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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences) 2014 Vol.32
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    The influence of urbanization process on the class size and the scale of school of compulsory education in china
    Fu Weili Zhang Miao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (1): 1-10.  
    Abstract977)   HTML1090)    PDF (1926KB)(3567)      
    The rapid urbanization process has led to the strong expansion of the scale of primary and secondary schools in some areas, this brings severe challenges to the adjustment about the class size and the scale of school of compulsory education in the urban and rural regions. There are two notable features on Compulsory education urbanization in China: firstly, the level of urbanization of the elementary school is lower than that of the city's overall development of urbanization in some populous provinces; secondly, the level of urbanization of junior high school is not only higher than that of the elementary school but also significantly surpasses that of the city’s urbanization. As for the following reasons, the slowing down of growth rate of the natural population ,the uncertain migration direction of the rural population, the unbalanced regional urbanization development and the recessive urbanization population explosion, there are several characteristics of school number and scale at the compulsory education,, including the total number is basic reasonable, different development between urban and rural areas, increasing pressure of covert growth of the student number, severe problems of the large class size in some areas. Several measures are suggested to solve the above problems, first to maintain the different balance between the number and scale of the school at two dimensions of rural and town; second, to keep consistent of the level of urbanization of education with the overall level of regional urbanization; third to cope with the uncertainty of floating population by using the flexibility student number of the small class; fourth to implement the scientific monitoring to the rapid urbanized big population province and the population in areas surrounding the center cities; fifth to establish the effective warning mechanism to control the class size and the school scale; sixth to improve the compulsory education coordination level; seventh to ensure that all levels governments are symmetrically in rights and obligations about the education of the floating population children.
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    The development of Mandarin acquisition of Uygur children in Bilingual Preschools in Xinjiang
    Zhou Jing & Li Chuanjiang & Du Lijun & Wang Feixia & Chen Si
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (1): 11-19.  
    Abstract785)   HTML142)    PDF (1391KB)(2741)      
    This study explores the development of Mandarin acquisition of Uygur children in Xinjiang. Participants are 384 Uygur children aged from three to six randomly selected from 24 local bilingual kindergartens. PPVT, EVT and other language tools are applied to assess children’s language development. Children's development of MLU, as well as other measurement, is also examined through electronic language database analysis (CHILDES). Findings show a development profile that children’s receptive language, expressive language, narrative language, academic language and MLU gradually develop as with ages. Result also indicates that there are some characteristics of young Uygur children in learning Mandarin Chinese. Therefore, suggestions are made to promote early bilingual education in Xinjiang as follows. First, an integrative and balanced model could be adopted for bilingual environment of preschool education; Second, attention should be paid to introduction of reading and picture books at the early age due to the gap of Mandarin acquisition between ethnic preschool children and Han children; Third a high quality Mandarin language input process should be built for ethnic minority Children
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    A Survey on the School Life Condition of Children from Fifteen Regions Nationwide
    Xiao-Wen Li & Xiao-Li Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (1): 20-31.  
    Abstract609)   HTML32)    PDF (5446KB)(1791)      
    The questionnaire survey is conducted on 20804 students of grade three to grade eight from fifteen provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. The study shows the following findings: first, on the whole, the quality of school life condition of primary school students is better than that of the middle school students; Second the quality of life condition of the students from the more reputable schools is better than that of students from ordinary schools and town and village schools; Third, the weak internal motivation of learning leads to the strong pragmatic and instrumental orientation; Fourth, educational atmosphere exhibits the following features of cultural transformation: Authoritative teachers are with strong appetency; on the other hand, the education methods are generally oversimplified. The class collective culture is poorly constructed but evidently related to the learning status of the students, the concept of learning and teacher-student relationship.
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    Reflections on Educational Phenomenology
    MIAO Xuehong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (1): 32-40.  
    Abstract779)   HTML35)    PDF (479KB)(2557)      
    Being affected by phenomenology and educational phenomenology in the North America, phenomenological attitude and approach has become an important approach in China’s education research to understand the education life since 1990s. Phenomenology provides the resources and the way of thinking. In order to go further in the inquiry of educational phenomenology, firstly we need to trace the development of educational phenomenology in China, and then to return to the phenomenology thoughts, getting inspirations from the basic problems and methods of phenomenology, defining the basic issues of pedagogy, regulating the method of educational phenomenology, as well as promoting the theoretical reflection of the educational phenomenology .
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    Teachers’ Premise Reflection of Educational Activities: Crisis and Reconstruction
    Cao Yongguo
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (1): 41-49.  
    Abstract840)   HTML31)    PDF (574KB)(2157)      
    To reflect on “Doing what” is to consider on the routine educational activities for a teacher. This reflection and thinking is beneficial for teachers to improve their capabilities and to understand the effects of their action; but it is not valuable for in-depth reflectivity because “familiarity” “common sense” and “self-evidence” might mean ignorance and can not lead to know the truth. “Knowing what to do” is self-reflection on one’s “familiarity”, “common sense” and critical thinking on one’s action and views in order to know the reality and to behavior appropriately. This is a kind of premise reflection. It means that the teachers should hold self-critique spirit and reflect on the “unaware premise” of their action, struggle rationally to avoid falling into an active conspirator. Meanwhile, the overemphasis on efficiency, specificity and instruments and the dominance of scientific rationale has caused crisis of teacher education. To reconstruct teachers’ premise reflection, teachers should be well prepared with integrative knowledge of human-being’s happiness and full development. In this sense, teacher education is similar to liberal education.
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    A New Way for Understanding “Education Modernization”: The Sociology of Knowledge Approach to Discourse
    Sun Yang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (1): 50-57.  
    Abstract728)   HTML30)    PDF (586KB)(1783)      
    “Education Modernization” is one of the most important academic products and tool in modern China educational research; moreover, it’s a unique academic issue of China. Existing researches from discursive or ideology perspective were emerged in western modernization theory and other Chinese modernization research. However, there is no corresponding research in Chinese education modernization. The combination of foucauldian discourse research and sociology of knowledge, can provide a possible approach to analyze “Education Modernization” in China. Under this approach, an interpretation paradigm of Education Modernization was put forward.
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    The Yi Ethnic Minority“Kezhi”Dialectical Practice:As a Public Educational Activity
    Gu Erhuo & Zhang Shiya
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (1): 58-62.  
    Abstract750)   HTML29)    PDF (502KB)(1750)      
    The Yi ethnic minority “Kezhi”debating has same educational features,including teaching knowledge,developing thinking capability,learning history and cultivating humanities’ quality. In a word,this Socratic dialogue mode of education plays an important role in building a public life space in Liangshan Yi ethnic minority Area.
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    Space and Order: Reflection On the Education of Gongdu Students
    Chen Chen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (1): 63-68.  
    Abstract655)   HTML29)    PDF (923KB)(1707)      
    Using the census data of "China Gong du education (2007)"and case investigation of part of the Gong du school in 2012, this paper analyses the field of Gong du education from the perspective of sociology. The results show that the mainstream social constructs the school’s social status, which lay it in the exclusion location in the city space. Gong du school’s education order is represented by learning and living space as well as the outcome of the negotiation of “teacher-student relationship”,which constitutes a new order making students’ self-development possible.
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    Wen  and  Dao  in Education of Chinese Language and Literature
    YANG Chengyu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (1): 69-75.  
    Abstract902)   HTML34)    PDF (617KB)(2596)      
    Literature is for conveying truth and moral instuction (Wen yi zaidao) is the traditional definition of the relationship between literature (Wen) and truth (Dao). The debates on the relationship between  Wen and  Dao are crucial issues bothering Chinese Language and Literature teachers for a long time. In order to clarify the relationship between  Wen and Tao , the researcher should back to the original meaning for these two terms, analyze the historical evolution of their meanings, and then understand the authentic meaning in the language context. When the teachers face the changing meaning of literature and the contradiction between Wen and Dao , they should back to the life in Chinese Language and Literature. Teachers should guide the student to achieve the state of harmony with Wen  and Dao  integrated as the one.
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    Is the Mind Shaped by Evolution a Function or a Structure?
    XI Jiawen & JIANG Ke
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (1): 76-81.  
    Abstract690)   HTML33)    PDF (464KB)(1443)      
    “What does the process of natural selection select?” The wrong answer of this question will obstruct the process by which Evolutionary Psychology explains the implication of mind. Modern genetics argues that the natural selection process shapes the genotype. Genotype does not mean the material structure of organism but their response model toward the environment. This article aims to analyze the interactive process between the organism and the environment. It suggests and demonstrates two propositions: (1) The function of an organism pre-exists the physical structure of organism logically; (2) An organism adapts to the environment by its function rather than its structure. In concluding, the natural selection selects the function of an organism.
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    Pioneer and Founder of Applied Psychology: Review of the Psychological Thoughts of Hugo Münsternberg
    LI Yi-min&WANG Hong-yan&LI Yong-xin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (1): 82-88.  
    Abstract1054)   HTML67)    PDF (511KB)(2780)      
    Hugo Münsternberg (1863-19l6) is a German psychologist who lived in the United States. As one of the most famous psychologists in the early 20th century, He served as the director of the psychology laboratory at Harvard University, the chairman of American Psychological Association and so forth. Münsternberg’s research covers many fields such as experimental psychology, aesthetic psychology, education psychology, clinical psychology, forensic psychology, industrial psychology, and etc. He is not only a distinguished scholar in the field of psychological research and a pioneer of applied psychology, but also the founder of industrial psychology and a practitioner of popularization of psychology science.
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    Music, Mind and the Brain
    Zhang Weidong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (1): 89-96.  
    Abstract964)   HTML1195)    PDF (492KB)(3530)      
    Music plays an important role both in one’s life and in a society and therefore attracts psychologists and neuroscientists to explore intensively and extensively the psychological mechanisms and neural basis of human musical mind. This paper reviewed the major research advances and results in the areas of cognitive processing and emotional experience of music, the individual differences in responding to and enjoying music, and the implications of psychological and neuro-scientific research on music. The concluding remarks addressed the key issues in current studies as well as directions for future research in the area of music, mind and brain.
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    The Development of Art Therapy: Retrospect and Prospect
    ZHOU Hong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (1): 97-102.  
    Abstract936)   HTML1230)    PDF (458KB)(3361)      
    Art therapy is one of psychotherapies to use art in diagnosis and therapy. It emerged in the 1940s and took first step in the 1950s. In the gold times from 1960s to 1990s, art therapy evolved into a professional mental service, and was practiced in various forms and methods, and the application field. In 21st century, integration highlights as a major trend in art therapy which is prominently featured with keeping pace with the progress of science and technology and focusing on the diversity of cultural contexts
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    Empowerment of Women:Enlightenment Aspirations in Women's Textbooks of the Late Qing Dynasty and Republican China
    Wuxiaoou& Lixiang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (1): 103-110.  
    Abstract752)   HTML110)    PDF (667KB)(2584)      
    The compilation of women's textbooks of the late Qing Dynasty and Republican China saw its peak from 1904 to 1915, but it lacked in numbers and kinds with incomplete subjects. Textbooks for girls in primary schools were mainly complied in the late Qing Dynasty and republican China,including morality, Chinese, calligraphy, housewifery, arithmetic as major subjects. Textbooks for girls in middle schools were mainly complied in the early Republican China,including arithmetic , algebra, geometry, chemistry, physics, physiology, mineralogy, zoology, botany as major subjects. Enlightenment aspirations in Women’s textbooks shows that women were empowered the rights to receive education, seek self- development, get employed and keep health mentally and physically and extends beyond what advanced intellectuals thought about women and women's education. For compiled by males, women’s textbook presents the ideal image of women in line with social and cultural standards of a male’s world which concerns women's social function in the new era and a docile training of a "good wife and a good mother". Although rights are empowered rather than self-empowering, women’s textbooks has been of massive historical significance and value based on that they advocate a new paradigm for life and stresses a different identity with a "national mother" and "female national " from the perspective of natural rights of women, which has illuminated the dark times of Chinese society.
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    A Rethinking on “Progressive Education”:A Post-modern Perspective
    YUAN Qinglin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (1): 111-116.  
    Abstract734)   HTML29)    PDF (479KB)(1625)      
    Concerning the historical background and theoretical significance of “Progressive Education” in America, some post-modernist educational historians hold that the progressive education can be traced back to the Reformation period, and it has become symbiotic, in some ways, with the system of modern public education. As a transformation in education, it represents a continuous construction but not a theoretical revolution, with its core intent never changed since the Reformation. These new perspectives are worthy of attention and very enlightening to educators, especially researchers on history of education.
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    British Education in the Context of the Puritan Revolution
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (1): 117-124.  
    Abstract635)   HTML28)    PDF (553KB)(2590)      
    Affected by Bacon’s Philosophy and Comenius’ thoughts, Puritans advocated general, utilitarian, free and compulsory education, and insisted that traditional teaching methods should be changed. Although schools and universities were affected by social unrests during the Puritan Revolution, Cromwell carried out series of reforms and measures after the claim of sovereignty, which made British education take on a new look. Because of the Restoration, everything went up in smoke. However, the theories and practice have become rich legacy for England, and the reforms became the prelude to the great reformation in British education in the 19th century.
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    The experiment of student performance assessment method in New China ——The New Research on Scoring Method of Five-point Scale
    Sun Jie
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (2): 1-6.  
    Abstract557)   HTML50)    PDF (452KB)(1280)      
    The five-point scale scoring method is the early days in China with the process of the advanced experience of the Soviet education construction of school education areas of life extensively studied as a student's academic and virtue performance evaluation method. Lvshun Middle School is the earliest implementation of the five-point scale scorecard secondary schools. It form self-characteristics in the assessment and conduct assessment of student achievement. The spirit of science and experimental attitude must follow the basic principles of the new methods experiment.
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    Change and it’s influence about University Enrollment Pattern of Borderland in the Period of Nanjing National Government (1927--1949)
    ZHANG Xue-qiang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (2): 7-12.  
    Abstract449)   HTML179)    PDF (489KB)(1131)      
    The Nanjing national government emphasize the importance of the borderland education, in order to training more people who can build the borderland, three models are considered in university enrollment system ,include offering recommendation opportunities to university ,applying freely for the university examination and oriented training, which achieved great breakthrough in enrollment structure and enrollment number. But limitations is also obvious, include Limited scale, examinees with false registered area, poor quality of education and the continuation of prerogative.
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    What is the Education Praxis?
    JIN Sheng-Hong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (2): 13-20.  
    Abstract514)   HTML28)    PDF (1204KB)(1413)      
    This paper is a normative inquiry which discusses the essence and position of education as praxis in the horizon of Practical Philosophy. The real praxis of education is an action for human being to cherish goodness and it is a fundamental way to pursue the good life and the excellence of humanity. Educational action and its purpose are united and constitutive. It is an action based on rationality, morality and internal purposiveness. Only education has the characteristics can it be the real praxis. The final purpose of education is ultimate, not instrumental and education is one of the highest forms of human practice. The instrumentalization and technicalization of education turns it into a technical process which makes the praxis degrading and distorted. Thus returning to praxis is a necessary appeal for education to become the practice which pursues its internal purpose consisting of good, ethical and rational actions.
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    Critiques of Modern Cynicism in Educational Philosophy
    Gao Wei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (2): 21-30.  
    Abstract608)   HTML26)    PDF (618KB)(1577)      
    The modern Cynicism in the philosophy of education provides a comprehensive organization and reflection on modern education. The problem and crisis of modern educational philosophy lie in modern Cynicism, which is a more extreme and prevalent illness of time than Nihilism. It is cynic in philosophy, life and mechanism. The modern Cynicism acts as a new ideology, a new life style and practice that generate educational practices without energy or depth. Curing modern Cynicism is to rebuild the value of spirit life. Public life, public rationality and public spirit should be the fundamental direction of the philosophy of modern education.
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    To Praise or to Respect: From the Ethical Concepts to Moral Education
    Tang Yan & Gao De-sheng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (2): 31-37.  
    Abstract559)   HTML27)    PDF (634KB)(1439)      
    The praise and the respect are important ethical concepts in classical ethics, of which the differences and causes are vague in modern society where are afraid of and escape from the nobleness and excellence. Through the analyses of Aristotle’ and Kant’ works, the praise and the respect have different subjects and working principles. In moral education, we should follow these discussions, distinguish two type of things, that is the things worth to praise and to respect, and get out of errors in moral practice for the improvement of learners’ cultivation.
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    Self-consciousness and Freedom: Confucian Private School Curriculum Thought and its Realistic Significance
    WU Gangping&YU Wenjing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (2): 38-43.  
    Abstract575)   HTML26)    PDF (471KB)(1037)      
    Freedom is the necessary condition to promote the all-round development of students. Ancient Chinese Confucianism to Confucius as the representative of the private school curriculum appeared conscious characteristics of spontaneous and judgment to promote personal development. This feature is not only reflected in the curriculum morphology of the integration of knowledge to action, but also in the curriculum psychological structure of inward restraint, consider others in one's own place, common sense of happiness. On Confucian private school curriculum consciousness and thought, not only helps to reveal the culture foundation of all-round development of students, and there are reasons to a deep insight into the basic loose.
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    The Development and Evolutionary Logic of Institutional Research in Britain: From “Equality” to “Quality”
    CAI Guo-Chun & XI Fei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (2): 44-52.  
    Abstract686)   HTML25)    PDF (538KB)(911)      
    Compared with the United States, the development of institutional research in Britain is tardy. From the historical origin, the early British “institutional research” activities included “individual university’s history” and “government reports”. But the “serious” institutional research originated in the process when the Britain government decided to boost the massification of higher education policy from 1963 to 1987. During that period, institutional research mainly focused on policy research on the system level which aimed to promote the “education equality” and pedagogical adjustment of the university to support “the new students” learning. Since the late 1980s, great changes on the relationship have taken place between the higher education institutions and the UK government. “Quality Assessment Movement” and “Public Accountability” have madea contribution to strengthening institutional research in universities and colleges. At the same time, the focus of institutional research has shifted from “equality” to “quality”. Much could be inspired and learnt from the experience of the institutional research in the UK for other European countries and for China to develop a formally constituted institutional research capacity.
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    Experimental research on the influence of Experiential Learning on pupils' creative personality development
    Wang Can-ming Gu Zhi-yan Yan Yi-feng Zhang Zhi-quan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (2): 53-60.  
    Abstract499)   HTML26)    PDF (780KB)(1951)      
    Under the attact of instrumental rationalism education mode and examination system, chinese pupils' creative personality come to serious a distortion edge. This study introduced the theory of the most prominent experiential learning expert David Kolb's experiential learning theory and reconstruct it locally. Reduce the risk of activity through the simulated situation. carefully designed intresting games,activities and problem solving situation. Using class or spare time to carry out a series of theme activity. The experiment results show that pupils' creative personality is significantly increased whether on overall or on the four dimensions of imagination,challenging,adventure or curiosity. This will open a new way for the cultivating of China's early creative talents.
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    Reflection on Current Educational Science Research of China in Constructive Realism
    Zhao Zhichun & Wang Jiayi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (2): 61-66.  
    Abstract456)   HTML25)    PDF (479KB)(1194)      
    Philosophy of science was one of distillations of the development of western science and culture. It provided meaningful guidance on methodology for the research of different disciplines. The paper put the discussion on realism in the history of scientific philosophy as point of penetration and reviewed the development of western philosophy of science briefly, and introduced recent constructive realism, in order to made the scholar of education even social science pay much more attentions on philosophy of science, especially on constructive realism in vigorous development of New Vienna Circle. Furthermore, when current education science research was reflected in the guide of constructive realism, the following four aspects should be broken through urgently: on the construction of discipline, integration among disciplines should be enhanced; on the orientation of research, indigenous approach should be emphasized; on the academic purport, education practice should be strengthened; on the method of research, multi-paradigm should be recognized.
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    The confusion of student teacher and its solution ——A theoretical model of student teacher’ s “reality shock”
    ZHOU Huan, YI Xinfa, HU Weiping
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (2): 67-73.  
    Abstract593)   HTML29)    PDF (896KB)(1883)      
    During the teaching practice, “reality shock” which refers to the dissonance between ideal and reality is inevitable for almost every student teacher. This phenomenon will not only impair the functions of teaching practice, but also lead to the novice teachers’ poor adaptation and even the decision of leaving the teaching position, thus arouse concern of more and more researchers. A theoretical model of student teacher’s “reality shock” is established based on the results of existing researches. This model systematically analyses and summarizes the content, consequences, and influential factors of “reality shock”, and it is helpful for student teachers, normal colleges, and practice schools to understand this phenomenon more deeply, and take steps to improve the situation of teaching practice.
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    A Scenarios Experiment about the Influence of Gratitude on Helping Behavior
    HE An-ming, Hui Qiu-ping, LIU Hua-shan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (2): 74-80.  
    Abstract574)   HTML30)    PDF (445KB)(1782)      
    To test the prediction of gratitude on people’s helping behaviors, and made a more particularly research on the relationship between gratitude, indebtedness and happiness. 296 undergraduates were selected to fill in situational experiment, and the methods of descriptive statistics, covariance analysis was adopted. Results indicate: The gratitude is different from indebtedness and happiness. It is a positive emotional characteristics with value of social morality, rather than indebtedness and happiness, gratitude can predict prosocial behavior such as helping behavior positively.
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    Network of Brain Areas involved in Synaesthesia
    LI Jiayuan ZHAO lingli
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (2): 81-87.  
    Abstract418)   HTML29)    PDF (730KB)(1784)      
    In recent years many neuropsychologists have studied synaesthesia in whole brain. From these studies we find Synaesthetic colour experience in color synaesthesia can activate V4, but be not necessarily restricted to V4, and involve a network of brain areas(six brain locations activated). similarly, in other types of synaesthesia networks of brain areas were involved. some evidences have showed that synaesthetes have increased grey matter or white matter in area V4 or other areas, this implies there are structural differences of brain and genetic differences between synaesthetes and non-synaesthetes. works to look for the genes that determine synaesthesia are going on, and Some studies have showed that genetic basis may be found in genes which influence the development of connectivity in the brain, such as TBR1. These phenomenons still need to be tested in the future.
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    A Meta-Analysis of the Moral Embodied Cognition
    SUN Yanjie,SUN Fangfang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (2): 88-96.  
    Abstract468)   HTML28)    PDF (607KB)(1347)      
    Embodied cognition emphasizes our body playing important roles in human cognitive process. It also exert substantial influences in the field of Moral Psychology. Early researchers believe that moral judgment and moral behavior is based on an individual's rational reasoning. Subsequently, recent empirical works suggest one's unconscious process (physical, perception and culture) also effects moral judgments and moral behaviors. Researchers have termed the form of physical variables altering an individual's moral behavior and moral judgment as "Moral Psychophysics". However, research exploring whether corporeal perception will affect people's moral judgments and moral behaviors have yielded inconsistent results. There are many variables we don’t know whether they can affect the effect size of the moral embodiment, which will be further explored in this study. This article reports the results of a meta-analysis of individual perception's relationship with one's moral behavior and moral judgment, and whether this affiliation is moderated by any subsidiary variables. The moderator analysis variables include different directions (concrete-to-abstract or abstract-to-concrete), cognitive activities (online or offline), senses (sight, touch, taste or smell), cultures (Western or Eastern), country cultures (China, America, Germany, Spain and England) and moral metaphors (bright or clean). A total of 42 studies with 2962 participants were included in this meta-analysis, the articles were written in both English and Chinese. Data was analyzed utilizing the Comprehensive Meta-analysis (CMA) Version 2 program. For each study, an effect size (correlation) was calculated. Significance tests and moderator analyses were performed through random-effect models. The effect sizes of moral judgment and moral behavior were homogeneous (Q = 0.939, p > 0.05), moral judgment and moral behavior were then combined as moral response. The combined effect size for the relation between individual perceptions, moral judgment and moral behavior was weakly correlated (r=0.19, p < 0.01). Variables such as the directions, cognitive activities, perceptions, moral metaphors and Western or Eastern cultures did not show significant moderation effects. However, if the cultures are not merely classified by Western or Eastern and is rater specifically categorized as “country culture”, a moderation effect was found (Q = 79.454, p < 0.001). The results suggest that our perceptions can affect moral judgment and behavior vice versa, and relationship between the perceptions and moral response is affected by the country culture. The way humans behavior and comport their bodies is one way they carry their culture. The discovered moderate effect in country culture suggest that we should focus on different cultural aspects in future Embodied Cognition studies.
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    MENG Xiancheng and HU Xiansu’s Controversy about the Existence of Normal Universities in 1925
    ZHANG Liyong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (2): 97-103.  
    Abstract518)   HTML24)    PDF (625KB)(1047)      
    To realize the goal of education universalization, modern pioneer educators paid great attention on the design of higher normal education system, leading to the construction of “Zoning of Higher Normal Education” and the successive establishment of “six higher normal schools”. In the 1920s, this system was broken down since most of normal high schools were changed into normal universities, which caused some appeals for the reconstruction of the former system. As a result, there aroused a controversy about the existence of normal universities between MENG Xiancheng and HU Xiansu. HU approved of an ‘open’ mode of teacher training instead of the ‘closed’ one. Nevertheless, this kind of plan was not in accordance with the social reality of China and HU did not understand pedagogy and normal education thoroughly. MENG pointed out all of his faults. We can draw some lessons about the reform of normal education from this controversy.
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    Changes in the Amount and distribution of National University in the Period of Republic of China
    LI Tao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (2): 104-110.  
    Abstract450)   HTML25)    PDF (1248KB)(2277)      
    During the period of Republic of China, the development of National University has experienced four periods——the period of slow growth (1912-1921), the period of the rapid expansion (1922-1926), the period of systematization (1927-1936), and the period of steady growth (1937-1949). Meanwhile, the regional distribution of the National University has experienced four stages——the stage of serious imbalance(1912-1926), the stage of relative unbalance(1927-1936), the stage of decentralized(1937-1945), the stage of relative balance(1946-1949).
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    The Paradox of “Child” and “Army”: Studies in the Development of Boy Scouts in the Republic of China
    WU Xiaowei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (2): 111-115.  
    Abstract558)   HTML23)    PDF (463KB)(1138)      
    Early 1900s, Robert Baden Powell designed a children’s organization that was named Boy Scouts and proposed a principle of “non-army”. In the republican period, Boy Scouts was translated into “Tongzi Jun” that means children’s army. Furthermore, there existed a paradox of “Child” and “Army” during the development of Boys Scouts in China. We can further understand the educational value of scouting by pointing out this paradox and present the special development of Boy Scouts in the Republic of China by analyzing this paradox.
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    Unending Quest: Studies on John Dewey’s Thought of Education in China
    TU Shiwan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (2): 116-124.  
    Abstract435)   HTML24)    PDF (642KB)(2203)      
    There are four periods in the centennial studies on John Dewey’s thought of education in China. The first period is the first thirty years in the 20th century when the main work was translating Dewey’s works and introducing Dewey’s thought into Chinese academic circles. Hu shih was the representative scholar in this period. The second period is from 1930 to 1949, in which the studies on Dewey’s thought were productive. There were kinds of researches from the perspective of libertarianism, from the theory of creative evolution or from the perspective of Marxism. However, the research has been split into two branches since 1949. This is the third period. In the People’s Republic of China, there had been full of criticism of Dewey’s thought of education from the ideology of MarxLeninism, which had no academic elements. In Hong Kong and Taiwan, the research became prosperous and TsuinChen Ou became the most outstanding scholar in the field. In the fourth period which began in 1980, the People’s Republic of China began to reevaluate Dewey’s thought of education and the studies began to revive. In the view of the research’s type of thought, the history of studies on Dewey’s educational thought in China is a course which started from experimentalism, and underwent to absolutism, and then returned to experimentalism.
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    On Liu Fonian’s Thoughts of Teaching Reforms in Primary and Middle Schools
    LIU LimingQI & Zhan yong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (3): 1-9.  
    Abstract678)   HTML53)    PDF (516KB)(1644)      
    Liu Fonian is a famous university president and educator. He made in-depth study and comprehensive and insightful explanation to teaching reform in the primary and secondary schools in China. He identified teaching thoughts reform from the following aspects, namely the guiding thought of teaching reform( view of objective, quality and talent ), the teaching goal(scientific exposition of knowledge, ability and attitude),curriculum reform(the increase in difficulty and the attention on the logic of the knowledge),the teaching method reform(the attention to the stimulating of students' activeness and developing of students' creativity),the learning style(emphasis on the cultivation of right attitude and methods, the combination of studying and thinking, the unity of knowledge and practice),the teaching assessment( stress on the inspection of comprehensive quality and the combination of target and evaluation).Being the treasure worth of inheriting, the ideas of reform in education contain many valuable contents. All these ideas are of great value for us to conduct teaching reform, to improve teaching quality and to promote students' comprehensive development in morality intelligence, physical condition, aesthetic state and laboring.
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    Evaluation of Examination in Math in College Entrance Examination:A Empirical Comparative Study on CTT and IRT
    1、YAN Chenghai,2、DU Wenjiu,2、SONG Naiqing,3、ZHANG Jian
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (3): 10-18.  
    Abstract730)   HTML136)    PDF (894KB)(2184)      
    The previous research shows that ITR has more merits than CTT in the evaluation of examination. Based on the data collected in math subject in National College Entrance Examination of one district, the paper compares the differences between CTT and IRT on project parameters, ways of evaluation and accuracy assessment. The research shows that the characteristics of each project properties are more easily reflected under the IRT parameters, and the IRT parameters are more accurate than the CTT. The function of the project information can reflect the information of the tests better. IRT and CTT have different evaluation ways and the scores under the evaluation of IRT, which represents students' abilities, are higher than those of CTT. CTT is different from IRT in precision estimation, but the test information function and confidence interval of IRT are more accurate than that of CTT. The Empirical study shows the advantages of IRT in evaluating the math subject in College Entrance Examination, which is valuable and has potential applications.
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    On Metaevaluation System of College Entrance Examination Standard in China
    ZHANG Yuan-Zeng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (3): 19-25.  
    Abstract671)   HTML43)    PDF (440KB)(1218)      
    College entrance examination standard is the unity of concrete value, value activity strategy and value activity methods. The Metacriterion system of the China's college enrollment standard consists of maintaining stability, development status and development ability, inclusiveness, accessibility and scientific princinple . Based on the measurement model that are established with these five criteria, this paper establishes public policy quality index of national college entrance examination standard. The public policy integrates quality index of national college entrance examination standard system. These indices can provide an objective evidence for developing, improving, perfecting and constructing the current college entrance examination enrollment standard system in China.
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    Policy Analysis on Reform of Senior High SchoolEntrance Examination in China
    SHEN Yu-Shun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (3): 26-30.  
    Abstract766)   HTML47)    PDF (399KB)(1241)      
    The reform policy of senior high school entrance examination concerns national educational goals, human resource development, student choice and educational equality. The core goals of reform lie in how to deal with the relationship between educational quality, efficiency and equality. This paper discusses reform issues in senior high school entrance examination from the perspective of educational evaluation. The author proposes the qualityefficiency oriented entrance examination system which integrates the senior high school entrance examination and the junior high school graduation examination, combining student achievement assessment, scholastic assessment test and occupation adaptability test. In so doing, it will promote student choice opportunity and educational equality in the educational process.
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    ON the Paths of Educational Reform
    LONG Bao-Xin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (3): 31-37.  
    Abstract723)   HTML29)    PDF (506KB)(1536)      
    Metapath is the supreme truth that controls the whole educational reform,while specific path is those practical tricks choosed by the educational reform in educational system and mechanism. In the educational history,it witnessed three metapath,that is, endogenic logic,mandatory logic of external force and infiltrative logic of educational theory.The core of educational change force derives from the diffusion and reproduction of educational theory which are the game result of three forces,namely,the magnetic force of theory,reagency of educational practice and braced force of educational system. In education reform,the mission of specific path is to echo the requirement of education theory‘s change toward practice,so it is the specific paths,such as selecting the ideas,example marketing,institution's cooperation and disintegration of system, that leads the educational reform to success.
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    On School as a Space for Public Life
    FENG Jian-Jun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (3): 38-48.  
    Abstract659)   HTML589)    PDF (650KB)(1335)      
    The public life means that the interlinked and interactional common life shaped by people's participation in public affairs. As the subject of public life,citizenship is able to develop in public life. To cultivating citizens and citizenship,it is necessary not only to impart knowledge teaching through citizenship curriculum,but also to form character by practicing public lifet. Only by living a public life can real citizens be cultivated. According to the character of public life,schools can become crucial spaces of public life. Furthermore, schools should transform into public life space since the current schools lack of publicity. However,school public life should not imitate social public life. It is a kind of special public life which demonstrates its uniqueness as follows, firstschool public life is a kind of quasi public life,second, it is a kind of educational public life to cultivate students' publicity,and third it is a kind of good public life consciously constructed by teachers and students.
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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    Future or Present? The Implication on the Orientation of Education of Levinas' View of Time
    WU Xian-Wu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (3): 49-54.  
    Abstract693)   HTML27)    PDF (539KB)(1338)      
    Levinas broke through the traditional formaltive time, connected time with concrete existence. Because every existent individual reborns at every instant, time is heterogeneous and the present is special to everyone. Based on the formaltive view of time, the traditional education ideas, indicate that all educational activities is oriented to the future. In order to gain the socalled happiness in the future, the teacher think that the students should endure the current torment. According to Levinas' view of time, the present is special, the student should not be require to sacrifice the present happiness so as to gain the future achivement..Teachers should change their view so that the students could live a happy life at present.
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    Dewey’s Inquiry Pedagogical Theory: A Contextual Discourse and Deviation
    TANG Bin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (3): 55-62.  
    Abstract906)   HTML28)    PDF (498KB)(1767)      
    Dewey's thought gradually appeared in the process of the dissolution of dualism. In the process of ending grand realism, Dewey, built up the theory of practical realism and initiated the "learning by doing" theory and inquiry pedagogical theories and promoted the democracy and reality of education through the analysis of modern science and the phenomenon of children's touching flame. But Dewey had not fully aware that knowledge learning is not a completely equivalent to such a process, it needs to be supported by hermeneutics and learning theories and other related theories. This weakness led to certain deviation of Dewey's theory. He replaced "understanding" and "learning" by "knowing" and "cognition", therefore his criticisms of Herbart is not sufficient and reasonable.
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    “The Panic People” and the Education Keeping a Person to be Calm
    ZHANG Le
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (3): 63-68.  
    Abstract680)   HTML28)    PDF (551KB)(1430)      
    Panic is an emotional state of excessive fear which forms a kind of social character of modern people. Subjected to authority, lost trust, and the spread of selfishness were the symptoms of the panic people. The vulnerability of modern people brought by lost opportunity of liberations, the spread of artificial panic brought by scientism, and the lost of the common way of eliminating panic brought by the alienation of politics were the modern reasons for the emergence of panic people. Facing the emergence of panic people, schools should provide a relatively safer and more peaceful place. On the one hand, it can keep children away from untimely exposure to panic, and let them to form a healthy personality. On the other hand, it allows children to enter the society in the future with the ability to change social reality. Specifically, education should guide children to pursue virtue and wisdom, cultivate children's risk awareness, and build a learning community.
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    Reflection on the Relationship between Moral Bottom Line and Perfect Morality in Modern Moral Education
    YU Wei-Wu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (3): 69-77.  
    Abstract586)   HTML27)    PDF (525KB)(1742)      
    In today's diverse and open society, religious traditions and moral perfectionism compete against each othera phenomenon which demonstrates a normal state and a lasting character of modern society. To provide everyone a unified and objective and perfect morality and a way of good life based on a certain theory is no longer acceptable to modern people' hearts; it would ruin people's moral life and human nature. Moral bottom line rule regulates every society member's behaviors by stipulating the least basic moral obligations, thereby building afundamental defense system for human to survive, at the same time ensuring people to pursue their life ideals and moral goodness freely and safely. Moral education needs to guide youths to make equal and open moral dialogues with other people in this diverse society, and to pursue wider moral consensus and ultimate good freely while holding on to moral bottom line.
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    SelfKnowledge of Personality: Its Accuracy and Limits
    1、CHEN Shaohua,2、ZENG Yi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (3): 78-83.  
    Abstract741)   HTML31)    PDF (445KB)(1736)      
    The selfknowledge of personality is the selfperception of individuals' thinking, emotion, behavior and reputation. Usually, it is obtained by introspection, the selfand otherobserving of behavior. The study indicated that there is some moderately correlation between selfknowledge of personality and behavior, people have some insight of his or her personality and the accuracy is changed with personality dimensions. Influenced by the information and motivation obstacle, the selfknowledge of personality has its own limits. Because of the blind spot and motivation factor in selfperception, people cannot judge himself or herself without any prejudice like stranger, there exist asymmetry between the self and other knowledge of personality. There are some effective ways to improve the accuracy of selfknowledge of personality, such as providing the true feedback information, reducing the selfprotection motivation, using mindfulness skills and insisting on beyourself.
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    The Concept, Measurement, Influencing Factors and Effects of Psychological Capital
    XIONG Meng,YE Yi-duo
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (3): 84-92.  
    Abstract857)   HTML1004)    PDF (507KB)(4684)      
    The concept of Psychological capital (PsyCap) is identified as a kind of positive psychological trait for individual development. The study on PsyCap has significant implication for enhancing individual and organizational competitive advantage. During the past decade, there are rich literature on the concept and theory, structure and measurement, impact factors, effects and intervention. A great deal of empirical work of antecedents, consequences and intervention of psychological capital had been systematically reviewed. The development trends in the field include the development of inclusion criteria of different populations‘ PsyCap, the exploration of integration mechanism with antecedents and outcome variables, the strengthening of longitudinal and intervention research, the study of adolescent and special groups, as well as localized and crosscultural research.
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    The Etymological Analysis on a Crosscultural Psychological Phenomenon: Qifu
    CHEN Guang-hui
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (3): 93-98.  
    Abstract571)   HTML31)    PDF (635KB)(1747)      
    This paper aims at investigating the definition and characteristics of qifu in Chinese from the etymological perspective. It examines the origin, history, and changes of qifu and its synonyms. The phenomenon of qifu expressed in Chinese literary works can be traced back to Shi•Binfeng•Chixiao, which appeared 2600 years ago. Over the long history, although different Chinese words were used to describe the qifu phenomenon, their implication was not much different. Qifu is that the strong harms the weak intentionally. The distinct feature of qifu is the imbalance of power between perpetrators and victims, while repetition is not a necessary characteristic. Qifu phenomenon in Chinese circumstance was different from bullying in English. In China, etymological research was very few in psychological fields, but it can improve understanding of some results of western researches, and advance the local and crosscultural studies.
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    The Ecological Information Based on Specification and Implications for Epistemology
    1WANG Yi,2FAN Niannian
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (3): 99-104.  
    Abstract607)   HTML30)    PDF (433KB)(1287)      
    The ecological approach to perception which was created by American Psychologist James J. Gibson is an alternative to the cognitive science based on representationalism. Its contributions to the psychological research comprise the theory of information generated by the specific relation between energies arrays and physical reality. To be physically specific, the kinematic patterns in energy arrays (light array, sound array, inertial array) are the consequences of the dynamics of the physical reality, this implies that, the kinematic patterns can be analyzed by dynamics and are available to the potential perceiving agents and overall construct a alternative scientific method for researching the information exploratory behavior of the given perceptual agents.
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    On the Position Transition of Central Scholar Officialdom in the Tang Dynasty
    DONG Kun-Yu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (3): 105-111.  
    Abstract620)   HTML25)    PDF (556KB)(1458)      
    The position changes of educational officials in Guozijian in Tang dynasty were highly independent. There were two major transitional ways, the first pattern is promoted from an assistant to a doctor within the same Guan (division); the second pattern is started from promotion within a Guan and followed by changing positions between different Guans (divisions). In addition, there were also crossing promotion and bridging ways between these two ways. The divisions the officialdom worked were relatively concentrated on the similar divisions before and after they entered Guozijian. Educational officialdoms were mainly selected by by recruitment and recommendation before the Mid Tang Dynasty. After Mid Tang Dynasty, the shogunate officialdom became an important source of scholars in Guanzijian. If they leave Guozijian, they could become either a local official or a official in the capital city within a cultural sector.
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    The Origin of Normal Art Education of Academy of Fine Arts in Modern China: The Normal Department of Drawing and Manual Training of Beijing Art School
    HE Xiao-Zhou
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (3): 112-118.  
    Abstract1424)   HTML25)    PDF (572KB)(2053)      
    The predecessor of China Central Academy of Fine Arts' is Beijing Art School, which opened the Normal Department of Drawing and Manual Training in 1920,but was ended it in 1922. Meanwhile the normal art course of Massachusetts Normal Art School in the United States in the early 20th century became the Normal Department of Drawing of Tokyo Art School by transformed by Akira SHIRAHAMA in Japan in 1907. For 10 years afterwards, ZHENG Jin had introduced the Normal Department of Drawing and its curriculum to the Normal Department of Drawing and Manual Training of Beijing Art School.
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    Investigating the 60 Years’ Historical Change of Teachers Narratives in China by Analyzing the Pedagogic Textbooks
    ZHOU Shi-De
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (3): 119-124.  
    Abstract663)   HTML26)    PDF (458KB)(1419)      
    Teachers are crucial for the practice of education. The study focuses on the historical changes of teachers' narrative in the different periods; it has important theoretical and practical significance. Taking the representative pedagogy textbooks from the 1950s to 2013 as the discourse content, the study analyze it how to declare teachers, how the structure of narrative changed, and how to arrange the student assignments. It shows that there are teachers narrative discourses of content construction, and presents the dogma, the content of the teacher's narrative discourse and structure design showed the focus transformed from ethics to professional subject. The teachers’ selfidentity and selfunderstanding need to be improved. It is crucial to improve teacher narrative in the textbook.
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    The Analysis of Historical Methodology of Comparative Education Scholar in the 20th Century
    PENG Hong-Bin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (4): 1-7.  
    Abstract577)   HTML33)    PDF (464KB)(1942)      
    During the first half of 20th Century, till 1960s, the distinguished comparative education scholars such as Michael Sadler, Isaac Kandel, Nicholas Hans, Friedrich Schneider and Robert Ulich have published their major works which showing the importance of historical method. From the epistemological point of view, the historical methods that Sadler et al applied can be identified as two types: teleological explanation and casual explanation. The specific historical methods they adopted include historical comparative analysis, historical psychological analysis and historical macro and micro analysis . However the historical methods of Kandel, Hans, Ulrich et al are different. Historical research has some reasonable places. These scholars effectively have analyzed the country's education system as well as the peculiarity and explored the influencing factors of the specific education system. Deficiencies in their historical methods are lack of empirical methods such as statistical method and measurement, which make the historical method not as comprehensive as it should be.
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    Rationality and Antinomy: National Character from the perspective of Discipline and its Relevance to Socialization
    LIU Yan-Xin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (4): 8-15.  
    Abstract686)   HTML125)    PDF (517KB)(1551)      
    Individual’s socialization is a process of one’s life sensemaking and value generation, it’s also a process of the formation of one’s social attributes. Further, this will develop into ethical or national identities such as values, ethos, modes of thinking and behavior, personalities and characteristics. The formation of social attributes and national character are indispensable from essential “disciplines”. Looking at the national character from Foucault’s theory and using a technical operation of “disciplines” in building the aggregative relationship, one’s socialization is achieved through various power and norms in the aggregative relationship, resulting in national character. Knowledge socialization is the significant implication for individual’s socialization, which leads to body’s utility and productivity. However, the process of disciplines is laden with negative antinomy and thus requires rational analysis.
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    Mechanisms of School System Life in Promoting Individual Development
    FU Chun-Hua, DU Shi-Zhong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (4): 16-22.  
    Abstract520)   HTML33)    PDF (528KB)(1200)      
    To achieve the goal of“educating through the system”, it's very essential to explore the intrinsic mechanisms of how school system life can promote individual development. These mechanisms involve the strong promoting mechanism and the weak promoting mechanism. The former can be subdivided into the sharing mechanisms psychologically and the regulating mechanisms behaviorally, the latter can be subdivided into the generative mechanisms psychologically and the guiding mechanism behaviorally.
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    From Knowledge to Wisdom: Pursuit of Cognitive Value in Teaching
    XU Chao-Fu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (4): 23-29.  
    Abstract610)   HTML30)    PDF (505KB)(1645)      
    In meeting the needs of modern people, school education must have some proper value orientations in teaching. In modern teaching, pursuit of cognitive value should be "From knowledge to Wisdom". In the modern context education, useful explorations have been undertaken in teaching either theoretically or empirically. However, to implement and put into practice "From knowledge to Wisdom", people are still confronted with many barriers and interference, such as system, conception, limited time and space. To this end, in this article we propose some coping strategies including questioning knowledge, practice temper, open classroom field, development of ICTbased wisdom "turn" technique and methodology guidance.
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    Problems in Teaching: Comprehension Based on the Development of Students’ Thinking
    CHEN Zhen-Hua
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (4): 30-39.  
    Abstract834)   HTML30)    PDF (553KB)(1549)      
    Problems in teaching are very important for the development of students’ thinking. However, the simple way of thinking of some teachers,as well as the misunderstanding and misuse of problems, produced a lot of chaos in teaching. It's necessary for teachers to comprehend problems in teaching from multiaspects. By constantly asking “what is problem in teaching”,“why we need problems in teaching”,“what kinds of problems are much valuable for students’ thinking development”,“what is the condition for value maximization”, we may grasp the essence and characteristics of problems in teaching , choose and design problems of much value in teaching ,and sincerely invite students to put forward and solve valuable problems for thinking development . In order to promote the development of students' thinking, it is necessary for teachers to rationally think over and fully prepare for problems in teaching.
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    The NonReflective Approach to Teacher Development
    WANG Jia-Qiang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (4): 40-46.  
    Abstract506)   HTML31)    PDF (514KB)(1403)      
    There are two approaches to teacher development. The reflective approach to teacher development requires teachers to think about questions in teaching and allow the teachers to develop through critical thinking. On the contrary, the nonreflective approach to teacher development doesn’t require teachers to think about questions in teaching and allow the teachers to develop through nonrational thinking. The nonreflective approach to teacher development tends to be ignored or underestimated because of the rational epistemology and the consequent conceptualization of teacher professional development. The patterns of nonreflective approaches include tacit doubting, implicit learning, etc.
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    Experience Inheritance, Reflective Practice and Life Education:Three Forms of Teaching and its Relation to Teacher Development
    CHENG Liang-Hong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (4): 47-54.  
    Abstract537)   HTML30)    PDF (488KB)(1814)      
    Teaching is a critical arena for teacher development. As teaching is viewed as the inheritance of experience, so is experience recognized as of great significance in teacher development. Nevertheless, this runs the risk of empiricism and instrumentalism. Perceived as reflective practice activities, teaching helps to establish teacher’s professional identity, but tends to result in narrow “professionalism”. Teaching, as a process of life education, focuses on the existing life of teachers and students and the awakening of life value, integrating teachers’ life experience and practice and teaching activities. Further, teachers, students and knowledge experience develop into an mutually permeating structure. Researches on teaching and teacher development should deal with not only the inheritance of experience but also life education.
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    Research on the Institutional Evaluation Criteria System in China: Perspective of Factors influencing the Undergraduate Teaching Quality
    WANG Hong, SHE Yuan-Guan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (4): 55-62.  
    Abstract495)   HTML30)    PDF (465KB)(2071)      
    Institutional evaluation in China has been carried out for nearly 20 years. The development of the evaluation criteria system has undergone three stages. Based on the analysis of institutional evaluation criteria system in the past 20 years, this article examines the factors influencing the undergraduate teaching quality through designed questionnaire, and offers a statistical analysis of the data. It then identifies some general rules through factor analysis, and finally put forwards some general principles on which Chinese institutional evaluation criteria system could be built in the new era.
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    Research Progress and Trend of International Research on Science Teaching Psychology
    HAN Kui-Kui, HU Wei-Ping, WANG Bi-Mei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (4): 63-70.  
    Abstract699)   HTML116)    PDF (468KB)(1977)      
    In recent years, international research on science teaching psychology reflects the systematic research ideas, comprehensive research methods and integrated research field. The research topics have focused on concept learning, learning environment, inquirybased teaching and teacher research, etc.Concept learning focuses on core concepts and learning progression while learning environment on technical support and model construction. Inquirybased teaching emphasizes cooperative learning and scientific argumentation. Teacher psychology focuses on development models, professional knowledge and professional beliefs. In future study of science teaching psychology, cognitive neural mechanisms in science learning and problem solving will be strengthened, and the conception of polymerization technology will be reflected. Furthermore, researches on developing students' core competence through science education will be valued.
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    Researches on stress from the perspectives of educational neuroscience and its implication to education
    ZHOU Jia-Xian, WANG Zhen-Lu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (4): 71-79.  
    Abstract594)   HTML125)    PDF (516KB)(1777)      
    Experience of stress is unavoidable during the development of children with the appropriate stress facilitating the growth of children whereas excessive stress will induce the physiological change causing too sensitive stress response system and disordering hormone secretion, which effects their brain development, that is toxic stress. It is important to understand the effects of early life toxic stress on the development of children from the biological perspectives, and some constructive suggestions are put forward to the caregiver, children, and educational; policy makers.
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    Embodied Approaches to Creative Insight
    ZHANG Zhong-Lu, LI Hong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (4): 80-89.  
    Abstract647)   HTML133)    PDF (548KB)(1918)      
    In creative insight domain, the question of how to access creative insight seems more important than the question of what happens at that moment. In embodied cognitive theory, the human body and the interactive experiences between body and world provide a scafford for and have influence on cognition processing. Within this theoretical framework, in this article we review two embodied approaches to creative insight: the first one refers to bodily structures and states and the second one refers to the interactive experiences between body and world. In terms of the first approach, the change in some brain structures such as damage to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or decreased excitability on the left side together with increased excitability on the right side of the anterior temporal lobes facilitates insight. Individuals in special physiological states such as moderate intoxication, sleep or the nonoptimal time of day have better performance on creative insight, or some other states like meditation (or mindfulness) and positive affection can improve insight problem solving. In terms of the second approach, the interaction between body and physical props enables construction of counterexamples, thus improving insight solutions. Insight can occur when the bodily action activates the perceptual and motor pattern related to solution (e.g., swinging arms in solving the two string problem), or some gestures such as arm flexion rather than arm extension can bolster insight, or insight can also be elicited by activating the insightrelated abstract concept in a metaphorical way (e.g., exposure to an illuminating lightbulb), or multiculture experiences can bolster insight. In light of the embodied cognition theory and insightrelevant studies, human body and the bodily experience through the world play great role in insight occurrence. The embodied approach to insight provides a new perspective to reveal the insight mechanism. Future studies should be conducted to identify more bodyrelevant variables on creative insight and apply the cognitive neuroscience approach to the exploration of the embodied mechanisms of creative insight.
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    Research on the Role of Knowledge Base in University Students’ Creative Thinking
    LOU Lian-Di, PANG Wei-Guo
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (4): 90-98.  
    Abstract606)   HTML34)    PDF (546KB)(1637)      
    Based on two experiments, this research investigates the role of knowledge base in University students' creative thinking. Experiment 1 uses the amount of English vocabulary to represent the general knowledge base and English writing as the creative task. Research findings show that the amount of English vocabulary has significant impact on the creativity in English writing. The larger English vocabulary the students have, the more creative their writings are. The amount of English vocabulary contributes to both novelty and appropriateness in English writings. Experiment 2 employs the test scores of some psychology subjects as well as the years of studying psychology to represent the domain-specific knowledge base, and the psychological research design as the creative tasks. The findings indicate that when the test scores of psychology subject is used as the indicator of knowledge base, it is not significantly correlated with the creativity in research design. However, as the indicator of knowledge base, the years of studying psychology has significant positive effects on both the novelty and appropriateness of the task performance. And these effects are found bigger in the more difficult design tasks.
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    Epistemological Interpretation of Chuangtzu Thought: Historical Implication and Education Revelation
    WANG Jia-Yun, YAN Yan, LI Fu-Hua
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (4): 99-104.  
    Abstract548)   HTML31)    PDF (623KB)(1353)      
    That knowing and the nature are based on the body which is sensible and perceived as an originality is expressed in Chuangtzu’ philosophical thoughts. The primitive association based on the reversibility of the body is discovered to describe our basic experience, which lay a foundation of what we call the knowledge. It is those perceived experiences which enables a person to live in harmony. Transformation based on a perceived and sensible body enlightens us on the traditional theories on pedagogy. That is how to understand pedagogy and teaching and how to teach in an effective way.
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    The Enke System, Function Shift of the Imperial Examination System and the Crisis in Education
    ZONG Yun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (4): 105-111.  
    Abstract607)   HTML27)    PDF (610KB)(1949)      
    In late Kangxi Dynasty, the swelling population of test takers and the limited admission quota in the imperial examinations resulted in fierce social conflict. The Qing government established the Enke system to maintain social stability by controlling the intellectuals. Therefore, the Enke system was carefully implemented during Yongzheng and Qianlong Dynasty, which reinforced the control of the imperial examination system, but weakening the selection function of the imperial examination system. As a result, the imperial examination system and the education of Qing ran into deep crisis.
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    An Analysis of Ginling Girls’College: Perspective of Cultural Conflict
    HU Qin-Xiao, XU Ting-Ting
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (4): 112-117.  
    Abstract577)   HTML30)    PDF (498KB)(2355)      
    Ginling Girls’College(GGC) used to be a famous institution in Chinese modern history of higher education. It not only opened girls’ education in China but also greatly contributed to the modernization of higher education in China. The foundation and development of GGC coincided with the violent conflict in Chinese modern culture. From the perspective of the cultural conflict between east and west, GGC introduced into China a great deal of western civilization, which opened the nation's door to new knowledge. From the perspective of the cultural conflict between men and women, the college awakened many Chinese women and trained hundreds of modern women intellectuals, which accelerated the process of women's liberation in China. From the perspective of the cultural conflict between past and present, it introduced into China a modern mode of university, which challenged the traditional education system. The above perspectives of cultural conflict reveals the underlying dynamics of GGC’s success and provides an example for higher education reform in contemporary China.
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    Qian Mu’s Thoughts on Educational Ideas of Universities in China
    WEI Zhao-Feng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (4): 118-123.  
    Abstract570)   HTML27)    PDF (536KB)(1467)      
    Given the ethos of xenophilia and utilitarianism tendency in Chinese universities, Qian Mu thought that educational aims of Chinese universities should aim at cultivating "talents who truly love and serve China". In other words, the educational goal of university should be nurturing holistic human rather than training specialists; graduates should lead the social development rather than follow the tide of society; a university should educate more talents in humanities and social science rather than in natural sciences. In view of more or less xenophilia and utilitarianism in today's Chinese universities, Qian Mu's thoughts on educational aims of universities have crucial implications for the present higher education institutions.
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2014, 32 (4): 124-.  
    Abstract506)   HTML14)    PDF (325KB)(1268)      
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