviation through Education: Long-term Effect of China’s “One Village One Preschool” Project on Rural Children’s Academic Achievements

Zhao Chen1,2, Chen Si3, Cao Yan1, Catherine Snow3, Lu Mai1   

  1. 1. China Development Research Foundation, Beijing, 100010, China;
    2. Institute of Psychology, China Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China;
    3. Graduate Education School, Harvard University, MA 02138, USA
  • Published:2020-01-21

摘要: 教育是阻断贫困代际传递、拔除穷根的治本之策。中国发展研究基金会于2009年启动了“一村一园”项目(OVOP)在教育精准扶贫方面做出了自己的一些成绩。“一村一园”项目目的是向中国贫困地区农村和少数民族地区儿童提供免费的普惠性学前教育。这是一项与中国地方政府合作的早期儿童发展干预项目,惠及中国中西部贫困地区农村处境不利的儿童。2018年,“一村一园”项目已在中国10个省(自治区)建立了约2300个山村幼儿园,免费为3至6岁的农村儿童提供接受学前教育的机会。本研究是对“一村一园”计划受益儿童和非“一村一园”受益儿童的大样本纵向追踪研究,使用减少选择偏差的数据处理方法,评估“一村一园”项目对儿童在小学阶段学业成绩的长期影响。我们的研究发现,参加"一村一园"项目的儿童学业成绩显著好于未接受过任何学前教育的儿童,并且显著好于除县城公立幼儿园以外的其他幼儿园的儿童。虽然“一村一园”受益儿童的分数没有超过资源相对更好的县城公立幼儿园的儿童,但“一村一园”受益儿童的学业成绩提高速度更快。本研究证明了为中国贫困农村儿童提供低成本、保质量的学前教育,具有长效的人力资本价值。

关键词: 教育精准扶贫, 贫困地区农村, “一村一园”, 学业成绩

Abstract: In 2009, the China Development Research Foundation launched the government-supported public intervention, One Village One Preschool (OVOP) project, which provided access to early childhood education (ECE) to disadvantaged rural and minority children in central and western rural China. From 2009 to 2018, OVOP established about 2300 centers in ten provinces, enrolling over 170000 rural young children, free of charge for all. We analyzed longitudinal data collected from a sample of 1962 children in one county (comparing OVOP attendees to children with no ECE, private ECE, and public ECE), using an inverse probability weighting approach to reducing selection bias in evaluating the effects of OVOP on children’s academic achievement during the first 5 years of elementary school. We found that children who attended OVOP centers attained higher scores in elementary grades than children who received no ECE or attended private township ECE. However, OVOP children scored lower than children who went to well-resourced public township ECE. In addition, the OVOP children had similar growth rates to public-ECE children; both groups improved more quickly than children in the non-ECE or private-ECE group. We conclude with a discussion of the value of providing low-cost ECE to rural children in China.

Key words: targeted poverty alleviation through education, poverty rural areas, “One Village One Preschool” project, academic achievement