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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences) 2017 Vol.35
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    Key Competencies in China: Tao's Three-competency Theory and Basic-skill Theory
    ZHOU Hongyu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (1): 1-10+116.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.01.001
    Abstract212)   HTML44)    PDF (1399KB)(1441)      

    Ever since OECD started in 1997 the project of Definition and Selection of Competences:Theoretical and Conceptual Foundations, the term "key competences" has been highlighted in the educational documents in many countries and regions. Despite varied definitions of key competencies, there is a common understanding in those countries and regions. First, key competences should be understood from two aspects:fostering the whole person and promoting social development; second, both citizenship and internationalization have been emphasized by each economy and international organizations; third, most economies put emphasis on such competences as information, science and creativity in the new century. Meanwhile, each economy pays more attention to their excellent traditional culture in building the system of their own key competences.
    In order to deepen the comprehensive educational reform, it is imperative to explore and construct the system of key competences in China. Therefore, it is necessary to review the Three-competence theory and Basic-skill theory developed by Tao Xingzhi, a famous Chinese educator in the 20th century. In his career, Tao first proposed three essential competencies, including learning to live, learning to be initiative and learning to be creative; later, Tao developed the idea of 23 basic skills at Yu Cai Middle School, which came to be known as Three-competence theory and Basic-skill theory. In Tao's opinion, learning to live, learning to be initiative and learning to be creative are necessary for one to be a whole person and the 23 basic skills are the embodiment of these three competences. In a sense, these two theories could be considered as Tao's idea of key competencies.
    Based on Tao's Three-competence theory and Basic-skill theory, as well as a comparative analysis of the related researches on key competences, this paper attempts to develop a new system of key competencies in the new era. That is, key competences involve field competencies and general competencies. General competencies cover social development (social responsibility, national identity, international understanding and cooperation), personal development (self-understanding and self-management, the competence to be happy) and advanced learning ability (critical thinking, creativity and lifelong learning). Field competences put more emphasis on specific fields, such as language literacy, mathematical competences, science skills, art literacy and information skills.

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    Seven Scholars' Discussion on University's Capacity-building of Enrolling Students
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (1): 11-29.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.01.002
    Abstract111)   HTML116)    PDF (667KB)(1342)      
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    Key Issues in Developing Modern Apprenticeship in China's Vocational Education
    XU Guoqing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (1): 30-38+117.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.01.003
    Abstract174)   HTML34)    PDF (647KB)(1669)      

    In China, modern apprenticeship is highlighted in current vocational education reform and development. This reform involves three levels, namely learning methods, vocational training model and vocational education system. In order to promote the successful construction of modern apprenticeship in China, five key issues should be made clear:what is modern apprenticeship? What is the purpose of developing modern apprenticeship and what kind of modern apprenticeship should be developed? What are the main barriers to developing modern apprenticeship? What are the supporting conditions of modern apprenticeship? In the development of modern apprenticeship, it's necessary to capture the substantive problems and develop proper strategies in terms of the five issues.
    The connotation of modern apprenticeship includes four aspects:a) it is a learning style of technical competence based on stable mentor-apprentice relationship; b) it is apprenticeship of modern industry and service industry; c) it is one part of modern occupation education; d)it is an open system of technical skills training.
    In many countries the purpose of developing modern apprenticeship is to solve the problem of high youth unemployment, while in China, the more important purpose is to cultivate skilled workers who can adapt to the emerging industry. Therefore, the modern apprenticeship system in China should develop at several levels to meet the needs of different policies.
    However, the development of modern apprentice system in China faces a critical institutional obstacle, that is, the economic operation mode is too inclined to free market. In the current system environment, the key to the development of modern apprenticeship is how to reconstruct mentor-apprentice relationship in modern enterprises under the market economy system. Based on the experience in Germany and Japan, it is necessary to impose proper coordination on economic operation through social forces, and we can employ different modes in product market and labor market.
    The development of modern apprenticeship in China is also challenged by inadequate infrastructure, such as the lack of national vocational teaching standards, master system as well as the path to the apprentice's career development. System reform and the improvement of infrastructure can help guarantee the development of modern apprenticeship. As modern apprenticeship is a very complex system, research on the system requires a multi-perspective, involving not only economic sociology, labor market theory, but also the perspective of social constructivism to explore social mechanism which may contribute to its development.

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    A Comparative Study of Modern Apprenticeship in England and Germany from the Perspective of Institutional Complementarity
    GUAN Jing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (1): 39-46+118.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.01.004
    Abstract144)   HTML37)    PDF (765KB)(1555)      

    By modifying the institutional analysis framework suggested by W. Richard Scott (2010), this paper offers a framework for analyzing the institutional complementarity of apprenticeship, in which the three dimensions of regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive factors interact with each other. England and Germany are selected as cases as they are the typical Anglo-Saxon countries and Rhine countries which have had great success.
    In terms of apprentice participation, the German system shows better equilibrium than the English one. Regulative factors in the German system are at medium level, and the system relies more on the strong normative and cultural-cognitive factors. In England, both normative and cultural-cognitive factors are weak, while the regulative factors are strong due to the incentives for apprentices. However, the institutional arrangements in both countries aims at the same direction:providing apprentices with promising future.
    In terms of employer's participation, the German system has better equilibrium, with relatively stronger normative and cultural-cognitive factors than regulative factors. The three factors reinforce each other. However, in the English system, strong regulative factors compensate the weak normative and cultural-cognitive factors. Despite great difference, Germany and England share the similarity in institutional arrangements.
    In terms of quality assurance, Germany presents an excellent model, in which quality assurance goes along with all the process of apprenticeship training, including providers' accreditation, training standards, training process, evaluation and qualification. The regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive factors are all strong and they reinforce each other. Great efforts have also been made in England, but all the three factors are still not strong enough and need improvement.
    To sum up, the results show that:a) matual-reinforcement and compensation are the two basic forms of institutional complementarity for apprenticeship; b) strengthening regulative factors could be an effective approach for government to developing apprenticeship; c) the key point to institutional complementarity for apprentice participation is to provide promising careers for apprentices; d) the institutional complementarity for employer participation lies in reducing the risk of poaching externality; e) institutional complementarity for quality assurance relies on the reinforcement of institutions upon all the process of apprenticeship training; f) complementarity also exists between institutions for quantity improvement and those for quality enhancement.

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    Construction of Modern Apprenticeship in Higher Vocational Colleges: the System Bottleneck and Strategies
    JIA Wensheng, PAN Jianfeng, LIANG Ningsen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (1): 47-53+119.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.01.005
    Abstract99)   HTML32)    PDF (588KB)(1084)      

    The implementation of modern apprenticeship is not only inevitable for higher vocational education to better serve the current economic and social development, but also an efficient approach to promoting the interaction between vocational education system and industrial economic system, as well as the development of skilled talents. In addition, it is important for the construction of modern vocational education system. In western countries, modern apprenticeship, which has made great contribution to the development of skilled talents, proves to be an effective training mode in vocational education. From the perspective of social construction and by identifying the stakeholders and their interest concerns, this paper analyzes the institutional obstacles and their negative influence on the construction of modern apprentice system. For example, the lack of a credible commitment between enterprises and the apprentice undermines enterprises' positivity; the lack of the protection system of apprentice rights and interests tends to cause apprentice alienation; the absence of industry education function leads to the high cost of transactions between schools and enterprises; the lack of the protection system of labor safety impedes the identity of enterprise masters; the lack of the national curriculum framework gets the quality of apprenticeship training out of control.
    Based on the above analysis, the authors discuss the challenges facing higher vocational colleges in their construction and practice of modern apprenticeship, and then put forward five mechanisms by analyzing some cases of modern apprentice system in higher vocational colleges. The five mechanisms are:a) building an interest-driven mechanism by integrating the interests of all parties; b) setting up a mechanism of communication consultation through a joint management platform; c) constructing a cooperation mechanism between masters and teachers; d) constructing a curriculum development mechanism through collaborative curriculum development; e) constructing a quality guarantee mechanism by establishing evaluation system. In conclusion, the paper argues how higher vocational colleges could promote modern apprenticeship under the current institutional environment through their innovative practices.

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    The Value of Modern Apprenticeship in Vocational Education: Based on an Analysis of Knowledge Structure Change
    LI Zheng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (1): 54-62+120.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.01.006
    Abstract124)   HTML29)    PDF (1276KB)(983)      

    From pre-industrial society to post-industrial society, technicians' knowledge structure has changed from one dimension to four dimensions. In post-industrial society, technicians' four-dimensioned knowledge structure includes:experiential technical knowledge, material technical knowledge, methodological technical knowledge and theoretical technical knowledge. Each has its specific mechanisms of development and operation.
    Firstly, experiential technical knowledge takes the form of skills and experiments, which tends to be personalized, emotional, tacit, pre-scientific, system-integrated, situational, etc. Material technical knowledge takes the machine as its carrier, which is semi-theoretical and semi-empirical. Material technical knowledge is utilized to create, accumulate and implement the knowledge through operating and controlling machines. Methodological technical knowledge is a knowledge of design and decision, which contributes to the design of working process and decision-making. Secondly, the development of experiential technical knowledge and material technical knowledge requires training and internalization in workplaces. The development of methodological technical knowledge relies on the transfer and insight in the mentoring apprenticeship. The development of theoretical technical knowledge requires accumulation and the sublimation of learning in schools.
    In recent years, there have been several defects in the professional training modes in vocational colleges. Firstly, the ways of collaboration between vocational colleges and enterprises have helped little to train qualified technicians for the manufacturing industry. In addition, the collaboration has provided ineffective learning experience. Last but not least, the collaboration has not been designed to provide enterprises with a platform for operation. Therefore, it's imperative to revolutionize the professional training modes, including the transformation of technicians' knowledge structure.
    Modern apprenticeship offers a new perspective of the transformation. Firstly, it has established close relationship between students and the production situation, which can help students gain plenty of first-hand knowledge from the production process. Secondly, based on a stable mentoring relationship, modern apprenticeship can help students gain methodological technical knowledge needed in modern society. Thirdly, stakeholders can be gathered together in vocational college and enterprises in support of the cultivation of skilled talents. In conclusion, modern apprenticeship is of great value for the training of skilled talents, and it's essential to find a proper way to integrate modern apprenticeship into the cultivation of skilled talents between vocational colleges and enterprises.

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    An Analysis of Balanced Development of Compulsory Education in China: Evidence-based Third-Party Evaluation
    ZHU Dequan, LI Peng, SONG Naiqing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (1): 63-77+121.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.01.007
    Abstract135)   HTML32)    PDF (2426KB)(1951)      

    This article is based on the empirical investigation in 546 elementary and middle schools from 82 counties 14 provinces, as well as macro data of compulsory education development and case studies of each province from 2010 to 2014, It aims to evaluate the balanced development of compulsory education in China since the implementation of National Medium and Long-term Plan for Education Reform and Development (2010-2020) and presents an analysis of the balanced development of compulsory education since 2010. According to the evaluation, compulsory education in China has made remarkable achievements in terms of balanced development, reaching a new starting point. First, a guarantee mechanism has been established to promote the compulsory education in a strategic way. Second, an investment mechanism has been improved to ensure a growing investment in compulsory education. Third, remarkable achievements have been made in the standardization of school construction. Fourth, some progress has been made in capacity-building of the teaching staff, and the balanced allocation of the teaching staff is under way.
    However, the evaluation reveals some problems, such as inadequate funding of compulsory education in central areas, big gaps in education quality between schools, structured short-staffed schools in rural areas, plus the new challenges in urbanization. Therefore, to promote high-quality and balanced development of compulsory education in China, it's essential to adhere to the development concept of innovation, coordination, green, openness and sharing, adopting a top-level design and overall planning, and ensuring there is a cushion in place for those in great need. Besides, it's important to build a development network, focusing on the key points to promote balanced and improved quality. First, it's important to renew the development concept and change the traditional ways of balanced development of compulsory education. Second, it's necessary to establish a linking mechanism, strengthen the responsibilities of the government to promote the balanced development and synergetic governance of compulsory education. Third, it's imperative to further improve comprehensive reform, solve the problems one by one, and overcome the major obstacles to the balanced development of compulsory education. Fourth, it's advisable to enhance the guarantee system, and explore a three-dimensional path to balanced development of compulsory education.

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    The New Quality Assessment in America's Basic Education: Lessons from NAEP's TEL
    LIN Jing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (1): 78-86+122.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.01.008
    Abstract151)   HTML87)    PDF (1638KB)(1353)      

    Technology and engineering is an important part of STEM education. To promote the standardization of STEM education in support of the cultivation of the 21st century talents, NAEP (the National Assessment of Educational Progress) started TEL (the assessment of technology and engineering literacy:a new assessment program in the United States since 2014). TEL is designed to test students' ability to understand, use and evaluate technology as qualified citizens. The ability involves understanding technological principles and strategies needed for developing solutions and achieving goals. The objectives of TEL are categorized into three:technology and society, design and system, information and communication technology (ICT). TEL is carried out in the context of typical issues, problems, and goals that students might encounter in their schools, communities or societies.
    The assessment of TEL is completely digitally based and includes interactive scenario-based tasks. Participants are asked to complete a variety of problem-solving tasks based on interactive scenarios. The abilities and literacy of participants involved in the tasks are highly consistent with core competencies for the 21st century, which include critical thinking and problem solving, communication and collaboration, creativity and innovation, information literacy, media literacy and ICT literacy, and so forth.
    The NAEP's TEL has great implications for educating innovative talents in China's basic education. One is to create a problem-based context for students' learning through integrated, real-life and complex issues related to technology and engineering. Another is to enforce the informal learning for students to develop their TEL. In addition, in developing students' ICT literacy, technology and engineering education should be highly valued. All in all, China's basic education can integrate multiple resources to strengthen TEL education, STEM education and relevant assessment to develop Chinese students' 21st century skills.

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    Reflection on the Tradition of Pedagogy
    XIN Meng, HOU Huaiyin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (1): 87-92+123.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.01.009
    Abstract180)   HTML35)    PDF (510KB)(937)      

    There exists a close relationship between the tradition of pedagogy and pedagogy, but so far there has been limited research on the tradition of pedagogy. However, research on the tradition of pedagogy can not only contribute to further education researches, but also to the inheritance, innovation and development of pedagogy. Therefore, it is important to conduct a comprehensive systematic and intensive study of the tradition of pedagogy. Abstracted from pedagogy, the tradition of pedagogy is the integration of ideology, values, research categories, research paradigms, and knowledge hierarchy. The development of pedagogy has been closely related to culture and philosophical tradition. It has been inherited and created by researchers of pedagogy. The tradition of pedagogy mainly include four characteristics:a) stability, which is closely related to the Christmas Characteristics of the tradition of pedagogy; b) phased, which means pedagogy has undergone a process of gradual development; c) developmental, the development of tradition of pedagogy cannot be separated from its foundation, i.e. the foundation of tradition of pedagogy; d) referential, the development of pedagogy has borrowed a lot from other disciplines. The tradition of pedagogy is based on the development of pedagogy. Besides, the tradition of pedagogy is connected with tradition, cultural tradition, traditional pedagogy, pedagogical tradition, and the tradition of Marxist pedagogy. The tradition of pedagogy has positive effects on the development of pedagogy, and we should study the tradition of pedagogy in a critical way. On the other side, the tradition of pedagogy tends to be resistant to innovation, which in some ways has undermined the researcher's thinking. Also, the specialization of pedagogy has been questioned due to its borrowing from other disciplines.

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    The Impact of Peer Victimization on Internalized Behavior in Rural Boarding Schools: A Moderated Mediation Model
    HUANG Xiaoting, WU Fangwen, SONG Yingquan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (1): 93-101+124.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.01.010
    Abstract132)   HTML30)    PDF (936KB)(1382)      

    Peer victimization is widely recognized as a pervasive problem around the world. Its impacts on students' behavior and mental health can be severe or may even continue into adulthood. Since students in rural boarding schools spend more time with their peers, they are more vulnerable to peer victimization. However, few studies have examined the status quo of peer victimization in rural boarding schools. Research on its impact and potential protective factors for the students is also scarce. This study investigated the peer victimization problem in rural boarding schools, as well as its impact on students' internalized behavior. Furthermore, the mediating effect of two potential protective factors, resilience and self-esteem, is also analyzed by conducting a moderated mediation model. A sample of 16,835 pupils (mean age=10.09 years, SD=0.90) from 137 rural boarding schools in two provinces completed self-report questionnaires on peer victimization, internalized behavior, resilience and self-esteem. The results showed that 16.03% of the students in those rural boarding schools reported having been bullied by their peers. The reported percentage of peer victimization in these schools is much higher than in day schools revealed in the existing literature. Although the percentage was higher in males (18.46%) than females (13.42%), and higher in the 4th grade (17.12%) than the 5th grade (14.75%), the differences were not statistically significant. Also, peer victimization was found to be positively associated with students' internalized behavior, even after controlling for the students' gender, age, family background such as one's residence type and parents' educational level. This indicates that students from rural boarding schools may have more serious internalized behavior problems as they were exposed to more frequent and severe bullying. Finally, the analysis results of the moderated mediating model indicated that resilience played a partially mediating role between peer victimization and internalized behavior, and self-esteem moderated the relation between resilience and internalized behavior. In other words, resilience helps to reduce the risk of incurring internalized behavior when students are bullied by their peers, and the protective effect of resilience is stronger for those with higher self-esteem. This suggests that it may be most effective to help those students establish a high self-esteem along with stronger psychological resilience, in order for the students to have better shield against school bullying. The findings of this study are important for a better understanding of how and when peer victimization affect internalized behavior via resilience and self-esteems in rural boarding schools. The article concludes with some measures to reduce the school bullying in rural boarding schools. It also suggests that intervention should focus on developing students' resilience and self-esteem, as well as the relationship between parents and children.

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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (1): 102-105.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.01.011
    Abstract90)   HTML14)    PDF (445KB)(757)      
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    How much do tertiary students pay and what public support do they receive?
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (1): 106-109.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.01.012
    Abstract82)   HTML27)    PDF (2826KB)(660)      
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    What are the benefits from early childhood education?
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (1): 110-115.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.01.013
    Abstract100)   HTML27)    PDF (5591KB)(1881)      
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    Could Government-run Public Education Guarantee Educational Equity: An Observation and Analysis Based on a Club Model
    WU Hua
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (2): 1-11+114.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.001
    Abstract151)   HTML39)    PDF (692KB)(1074)      
    Inequity in education is a universal phenomenon, yet previous studies have paid too much attention to the superficial phenomenon, but failed to come up with a shared framework to analyze the mechanism where educational inequity is generated. This article attempts to construct a Club Model based on the observation of the real-world club, so as to clarify the source of people's rights. To discuss equity or educational equity, it's necessary to compare different subjects based on their equal rights, which means that clubs tend to divide people into different groups of subjects with given rights. Only in the same club is it possible to discuss whether its members share the equal rights. This makes it easy to understand that rights and justice are all public goods provided by clubs, and it's possible to discuss educational equity or educational inequity under a framework and offer some suggestions about policy-making to improve educational equity.#br#Using the Club Model, this article discusses three propositions. First, justice could be achieved on the premise of people's acquisition of rights, only when justice is based on legal rights can it be deemed as guaranteed justice. Second, to achieve justice, the amount of public resources should be taken into consideration, as no rights of equity could be realized without enough public resources. Third, there are two kinds of justice, competitive justice and shared justice. Last, there are three strategies which can help reduce or eliminate inequity, and this article suggests a more logical alternative to achieve the goal other than the universal way of realizing educational equity.#br#The analysis shows that inequity throughout K-12 tends to be the byproduct of government-run public education. There exists an inner relationship between government-run public education and educational inequity. Public education forms the institutional premise of how educational inequity is generated. The development and the realistic logic of government-run public education have become an effective mechanism to minimize or eliminate educational equality. #br#Furthermore, this article explores two public education systems deemed as almost-equitable. One is the Finish small class, small school Model. The other is Education Vouchers Model. In the case of China, it might be a better choice to take the advantages of both models. #br#In conclusion, the article provides an institutional design based on the Club Model. It's suggested that a voucher system should be in place for all children to attend the compulsory education. This system could be established through the joint fiscal appropriation by the central provincial and local governments. Meanwhile, it is expected that such a system could provide an unparalleled advantage for increasing the chance of educational equity, educational efficiency and giving more freedom to parents and children in selecting their dream schools.
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    Managing School Bullying: A Cross-disciplinary Dialogue
    Center of Collaborative Innovation on Youth Legal Education by MOE (ECNU)
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (2): 12-23+115.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.002
    Abstract172)   HTML114)    PDF (706KB)(772)      
    From a multidisciplinary perspective, we can have a better understanding of school bullying, which will help prevent and control the phenomenon. #br#From the perspective of moral philosophy, bullying has the nature of moral value judgment, which includes the malicious and hurt of the bully, the moral indifference of the spectator and the hurt and insult of the bully. From the perspective of political science, the problem of bullying on school is closely related to social development. School bullying is a kind of social conflict. Solving the problem should rely on the rule of law which is an externalized approach.#br#From the sociological point of view are the social environment, the internal governance situation of the school, the bully, the victim and the bystander the formation conditions of the school bullying. The governance plan needs to be continuously improving and optimizing aspects as the educational content and the school management. From the physical point of view, the school violence is interpersonal violence, The school should cultivate students' psychological ability and other useful methods in order to deal with the school violence, instead of teaching them how to avoid it. The reason for bullying is that they are keen to seek a sense of achievement in the struggle against violence. Therefore, to solve this problem, firstly, we need to understand them and treat them with care and respect. Secondly, searching solutions from law. From the psychological point of view, the school should strengthen the cultivation of students' psychological quality and reduce the psychological health damage to both the victims and the bully. From the perspective of law, but also have different ideas, the first perspective can be attributed to the cause of school bullying spread of consciousness and lack of rational values, lack of civic education, institutional construction lag, the solution focuses on the purification of social environment, Education and the establishment of disciplinary mechanisms. From the second point of view, it is necessary to set up a special legal document, at the same time, revise and improve the existing laws and documents, also increase the content of the prevention and treatment of bullying. The third point of view is that we should set up the special legal system from the following four aspects: establish a clear legal mechanism of rights and responsibilities, develop a multi-level regulations, implement the existing laws and regulations, create a new prevention and control measures. From the fourth point of view, we should analyze the application of the criminal law of the minor crime from the following three aspects: the legal interest infringement, the condemnation, the personal danger. The fifth point of view holds that China should learn from the experience that the United states has. Especially from aspects like such as clear concept and establish the legal prevention mechanism, the reporting mechanism, the handling mechanism and so on.
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    Equity Transition of Educational Purpose
    XIANG Xianming
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (2): 24-32+116.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.003
    Abstract130)   HTML102)    PDF (557KB)(749)      
    Equity and educational equity are historical concepts, with different connotations in the historical contexts. Educational equity, closely related to social equity, is an educational and public policy issue. Educational equity can be explored from the perspectives of politics, sociology, ethics and pedagogy. Studies can also be conducted at the level of implementation, social structure and core values. Freedom being priority among equity principles, human's free development has its priority over educational equity. On the one hand, educational quality is hard to measure; on the other hand, educational equity is hardly guaranteed by school-choice and equalization, where the key is human's freedom to choose in education."Freedom" here refers to its authenticity but not unconditional indulgence. If we draw a John Rowel's"Veil of Ignorance" for all school-choosing people, and no one knows how his/her choice influences future development. Then, educational choice reflects the authenticity of freedom and everyone can choose from their interests and expectation for their future development. However, there is an alienated relationship between human being and their education in modern society. Human being is considered as a tool. Educational purpose has changed from human's development to upward social mobility,which has deprived humans of their freedom in education choice. This is the fundamental cause to impair educational equity. The solution to educational alienation is to make human as educational purpose, which is essential in socialist and communist education. Freedom is a fundamental principle for educational equity.#br#Educational equity won't happen if one's freedom is limited by a state's compulsory power. Human's free development is a fundamental principle. Educational equity recognizes natural equality and that free development for all is educational purpose. The inclusive and diversified education helps all develop their interest and potential. Performance of education shouldn't be evaluated by upward social mobility. Communist society is expected to diminish human's self-alienation and in socialist society, educational purpose should be human's free development as its key connotation.
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    The Rural-urban Differences in Resources Allocation of Basic Education and Its Social Consequence: Base on the Analysis of China's Education Statistics
    WEN Jun, GU Chudan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (2): 33-42+117.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.004
    Abstract275)   HTML53)    PDF (795KB)(2499)      
    Based on the national education statistics of 2003 and 2013, this paper aims to make comparison between China's urban and rural areas in basic education resource allocation, its development and the urban-rural differences. The comparison shows that the rural basic education resources lag behind in faculty, books, and computers. Moreover, the urban-rural gap in pre-school education and high school education is broadening, which has probably become the most hazardous issue in China's basic education. Therefore, only emphasizing on the urban-rural balance in compulsory education won't help address the situation of unequal educational opportunities for rural children.#br#This paper focuses on the potential social consequences caused by such disparity. The"education chain" refers to the complete sequence of education nodes ranging from basic education to higher education and it contributes to the understanding of possible education path choices at individual and family level. In summary, the urban-rural differences in allocating basic education resources can cause at least three consequences as follows:#br#A. Influence on rural students. Compared with urban students, rural students' academic performance is poor and the completion rate of"education chain" is much lower, affected by disproportionate distribution of educational resources.#br#B. Influence on educational equity. The rural-urban disparity in basic education resources centers on the period of high school, which is regarded as the last"opportunity" to transfer from basic education into higher education in the"education chain". Therefore, it is biased to attribute the inferior position of rural students' access to higher education to the inequitable urban-rural higher education. The key factor is the inequitable urban-rural enrolling opportunity in secondary education. The urban-rural inequality of access to senior secondary education from junior secondary school continues to expand, resulting in the decline of opportunities for rural students' admission to college. Its root cause lies in the disparity between rural and urban basic education resources allocation. #br#C. Influence on rural education. Due to the huge urban-rural difference in education resources, individuals and families have to come to realize that the sooner they choose urban education, the more likely they will finish the whole"education chain". As a consequence, they tend to use all sorts of capital reasonably to achieve children's fulfillment of"education chain" in the city, which directly lead to the loss of rural student pool.#br#Although great achievements have been made in China's rural basic education in the past 30 years, the urban-rural difference and its negative effects remain to be the bottleneck of basic education and block the progress of social development. The distribution of urban and rural basic education resources reflects the imbalance between urban and rural interest structure in China's society, and eliminating such negative effects depends on breaking the dual social structure in urban and rural areas.
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    The Definition of School Bullying and its Legal Liability
    REN Haitao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (2): 43-50+118.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.005
    Abstract369)   HTML138)    PDF (584KB)(2807)      
    In April, 2016, the Education Supervision Committee under the State Council, People's Republic of China issued the Circular on Handling School Bullying, aiming to tackle the deliberate or violate insulation and injuries caused by physical, verbal and cyber means among primary and second students nationwide in China. Then in Sep.11th, 2016, China Ministry of Education and other nine departments issued the Guidance of Anti-School Bullying and Violence to prevent the occurrence of school bullying and school violence through educational preventions, legal punishments and the comprehensive resolutions and regulations. #br#At present, school bullying has become a great social and governmental concern. However, there is no shared definition of school bullying and violence though it is highly discussed in the academic community. The difference between school bullying and violence is important for further prevention and discussion. An explicit concept of school bullying is the prerequisite of efficient ways of curbing school bullying and school violence. The concept of school bullying is not the same as that of school violence.#br#In this article, the author argues that the concept of school bullying should be defined narrowly and such bullying phenomenon as out-of-school invasion, teachers as the victims should not be included. The narrow meaning of school bullying is an aggressively, constantly physical or psychological behavior among students or teachers that involves a really mental torture in kindergartens, primary and secondary schools and some other places. The characteristic of the narrow meaning of school bullying involve three aspects.#br#First, it occurs in kindergartens, primary and secondly schools and some other reasonable places. Second, the bullies should be related to the victims. As for the kindergarten, primary and secondly school students, the closer one are their teachers and peer buddies. Third, teachers as the victims are not included. Fourth, school bullying has a constant and permanent influence. Fifth, the victims have to suffer from it unwillingly. Sixth, school bullying does harm to the students. Seventh, school bullying includes different actions such as making threats, stealing, spreading rumors, attacking someone physically or verbally, and excluding someone from a group on purposes, etc.. #br#Besides, the article discusses the legal liabilities caused by school bullying (the student, the teacher and the administrator as the bully), which include civil liabilities, administrative liabilities and criminal liabilities. In conclusion, the author argues that only by improving the related laws and regulations and defining the liabilities can we prevent and reduce school bullying by law.
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    The Psychological Factors and Treatment of School Bullying
    SUN Shijin, SHI Zeyi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (2): 51-56+119.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.006
    Abstract244)   HTML1283)    PDF (532KB)(5158)      
    School bullying occurs both in China and other countries. The pernicious influence of school bullying is gaining more public concern these years. In fact, it is a global phenomenon. After reviewing literature from China and abroad, we discuss the psychological characteristics of bullies and victims as well as the influence of social environment. Treatment methods are presented in the last section. First, the concept of school bullying is defined. School bullying is the kind of intentional, repetitive aggressive behavior that occurs at schools among students who own power differentials. School bullying includes physical, verbal, relational, cyber attack behavior which always influences victims' mental and physical health. Victims and bullies are the main participants of school bullying. As far as bullies are concerned, their aggressive behaviors are related to physiological factors such as age and gender as well as social factors such as their craving for high social status. Bullies should not be regarded blindly as evil because they are actually victims of their family or social environment. Also, their aggressive behaviors may have historical background and causes. Only after ruminating on their aggressive behaviors can we cope with the problem. In addition, the risk factors of victims such as being out of the ordinary, being solitary and being rejected are stated. However, the bullies are attracted to the psychological weakness implicitly presented by the victims. Only after the self-esteem of victim is enhanced can the occurrence of bullying be restrained. Moreover, according to Society Ecosystems Theory, environment such as family, school and society play important role in school bullying and have mutual effect. This article suggests that it is necessary to create a liberal, equal, supportive, and intimate environment. Finally, the paper discusses treatment methods of school bullying. The growing public awareness of school bullying does not necessarily mean the decreasing incidence of it. And school bullying intervention should be problem-based adopting interdisciplinary approaches. For example, legal researchers should set a bottom line of attacking behavior in order to prevent extreme malignance and produce warning effects. Educational researchers should refer to school intervention approaches from China and abroad, such as creating a positive school climate at the school level, carrying out anti-bullying program at the classroom level or providing counseling at the individual level. A fair, liberal, harmonious, supportive and safe environment is mentioned. Furthermore, we suggest that a good intervention program in place will make bullies unwilling to, unable to, and not daring to bully. Setting bottom line of the law makes bullies unable to do so. Behavioral control at schools prevents bullies from daring to do so. Psychological counseling or other psychological methods make bullies unwilling to do so by improving themselves inherently. Lastly, we point out that the connotation and extension of school bullying should be strictly defined and school bullying should not be intervened unlimitedly because conflicts can improve one's interpersonal skills in some way.
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    Some Ideas about Constructing Educational Hominology
    FENG Jianjun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (2): 57-67+120.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.007
    Abstract168)   HTML114)    PDF (535KB)(875)      
    It's generally accepted that philosophy is the essence of the spirit of the era, and educational hominology is the educational philosophy in the new era of student-oriented development. Educational hominology, an interdisciplinary subject integrating humanology and pedagogy, is the application of humanology in education as well as a humanistic reflection on education. It involves research on whole person in education, discussing the relationship between whole person and education and his/her development. While hominology is a philosophy concerning the study of whole person, its nature, existence, and fundamental issue of development, educational hominology is a contemporary educational philosophy, which focuses on educational philosophy involving many different subjects. In terms of hominology, educational hominology is an applied subject; in terms of education, educational hominology is a basic subject of methodology.#br#The study of educational hominology and its orientation determine the nature of educational hominology, including the nature of philosophy, being comprehensive, contemporary, and fundamental. In other words, in educational hominology, research is focused on whole person and his/her education, exploring the historical, philosophical, and realistic development of educational hominology, plus its theory of ontology, value and practice. In educational hominology, research is designed to understand human's life by exploring the meaning of life, rather than treating humans as research objects. The research method of educational hominology aims to know people, understand people, and care for people in the context of education. Therefore, in nature, educational hominology is a normative research, guided by practical materialism, using dialectical thoughts and comprehensive methods, offering a picture of whole person in education.
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    Key Competency and Comprehensive Quality: What Kind of Person We Want to Cultivate?
    LIU Xilang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (2): 68-75+121.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.008
    Abstract177)   HTML31)    PDF (579KB)(1161)      
    From different perspectives and methodologies, both key competency and comprehensive quality seek to answer the fundamental question of"What kind of person do we want to cultivate?" On the one hand, it's believed that key competency emphasizes on the key elements out of the numerous, following a simplified paradigm of scientific analysis used in the western academic community. On the other hand, comprehensive quality is closely related to the systematic, relational and generative thinking and value orientations, which emphasizes more on the balance and harmony of human development, including the relationships between body and mind, knowing and doing, humanity and science. Further research on comprehensive quality needs to examine not only what the constituent qualities are, but also what relationships there are between them that have defined the implications of the conception, as it is such relationships that have constituted the"hard core" of the conception.#br#The term quality in the Chinese context is not limited to the inborn traits from the perspective of physiological anatomy, but the harmony of body and mind, the combination of nature and nurture, as well as their interdependence. It also means the unity of knowing and doing, as the true knowing is the authentic experience from doing, while effective doing involves prospective and reflective thinking. Besides, it is the accommodation of humanity and science, which allows wise decisions and actions to happen in certain circumstance based on the comprehensive consideration of appropriate information.#br#Future is beyond our imagination. Compared with key competency, which stresses the"key" and"few", the conception of comprehensive quality, which is rooted in the Chinese culture and stresses more on the extensive adaptability, has its own advantages, and thus could be an effective strategy responding to the ever-changing future. There is no denying that key competency describes the key elements of comprehensive quality, which helps deepen our understanding of comprehensive quality, especially the relationships between different layers and aspects. In other words, the relationship between key competency and comprehensive quality is complementary, rather than substituted.
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    The 30 Years of China Postdoctoral Funding System and its Reconstruction of Top-level Design
    YAO Yun, CAO Zhaole
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (2): 76-82+122.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.009
    Abstract108)   HTML26)    PDF (1419KB)(589)      
    The core of postdoctoral system development is postdoctoral funding system, which directly influences the scale of postdoctoral admission, the training methods and quality. Presently in China, the postdoctoral funding system is characterized by the substantial increase in funding, having experienced six funding policy reforms from 1986 to 2015. However, the separate funding institutions have led to decentralized funding. Postdoctoral researchers have to apply for funding separately, including daily fund, China Postdoctoral Science Foundation, housing fund and postdoctoral stations and supervisors' fund.#br#The research shows that in the past the decentralized funding did promote postdoctoral development through collective efforts. However, drawbacks of the financial funding system have become significant with the substantial increase in the funding of science and education which breaks the fragmented Tiao-kuai system. For example, the unfair funding has disturbed the system development; diversified funding subjects have made it hard to handle academic achievement attribution; the unreasonable timing of funding application has affected valuable projects application; conventional thought of planned economy has also increased the difficulty of postdoctoral management.#br#In China, the postdoctoral system is a national talent strategy, involving the interests of both central and provincial governments, 3,011 postdoctoral mobile stations and 2,755 postdoctoral work stations. Therefore, it's important that the reform of China's postdoctoral funding system should start with a top-level design in a systematic way, adopting a fully-funded approach. It's suggested in this article that the new funding system should integrate different funding categories, consisting of professor funding, government funding and postdoctoral station funding. Also, the timing of funding application should be improved. For example, the process of submitting and evaluating postdoctoral funding could be adjusted from before and after entering the station to before entering the station.
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    Research on Measurement of Secondary School Students' Learning Happiness
    SUN Xiaohong, TAN Dingliang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (2): 83-91+123.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.010
    Abstract115)   HTML25)    PDF (1837KB)(933)      
    Following the theories and extensive studies on the learning happiness of secondary school students both in China and other countries, and based on the survey among teachers and students through interviews and descriptive questionnaire, this study first defined the learning happiness of secondary school students as a passion and immersion experienced by students in fulfilling their learning tasks in schools, a sense of pride while learning and a sense of expectation as well as multi-level pleasure generated in the process. It then suggested two models of learning happiness of secondary school students: M1 (a second order model consisting of eight first order factors and three second order dimensions), and M2 (a second order model consisting of eight first order factors and four second order dimensions). Based on the theoretical framework, the study designed a learning happiness scale containing 87 items and conducted a preliminary measurement on 7,818 secondary school students. The two models were tested and compared through an exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The result showed that M2 was more desirable. It is confirmed that learning happiness of secondary school students involves pleasure consisting of interest and efficacy, hope consisting of stronger learning capacity, optimism and inquisitiveness, rapport consisting of positive relationships and immersion from a sense of freshness and fluency. After revising the learning happiness scale and deleting some items, the authors developed the final version of the 2015 scale of secondary school students' learning happiness, which consists of 58 items in four sub-scales to measure pleasure, hope, rapport and immersion. Further test of the psychometric properties showed the split-half reliability was 0.893; internal consistency was 0.929; the root mean square residual was 0.070 and the main fit indexes all reached 0.97. The overall psychometric test results showed considerable reliability and validity. The psychological measurement indicators showed that the scale was of good performance.
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    Modernization of Chinese Education: Perspective of the Chain of Transmitted Variants of a Tradition
    HU Jinmu, LI Hongwu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (2): 92-98+124.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.011
    Abstract147)   HTML26)    PDF (628KB)(542)      
    Connecting the past and the present, tradition is a stable and continuous culture heritage, handed down from generation to generation. Educational tradition is a kind of education concept generated constantly, representing the extension from the past to the future. Unfortunately, educational tradition tends to be regarded as the opposite of modern education in the process of Chinese education modernization. And in the past educational heritage was criticized by enlightener as something nasty to be abandoned. In fact, tradition is not fixed but fluid in the chain of transmitted variants. Education development is a process of constant reconstruction of educational traditions. Education modernization is not completely deviated from tradition but the optimization of tradition and the unity of inheritance and innovation. However, impacted by the external force, the superior consciousness among Chinese intellectuals is gradually replaced by inferiority and self-doubt. They believe that their own educational tradition is good for nothing rather than good for anything. In this article, we argue that only when educational tradition is respected can people realize educational enlightenment. And in the modernization of Chinese education, it's important to handle the relationship between the traditional and the modern. That's to say, we can neither defend stubbornly tradition nor abandon educational tradition. Therefore, it's necessary that we reconstruct educational tradition and realize educational enlightenment in the chain of transmitted variants of a tradition. Chinese education has its own particular tradition. People can't transplant blindly from others regardless of educational tradition. Also, it's not advisable to adhere to educational tradition, or spurn the modern, or ignore tradition and transplant blindly. When introducing western programs of education modernization, attention should be paid to the Chinese context and the education tradition.
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (2): 99-105.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.012
    Abstract127)   HTML13)    PDF (570KB)(1030)      
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (2): 106-109.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.013
    Abstract451)   HTML10)    PDF (1845KB)(396)      
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (2): 110-113.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.014
    Abstract65)   HTML10)    PDF (2337KB)(501)      
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (3): 1-3.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.001
    Abstract62)   HTML22)    PDF (372KB)(882)      
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    Empirical Research: Towards Scientific Pedagogy
    YUAN Zhenguo
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (3): 4-17+168.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.002
    Abstract189)   HTML110)    PDF (842KB)(1489)      
    This paper,based on a systematic analysis of the history of empirical research, its meaning and constructs, discusses the leading role empirical researchplays in the process of pedagogy towards scientific pedagogy. Meanwhile, for the first time, the paper points out that empirical research is above all a spirit,and that it's a research rule, a system of methods, and an integration of the three. Then the paper analyzes the universal applicability of empirical research in both natural sciences and social sciences like education science, while stressing the importance of quantitative research in empirical research, and clarifying some misunderstanding of empirical research in educational research field. In discussing the paradigm of educational research, this paper explores the future development of pedagogy. It is mainly written for the researchers, but it has challenged the educational research policy, the evaluation of educational achievement standards, and the quality of educational journals and educational researchers.
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (3): 18-36.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.003
    Abstract48)   HTML16)    PDF (717KB)(943)      
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    Accumulation and Progress of Educational Scientific Knowledge: Movement of Evidence-based Educational Research in America
    KE Zheng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (3): 37-46+168.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.004
    Abstract113)   HTML25)    PDF (751KB)(1021)      
    Compared with other scientific disciplines, there has been slower progress and less accumulation in educational scientific knowledge. For education research to be a scientific discipline with rapidly accumulated knowledge and progress, it's necessary to vigorously strengthen the scientific empirical research. In this area, the United States took the lead in making strategic planning. After entering the new century, the United States launched a strategy of evidence-based educational empirical research, through a large-scale transformation and upgrading of the existing educational research paradigm. This strategy has produced initial results but was questioned and rejected by many educational researchers, who believe that it is unnecessary and unlikely to implement such an external reform strategy. However, all the rejection has not formed a substantive challenge to the significance and value of empirical research on education.
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    Approach to Empirical Educational Research: A Case Study of Teachers' Emotional Labor
    YIN Hongbiao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (3): 47-56+168+169.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.005
    Abstract167)   HTML210)    PDF (711KB)(1396)      
    Unlike the evidence-based educational research which emphasizes the positivist epistemology and experimental methods, empirical research featuring evidence-based and diverse methods seems particularly important for contemporary educational research in China. Empirical educational researchers advocate that all claims about specific objects are based on the evidence obtained from rigorous quantitative or qualitative inquiry, which can be well examined by human logic. The investigation on teachers' emotional labor in mainland China presents an approach to empirical educational research, that is, the 3R journey consisting of re-view, re-search, and re-conceptualization. It's argued in this article that the empirical educational researchers should pay attention to the dialectical relationship between theory and practice, and ensure the smooth transfer between the ideas and the experiences in order to enrich our understanding and increase human knowledge.
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    Quantitative Research Driven by Rural Education Problems
    LIU Shanhuai
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (3): 57-63+169.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.006
    Abstract108)   HTML23)    PDF (520KB)(765)      
    Quantitative research on rural education, having undergone three stages of development, is now moving towards scientific and standardized. Its research paradigm is characterized by problem-driven, evidence-based and multidisciplinary. Moreover, three basic types of research have emerged. The first is the large-scale investigation to find out the truth, using the data to answer "What".The second is the interrelationship study for the purpose of interpretation, using statistical model to answer "Why". The third is the constructive research that aims to support policy decision-making, using the value model to answer"How".
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    Research Paradigm Issues and Reflection on Educational Empirical Research Methods
    YAO Jihai
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (3): 64-71+169+170.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.007
    Abstract172)   HTML25)    PDF (541KB)(1571)      
    That a discipline is called a science lies in its systematic and distinctive educational methodology. In terms of the development of pedagogy's disciplines, research methods determine the scientific property of pedagogy. It will contribute to the improvement of China's educational research by analyzing the employment of basic paradigms of international educational research methods, discussing the problems in our educational empirical research paradigm and exploring its development tendency. Either theoretical paradigm or empirical paradigm enjoy its own methodological status among the educational research methods system. At present, the western system of educational research methods is overwhelmingly characterized by empirical methods. International educational research tends to employ quantitative research, qualitative research and the mixed research by integrating both. However, in China, the problem of simplification remains in the educational research paradigm, and theoretical research is still China's main research method. Empirical research, though, has highlighted, its proportion is much less. Thus, the systematic and normative construction should be reinforced in our educational research methods. We should adopt more empirical research and advocate the diversification of research paradigm. Moreover, it's important to enhance the improved quantitative and qualitative research and explore the mixed research.
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    Limitation of Evidence-Based Educational Research:Perspective of Cultural Existentialism Pedagogy
    JIANG Yong, DAI Nai'en
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (3): 72-79+170.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.008
    Abstract120)   HTML22)    PDF (829KB)(1016)      
    In the past ten years, evidence-based educational research has been the academic pursuit, and it seems that only "evidence-based" educational research is a good study, a scientific study. All of a sudden, evidence-based education research featuring big data has become a fashion.In this paper, we argue that it's necessary to re-think the "evidence-based" educational research from the perspective of "cultural existentialism pedagogy". First, love is the basic way of human existence. Similarly, education research should also involve the human feelings and emotions of love. However, evidence-based educational research will become a "cold", "indifferent" and "stiff" study, lacking of human feelings and ultimate belief.Only "lively" education research is viable, highlighting life care and humanistic feelings. Therefore, from the perspective of cultural existentialism pedagogy, we advocate that the correlation between the researcher and the participant of study should have the process of encountering. Second, thinking is important to the existence of human. Evidence-based educational research tends to be obsessed with various data mining and accumulation,obsessed with various statistical models of computing and data modeling, analysis and discussion on management for all kinds of data. Therefore, in evidence-based educational research,there is a lack of true thinking, and a lack of studying on educational value rationality, thus leading to a lack of original ideas of "free thinking". Third, faith is the main mission of the existence of people. Not just the use of educational research data and the "evidence" to speak, it is more important to study hard to speak, speak with emotion, with his faith to speak, so faith problem is the problem of a lot of educational research. Without reverence, piety and persistent belief, it is difficult for researchers to truly love educational research, and it is difficult to find the law of education and the direction of development from the ever-changing data.
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    The Formulation and Verification of School Moral Atmosphere Scale
    JU Yucui, LIANG Lei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (3): 80-93+170+171.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.009
    Abstract134)   HTML164)    PDF (960KB)(1099)      
    Based on a literature analysis, the research develops the evaluation framework of school moral atmosphere. In addition,drawing on the existing scales, the research seeks to establish the school moral atmosphere scale, in accordance with the current situation of primary and secondary education in China. The research selects 1,000 primary and secondary school students in East China as a sample, and uses confirmatory factor analysis to analyze the scale by AMOS 17.0. Our findings show that school moral atmosphere can be measured by two orientations: justice and caring. Justice can be measured by four measures: fairness, democracy, norms and integrity.Caring can be measured by five measures: respect, help, understanding, tolerance, and belonging.
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    Correlation between Zhongyong Thinking and Views of Science among Primary Science Teachers in China
    QU Mingfeng, ZHANG Hongxia, LU Qi, LÜ Linhai, WAN Dongsheng, YU Bo
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (3): 94-102+171.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.010
    Abstract107)   HTML21)    PDF (2222KB)(1022)      
    Using structure equation model and other models, this study, based on a national survey of primary school science teachers in China, seeks to explore the complex correlation between teachers' [WTBX]Zhongyong[WTBZ] thinking and their views of science. It introduces a proxy variable of [WTBX]Zhongyong[WTBZ] thinking in Chinese culture into the model, while dividing views of science into the classic one and the modern one. It has been found that: (a) teachers'[WTBX]Zhongyong[WTBZ] thinking does not necessarily constitute an obstacle to the development of teachers' views of science; more than 1/3 of the participants developed their [WTBX]Zhongyong[WTBZ] and science views synchronously with positive correlation co-efficient; (b)[WTBX]Zhongyong[WTBZ] thinking and views of science are both mutually enhanced and offset;(c) about 1/5 post-modernists had higher modern science score than the classic score, which was against the historic process of science; (d) Fourth, there is no positive correlation between [WTBX]Zhongyong[WTBZ] thinking and modern views of science. The article concludes with the suggestion that science teacher training in China should start from the stage of classic science, and give different people with different programs. Also, science education programs should be scheduled in line with the historical process instead of "skip-over development".
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    Empirical Research on the Impact of Satisfaction with Entrepreneurial Education on Entrepreneurial Behavior
    GE Baoshan, NING Depeng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (3): 103-115+171+172.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.011
    Abstract115)   HTML21)    PDF (1428KB)(714)      
    The era of entrepreneurship requires colleges and universities to improve their quality of entrepreneurship education.However, few researches focus on the satisfaction with entrepreneurship education. In order to bridge the research gap, this study develops a SEM model and analyzes 30,887 questionnaires collected from hundreds of universities in 26 provinces to investigate the relationships among satisfaction with entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial passion, background factors and entrepreneurial behaviors. Empirical results show that the satisfaction with entrepreneurial courses, practices and teaching methods positively affect entrepreneurial behaviors; entrepreneurial passion positively moderate the impact of the satisfaction with curriculum and teaching staff, teaching methods and teaching objectives on entrepreneurial behaviors, while negatively moderate the impact of the satisfaction with entrepreneurial education practices on entrepreneurial behaviors. Besides, gender, majors, school types, school locations and entrepreneurial activities experience have significant impact on entrepreneurial behaviors. In conclusion, this paper suggests that we should improve the entrepreneurship education systems to stimulate individual entrepreneurial passion, optimize female entrepreneurship resources to spur their entrepreneurial passion, establish a collaborative mechanism between universities and enterprises to enrich individual entrepreneurial experience.
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    Adequacy Index Design and Standard Calculation of Educational Finance Input in China
    WANG Dong, ZHANG Qiongwen, HUANG Bin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (3): 116-125+172.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.012
    Abstract113)   HTML22)    PDF (1119KB)(809)      
    The primary goal of financial input in education is to provide sufficient resources in support of the development of education, and strive to meet the funding criteria marching the overall requirements of educational output. Based on the five-year plan for the education development in China in different periods, using the evidence-based and cost function method, the authors made the standard calculation of the financial education funds which can meet the adequacy requirements. The empirical results show that at present China's financial investment in education can basically meet the needs of the development of educational undertakings, but there are problems.For example, the matching degree of the planning objectives and funds investment is not high, and the expansion of education is at a relatively low level. In addition, both the growth slowdown of adequate levels in the post "4" era,and regional or urban-rural imbalance of adequate level are pressing for the establishment and improvement of the long-term mechanism of financial investment in education.
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    Classroom Video Analysis: Theoretical Approaches, Methods and Applications
    ZHENG Tainian, TONG Yuting
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (3): 126-133+172+173.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.013
    Abstract149)   HTML113)    PDF (551KB)(1520)      
    Classroom video analysis provides a new tool and technique to collect data for the research on teaching and learning processes and their internal and proximal factors, thus contributing to improved empirical research in education. This kind of analysis has been widely applied in various researches on teaching practices and underlying laws, comparative studies of classroom teaching and learning, teaching improvement and learning environment design, construction of instructional theories and improvement of teaching education. Many theoretical approaches have been developed, among which are subject matter content approach, neo-Vygotskyan approach, classroom talk, conversational analysis, micro-ethnographic approach, context analysis and phenomenological analysis and the updated version of some of approaches. The unit of analysis in classroom involves problem focus, instant image or scene, utterance, move or conversation, episode, or the whole period/activity.
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    An Empirical Analysis of Rural Teachers' Intention of Turnover: Based on the Survey in Yunnan Province
    WANG Yanling, LI Huiqin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (3): 134-141+173.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.014
    Abstract159)   HTML27)    PDF (599KB)(1133)      
    A survey of 10,356 rural teachers of Yunnan province shows that 79.2 percent of them have the intention of turnover (leaving or moving). Their intention of leaving or moving appears to be a double tendency: "to the city" and "to their own hometown". Young teachers under the age of 30 showed the strongest intention of turnover. On the whole, the higher level their income, the weaker their intention, but the impact of school location cannot be ignored. This paper analyzes the factors which affect the intention of rural teachers' turnover. The survey revealed the factors could be ranked as follows: children's education and family life, welfare and workload, school location and traffic facilities, living conditions, school management and teaching atmosphere, social and working environment. The authors suggest that, in order to retain rural teachers, the government should pay attention to the basic needs of rural teachers, help teachers solve their problems with children's education and couple's separation, raise their income to make teaching jobs more attractive. Furthermore, it's helpful to restart the agenda of "hometown priority" in recruiting and employing rural teachers, to improve rural teachers' living conditions, especially to provide housing welfare to young teachers, and to help rural teachers gain a sense of belonging and achievement.
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    Evidence-Base: A New Tendency in the Empirical Educational Research of the EU
    YU Ke, CHEN Dan, ZHAO Shuai
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (3): 142-149+173+174.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.015
    Abstract100)   HTML25)    PDF (610KB)(876)      
    European Union as well as its member countries, has already shifted the research focus to the relationship between policymaking and the educational/pedagogical practice. This Shift is impelled by evidence. Admittedly, it breeds evidence-based education under such a condition and is boosted by International Large Scale Assessment in Education. Then further the particular Education Monitoring System, which consists of three aspects, incorporating external evaluation of schools, internal evaluation of schools as well as student achievement evaluation in each member countries of EU is formulated. However, research project named "Leadership, Improvement for Student Achievement", 2007 initiated by European Union, could provide vividly an example. The greatest benefit from such a project only belongs to win-win in interactions among such three elements.In other words, the goal for win-win is going to be achieved only by the interactions of education research, education policy alongside teaching practice through the Evidence-base. Evidence-base marks undoubtedly a new tendency in the empirical education research of the European Union. Three inspirations are obtained from this tendency. First of all, the evidence sharing, which aim is formulating an evidence sharing mechanism for education research and education practice alongside education administration. Second, institution co-constructing, which is mainly for generating new knowledge, method and ideal of the Evidence-base, and further promoting productivity of education evidence and enforceability of education policy alongside the creativity of teaching practice.Third, win-win in values, whose focus is predominantly on the from the Evidence-base conceived vitality. Whilst such vitality not only demonstrated the win-win in the European valueson the part of EU education, but also in regenerating of the education values from the EU aspect.
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    Empirical Educational Research: Its Past, Present and Future
    CHENG Jiankun, CHEN Jing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (3): 150-158+174.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.016
    Abstract123)   HTML21)    PDF (864KB)(1235)      
    Since empirical paradigm was introduced into education research, empirical education research has experienced three stages: the pure empirical quantitative research,empirical quantitative-based study, and the concurrent empirical quantitative and qualitative research. The difference between qualitative and quantitative research paradigm leads to diversified content and process of empirical education research. In this article, the authors propose the meta-model inferences of empirical education research based on the disadvantage of causal interpretation paradigm. Because of empirical quantitative and qualitative research,philosophy researches and empirical researches have their advantages and disadvantages, and there is the long-term debate about the appropriateness of education empirical research. As a result, mixed methods research is put forward to take the advantage of a variety of research paradigms and overcome their disadvantages.
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (3): 159-163.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.017
    Abstract157)   HTML11)    PDF (443KB)(872)      
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (3): 164-167.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.018
    Abstract53)   HTML10)    PDF (1870KB)(1064)      
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    Causal Inference in Education Research: Principles and Applications of Related Methods
    HUANG Bin, FANG Chao, WANG Dong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (4): 1-14+134.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.001
    Abstract139)   HTML37)    PDF (916KB)(2205)      
    In the past twenty years, causal inference has developed rapidly and gradually dominated the field of micrometrics. The paper first introduces the context of the emerging causal inference methods. Next, we discuss three preconditions to reach a causal conclusion, point out the major problems with making causal inference in the experimental and non experimental studies, and analyze the main causes and components of heterogeneous residual that commonly exist in the observation studies. Then, using cases of impact evaluation of small class teaching and new mechanism reform, the paper illustrates the basic principles and analyzes procedures of some quasi experimental methods, including regression discontinuity, instrumental variable, propensity score method and double difference. Finally, in response to the doubts about the internal validity of quasi experimental studies, we emphasize the importance of robustness and sensitivity test of the implicit hypothesis that hide behind quasi experimental methods.
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (4): 15-30.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.002
    Abstract104)   HTML157)    PDF (640KB)(3354)      
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    Building the STEAM Education System in Primary and Secondary Schools
    HU Weiping, SHOU Xin, CHEN Yonggang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (4): 31-39+134.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.003
    Abstract227)   HTML130)    PDF (670KB)(2474)      
    STEAM education has become a hot issue in today' international education researches and reforms. Effective implementation of STEAM education is a systematic process, which involves developing education policies, strengthening the integration of STEAM courses, implementing effective STEAM classroom teaching, promoting STEAM teacher professional development, offering STEAM activity courses, and carrying out relevant evaluation. Only in this way can we construct a STEAM education system with Chinese characteristics.
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    STEAM Education in America: Framework, Characteristic and Implication
    WEI Xiaodong, YU Bing, YU Haibo
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (4): 40-46+134+135.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.004
    Abstract306)   HTML624)    PDF (1159KB)(3286)      
    In recent years, to promote basic education reform, the United States has given high priority to its STEAM education, which has become a national strategy. It's widely accepted that STEAM education helps students to understand the world in an integrated way, to use interdisciplinary thinking to solve practical problems, develop their logical thinking and problem solving skills, and cultivate high quality STEAM talents. With the worldwide spread of STEAM education, it will certainly bring about major changes in basic education. This article looks at the background of STEAM education, analyzes its framework and summarize the characteristics of STEAM education, so as to offer some lessons for the reform of basic education in China.
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    Integration of Maker Education and STEAM Education: An Interdisciplinary Perspective of Innovation
    GAO Yunfeng, SHI Baoguo
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (4): 47-53+135.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.005
    Abstract216)   HTML213)    PDF (1924KB)(1999)      
    From the inter disciplinary perspective of innovation, maker education and STEAM education have a lot in common and are mutually complementary. The present paper analyzes the current development and the characteristics of the two kinds of education activities respectively, and suggests that maker education is an effective approach to STEAM education, while STEAM education is an indispensable complement for maker education. The integration of both can have positive effects on educating talents. Then, based on the experience of maker education in some primary and secondary schools in recent years, we discuss ways of integrating maker education and STEAM education, including developing standardized courses, offering a series of maker courses and undertaking large live action projects. In conclusion, the integration of maker education and STEAM education will surely provide strong support for the current educational and teaching reform.
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    An Analysis of STEAM Project Based Learning: A Perspective of Key Competencies
    CUI Hong, ZHU Jiahua, ZHANG Xiuhong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (4): 54-61+135+136.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.006
    Abstract228)   HTML32)    PDF (680KB)(1937)      
    STEAM is an educational mode which engages students in learning through active participation, project design and problem solving. Quite similar to project based learning, STEAM is interdisciplinary and situational. Therefore, STEAM project based learning is based on specific outcomes and fuzzy tasks, which is an inquiry process involving interdisciplinary learning. In this paper, the authors argue that STEAM project based learning helps to enhance the cultivation of humanities, sense of responsibility and rational thinking, stimulate active learning, and improve individual consciousness and problem solving skills. What's more, it is consistent with the philosophy of the development of student's key competencies. From the perspective of key competencies, the authors also discuss the state quo and challenges in STEAM regarding how to assess the science courses in basic education, how to connect informal and formal education, and how to combine maker education with other cutting edge ideas.
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    The Concept of Critical Pedagogy
    Michael WINKLER
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (4): 62-73+136.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.007
    Abstract200)   HTML23)    PDF (672KB)(1028)      
    Critical pedagogy is a movement, bound together in a concern about the impact of modern society on the conditions of growing up. Its methodological principles are those of the hermeneutics, the dialectics and the critique of ideologies. The author argues that relations between society and education can be discussed in three ways, i. e, critical pedagogy looks at education by discourse in terms of three paradigms. The first paradigm looks at education from a social standpoint only. The second paradigm focuses on the idea that education should be seen as an autonomous system. The third paradigm relates to the Bildung tradition and is renewed in the German reform pedagogy. Then, the author discusses its ten traditional origins, of which the author pays homage to Klaus Mollenhauer, who introduced empirical approaches to education research developed in the USA. Inspired by the late writings of Mollenhauer's, the author points out that the dynamics of social and cultural changes have accelerated in a way that does not suit the accelerating time an individual is given by nature. Meanwhile, critical pedagogy will have to meet the challenges posed by education in global society and create a safe environment for the sake of the children's development.
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    Inquiry into Michael Winkler's Social Pedagogy
    Frank LIANG
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (4): 74-88+136+137.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.008
    Abstract158)   HTML23)    PDF (598KB)(585)      
    Adopting educational hermeneutics, this article attempts to investigate Michael Winkler's social pedagogy, which is influenced by Kant's critical pedagogy, Humboldt's cultivation theory, Hegel's dialectic pedagogy, Schleiermacher's educational theory, Nohl's social pedagogy, Mollenhauer's social pedagogy and Korczak's respect pedagogy. The main contents of Winkler's social pedagogy include discussion about the possibility of social pedagogy, perspective of the construction of social pedagogy, analysis of the problems of social pedagogy, explanation of the action of social pedagogy, and the missions of social pedagogy in the future. Winkler's social pedagogy has the following advantages:first, it confirms the possibility of theoretical construction in social pedagogy; second, it guides the direction of theoretical construction in social pedagogy; third, it discusses the problems in the field of social pedagogy; fourth, it helps builds theory of educational aids; fifth, it points out the missions of social pedagogy in the future. However, the social pedagogy has the following problems:it falls into the crisis of improper application of education strategies; it fails to give a clear definition of subject concepts; and it needs more explanation about the structure of educational activities. Despite its problems, it can serve as a reference for the construction of social pedagogy, which helps scholars to understand the problems in social pedagogy and to point out the developmental missions in the future. Winkler's perspectives help to build the theory of social education and to improve the practice of social education.
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    An Analysis of Ancient Education Figures in the 57 Textbooks of the History of Chinese Education and Discussion on the Group Formation of Ancient Chinese Educators
    DU Chengxian, LI Defei, ZHANG Yuejia
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (4): 89-98+137.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.009
    Abstract150)   HTML24)    PDF (779KB)(1218)      
    During the period of 1979 2015, 57 textbooks of the history of Chinese educational figures were published in mainland China, and 91 people were selected as ancient educational figures in the textbooks, who can be grouped into low frequency figures (60 people), intermediate frequency figures (14 people), middle and high frequency figures (5 people) and high frequency figures (12 people) according to the selecting frequency. The importance of the selected educational figures basically corresponds to the selecting frequency and Confucius is only one that was selected into all textbooks. The selected figures and selecting frequency show that textbook compilers pay more attention to educational contribution, like the contribution of educational thought rather than educational practice. The core group of Chinese ancient educators (about 10 people) has preliminarily taken shape in the textbooks compiled by Shen Guanqun and Meng Xiancheng in the 1950s and 1960s and was further improved in the textbooks published in 1979 by Mao Lirui and others, who put forward a basic group of educational figures (about 30 people). The absolute majority of Confucian characters in the core figure group show that the educational value is lack of inclusiveness and diversity. The selection of figures in Chinese educational history textbooks should follow the principle of representativeness, professionalism and balance.
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    Historicizing: Thomas Popkewitz's History of Education Research Methodology
    LI Xianjun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (4): 99-106+137+138.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.010
    Abstract128)   HTML25)    PDF (501KB)(697)      
    From the perspective of sociology of knowledge, Thomas Popkewitz, the famous American educator deconstructs historicism and positivism and blind faith to the archive in history of education. He puts forward his thought of historicizing in history of education research methodology. According to Thomas Popkewitz, while the present and history can't be separated, researchers should understand the present from cultural history and tradition. The researchers in history of education must do research into the practical problems of the present, and use methodology of the history of present. The process of history is interwoven with the influence of relationship between knowledge and power, so that the researcher should be a critical actor. The development of history is discontinuous, so historians must do research on the disruption of the historical change.
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    The Effects of Motivation on Creativity: Present Situation and Prospect
    HAO Ning, TANG Mengying
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (4): 107-114+138.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.011
    Abstract144)   HTML28)    PDF (486KB)(1065)      
    Different motivations influence creativity in different ways. Intrinsic motivation enhances creativity by helping people focus on creative process itself. Previous studies used to investigate the impacts of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations on creativity separately, while now the focus is transferring to integrate both of them. Further research should explore how intrinsic and extrinsic motivations influence creative problem solving interactively, considering types of creativity tasks. The self determination theory (SDT) provides a desirable explanation for disagreements on the impacts of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations on creativity. Approach motivation promotes creativity with flexibility, so does avoidance motivation with persistence. Recent researches began to testify the effects of social motivations on creativity. The studies revealed that prosocial motivation affects creativity combined with intrinsic motivation. All in all, future research should address two scientific issues. First, how do various motivations influence creativity in integrated or interactive ways? Second, what are the general mechanisms underlying the effects of motivations on creativity?
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    Speech Category Learning: Models, Methods and Researches
    XING Qiang, LIU Kai
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (4): 115-121+138+139.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.012
    Abstract151)   HTML116)    PDF (622KB)(681)      
    Speech category learning is one of the most important cognitive mechanisms in human beings. At present, the main theoretical model of speech category learning is the dual system model, which includes explicit hypothesis testing reflective system and implicit procedure based reflexive system. Researches in speech category learning mainly aim at the artificial auditory stimuli and natural Mandarin Chinese. They should dissociate the reflective system and reflexive system to verify the existence of dual system model. In the current study, delayed feedback and immediate feedback, full feedback and minimal feedback, blocked talkers and mixed talkers are all used to explore the characteristic of reflective system, so do reflexive system. Despite the achievements in speech category learning, it is important to note that the research findings in perceptual category learning should be initroduced in speech category learning carefully in the future research. The cognitive mechanism and learning ability of the elderly, children, bilinguals can also be further studied.
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    International Dialogue on the Role of Museum Education in STEM and STEAM Education
    David ANDERSON, JI Jiao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (4): 122-129+139.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.013
    Abstract182)   HTML123)    PDF (509KB)(2040)      
    This dialogue was based on David Anderson's research and educational experience. Adopting the sociocultural theoretical approach, Professor David and I discussed the following five topics:a) the rationale and development of STEM education, b) the barriers encountered by STEM education, c) the unique roles of museums in STEM education, d) the compatibility of museum education and local sociocultural context, and e) the contribution of university researchers to the integration of museum education and STEM education.
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (4): 130-133.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.014
    Abstract72)   HTML9)    PDF (2231KB)(645)      
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    The Video-image Turn in Current Education Research:Production of Educational Theory in the Video-image Age
    LI Zhengtao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (5): 1-12+159.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.05.001
    Abstract87)   HTML29)    PDF (1446KB)(921)      
    Video and image are now used in education in three different perspectives and approaches:as a medium of instruction, a tool of exploring classroom interaction and a way of promoting teacher professional development. Traditionally, video and image were understood in terms of medium,tool, application, method or means, which underestimated the unique value of video and image in theory production including educational theory production. That is to say, they can create a new source of knowledge, new research perspectives and paradigms, and a new world of theory. The video-image turn in current education research means a shift from instrumental orientation to theoretical orientation. In addition, the ways of understanding pedagogy,research methods and creation will change from analysis through video and image to analysis of video and image.Pedagogical ways of presentation, as well as rhetoric and writing styles will turn to the integration of text,language,video and image.
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (5): 13-29.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.05.002
    Abstract106)   HTML95)    PDF (683KB)(1794)      
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    Pedagogic-phenomenologic Videography:Showing, Attention,Interattention
    Malte Brinkmann, Severin Sales Rödel
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (5): 30-45+159.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.05.003
    Abstract107)   HTML32)    PDF (1980KB)(881)      
    This article presents the rationale and processes of pedagogical-phenomenological videography. It first discusses the basic features of the phenomenological experience theory, the embodiment and response occurrence theory, and the phenomenological image theory. Accordingly, we define the watching of video documents as responsive, shared experience. With an overview of the epistemology and methodology of phenomenology, we introduce the research method used in this paper. Based on one example taken in the classroom, we then sketch the basic steps of analysis of the phenomenological videography. Thereby, it opens a new perspective for instruction study, that is, teaching and learning process can be considered as inter-attentive response occurrence in which showing as the special pedagogic embodiment corresponds with attention and inter attention. Finally, we primarily present our research findings about the type of pedagogical showing gesture.
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    Complexity in Video-image Interpretation:Methodological Aspects of Interpretive Visual Analysis
    CHEN Hongyan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (5): 46-54+159+160.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.05.004
    Abstract129)   HTML28)    PDF (2299KB)(750)      
    Video and image as a research medium has provided unprecedented opportunities for researchers in education to explore school life and culture, teaching and learning, as well as the transformation of education. Despite the widespread use of video-image in education and social science, there are such problems as complexity, multi-dimension and obscurity. In order to tackle the problems mentioned above, in this paper, we argue that a discussion and reflection on the methodological control of video-image interpretation is necessary. Based on the video-image qualitative interpretation developed by German socialist Ralf Bohnsack, we present here four aspects for further discussion. Firstly, the sequentiality analysis of documentary method should be taken as a fundamental tool for the analysis procedures.Secondly, the grammar of image as the core step should be fulfilled by composition of the image.Thirdly, by division of the meaning implicit in the image into conjunctive knowledge and communicative knowledge the simultaneous interpretation of video-image can be achieved. Finally, to deal with the problem of polysemy in video-image,it is useful to introduce the constant comparative analysis developed by grounded theory.
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    Video-based Analysis of Learning Processes:Rationale and Method
    XIAO Sihan, David J. DeLiema
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (5): 55-71+160.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.05.005
    Abstract184)   HTML31)    PDF (9705KB)(1116)      
    After more than four decades of development, video-based analysis has become a major approach in educational research, in particular analysis of learning processes. Yet, with regard to the "why" and the "how-to," video researchers have not achieved a consensus. Based on a brief review of history and relevant theories, this article uses two case studies to illustrate three crucial aspects of video-based analysis:the individual body, the social bodies, and the bodies-things interaction. We argue that these aspects profoundly shape our analyses and understandings of classroom interaction, learning processes, and mechanism of teaching, and that video data play a critical role therein. Finally, we argue that educators and educational researchers need to avoid the bias of logocentrism, to empower teachers to evaluate their own classroom, and to respect the everyday workings of classroom life-worlds, if we are to fully appreciate the potential of video-based analysis.
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    The Study of Classroom Mimics:Video Analysis Based on the Documentary Method
    SUN Lili
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (5): 72-86+160+161.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.05.006
    Abstract140)   HTML27)    PDF (2596KB)(734)      
    As the basic classroom teaching and learning behavior, "mimics"has ontological meaning, involving body, performance, imagination, inner image. In this sense, mimics is not negative "imitation", but self-expression based on scene layout and performance, which reflects and constructs teaching and learning rules in classroom. This paper focuses on the core research question-what instruction logic does the mimics sequences contain and construct? This paper, using the documentary method, takes sequence as analysis carrier, analyzes the interaction habitus created by mimics.Video analysis based on the documentary method not only combines situation, body and practice, but combines the comprehensive concerns of noumenon and situation, universality and diversity, transient and diachronic dimension,through which educational practice and theoretical research methodology can be updated.
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    The Quality Assessment of Aesthetic Education Supported by Objectives and Curriculum
    ZHAO Lingli
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (5): 87-99+161.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.05.007
    Abstract129)   HTML24)    PDF (1438KB)(1128)      
    Quality assessment serves as a lever to promote the developments of aesthetic education in schools while the objectives and curriculum drive the lever. This paper, drawing on the experience of the previous assessment methods adopted by some mathematicians, estheticians and psychologists, proposed a new assessment formula with an attempt to improve assessment reliability. With the help of internet technology, a five-dimensional integrated monitoring platformcan be established in aesthetic education,involving goals, curriculum, relative teaching materials, teaching and learning. Also, a big data evaluation platform can play an important role in evaluating and supervising the developments of different subjects as well as teachers, and learners anytime and anywhere.This platform can analyze the relationship between aesthetic quality and humanistic quality, overall quality, professional quality, and so on.Moreover,it provides an example for modernization of school education and teaching.It's expected that this great and sophisticated projects should be incorporated into the national or regional 13th Five-Year Action Plan of the "Internet plus", and more experts should be mobilized to contribute to the overall design and implementation of the project.
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    The Neural Basis of Aesthetic Education
    DENG Jia, HUANG Xue
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (5): 100-108+161.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.05.008
    Abstract153)   HTML109)    PDF (815KB)(661)      
    This paper discusses the neural basis of aesthetic education,which is elaborated from five aspects:sensory nervous system of aesthetic information acquisition, cognitive processing of aesthetic information and the central mechanism of the brain, aesthetic experience and emotional center, aesthetic expression skills and motor nerve, brain mechanism and aesthetic imagery formation. Aesthetic activity, which is closely related to human's physiological instinct and nature, has so far the most physiological mobilization of education. It's suggested that school aesthetic education reform and improvement, based on the physiological basis, especially the neural basis, should be scientifically constructed and implemented, in order to effectively promote the aesthetic quality of students and their overall development in terms of physical and psychological quality.
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    Study of Mobile Aesthetic Education:A Perspective of Internet Plus
    ZHANG Jian, CHEN Benyou
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (5): 109-116+162.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.05.009
    Abstract139)   HTML29)    PDF (835KB)(685)      
    This paper, through investigationdeduction,attempts to examine the aesthetic function of the mobile phone, and its impact on modern aesthetic behavior and aesthetic psychology, with a view to discovering the key node of mobile aesthetic education. This is a new approach to enabling people to enjoy the aesthetic experience and aesthetic cultivation. And this could be a "great aesthetics" tool which can integrate family aesthetic education, school aesthetic education, and social aesthetic education,so as to build a vivid, personalized mobile aesthetic education system.
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    Aesthetic Experience of Music Appreciation Teaching and Empirical Evidences for the Functions
    CHEN Lijun, WEN Qi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (5): 117-127+162.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.05.010
    Abstract152)   HTML105)    PDF (1659KB)(837)      
    Aesthetic education is one of the major issues in educational reform.Affective experience is an important means of music education. Aesthetic-focused music appreciation teaching is the key to the development of students' aesthetic experience. In view of the connotation of aesthetic education, in this paper we first described the characteristics and the forms of various music aesthetic experience, and identified four types of aesthetic experience of different music styles. Next, we provided empirical evidence to confirm the influence of musical aesthetic experience on personality, music appreciation and cognitive development. Then we dealt with the relaxing and adjusting functions of the musical aesthetic experience. Finally, based on these functions, we put forward several suggestions for the musical aesthetic education. It's hoped that music education focusing on aesthetics can offer new thinking and methods for music appreciation teaching.
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    Aesthetic Orientation in Painting Instruction:Construction of Generated Aesthetics Field
    YU Zeyuan, LI Jian, DING Yuehua
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (5): 128-137+162+163.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.05.011
    Abstract145)   HTML115)    PDF (1085KB)(602)      
    The exploration of aesthetics shows that painting is the artistic reflection of the artist's own life and soul, which is a process of aesthetic creation.Painting instruction should be aesthetics-orientated through the appreciation of the physical beauty, spiritual beauty and the formal beauty. In such a process, the aesthetics field plays an important role as it provides experimental aesthetics for the artist through the integration of physical field, psychological field and cultural field, which induces artists to complete aesthetic creation through the trend of structure and metaphor. Positive research shows individual feeling of aesthetics consists of eight factors. The aesthetic orientation in painting instruction requires teachers to focus on the value of the aesthetic field, and strive to construct the aesthetics field from three aspects:the physical field, the psychological field and the cultural field.
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    A Review of Researches on Magnitude Representation
    LIU Di, YANG Chun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (5): 138-145+163.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.05.012
    Abstract143)   HTML24)    PDF (544KB)(679)      
    The magnitude representation is the process of interpretation, expression and operation of the quantitative stimulus in the brain. It is an important part of the development of human cognition. The magnitude representation of children tends to be mature with age growth. The process includes four overlapping trends:a) representing increasingly precisely the magnitudes of non-symbolic numbers, b) connecting smallsymbolic numbers to their non-symbolic referents, c) extending understanding from smaller to larger whole numbers, and d)accurately representing the magnitudes of rational numbers. This study, based on behavioral and cognitive neuroscience on magnitude research in recent twenty years, further reveals the trend and inherent processing mechanism of the magnitude knowledge, and summarizes educational interventions and short-term trainings so as to improve children's mathematics ability.
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    Mindful Agency Scale for College Students
    WANG Qing, PENG Yanan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (5): 146-154+163.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.05.013
    Abstract98)   HTML22)    PDF (680KB)(730)      
    Mindful agency is a new concept of positive learning disposition in the field of educational psychology. The current study constructed Mindful Agency Scale for College Students based on a sample of Chinese undergraduate students. In our empirical study, two batches of data were collected, including 654 questionnaires. And the Cronbach'sα of the scale was.84. The exploratory factor analysis revealed a five-dimensional structure of mindful agency:learning methods, emotional regulation, awareness of planning, openness to experience, and learning engagement. The result of confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the validity of the five factor model. It could be concluded that the scale demonstrates satisfactory reliability and validity, and it could provide psychometric support in studying mindful agency in the Chinese context.
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (5): 155-158.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.05.014
    Abstract54)   HTML9)    PDF (2454KB)(475)      
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    The Choice of Academic Profession: Class Taste or Personal Opportunities
    YAN Guangcai
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (6): 1-10+152.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.06.001
    Abstract175)   HTML32)    PDF (794KB)(851)      
    Historically, it is in modern society that academic profession was favored by middle and upper class. In current China's society, the pattern of academic profession dominated by middle and upper class results from the different economic conditions of the family and the inequality of resource distributionin education at all levels, rather than class culture and taste. Therefore, it is essential to implement education priority strategy, enrich educational resources for all, and extend the years of schooling for all. This can not only improve the labor's quality, develop the personal potential, and cultivate numbers of talents, but also help to promote the development of society and construction of a harmonious and orderly society steadily.
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    Private Education Policy Lag: Perspective of Organizational Behavior Decision
    YAN Fengqiao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (6): 11-17+152.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.06.002
    Abstract100)   HTML102)    PDF (616KB)(608)      
    Private education in China is a new phenomenon emerging from beyond the existing dominant public system. Consequently, quite a few governmental agencies, rather than one particular educational agency, are involved in the policy making and implementation in private education.To some extent, the effectiveness of private education policy depends on collaboration among governmental agencies on the one hand, and adjustment of the existing rule that might impede the new policy on the other hand. Therefore, it is appropriate to employ organizational behavior decision model to interpret and analyze private education policies. "Reasonable return", "independent college" and "nonprofit and for-profit classification" are three typical cases for organizational behavior decision model.
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    The Governance System of Non-governmental Education in China: Reform and Innovation
    DONG Shengzu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (6): 18-26+152+153.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.06.003
    Abstract144)   HTML69)    PDF (689KB)(507)      
    Over 30 years of reform and development in China have witnessed the establishment of non-governmental education, which is closely linked with its governance system. At present and in the future, the innovation of governance system of non-governmental education centers and will center on three core topics, namely classification management, government functions and the corporation system. First, exploring a scientific approach to classification management is the most important system arrangement to strengthen the legal basis and consummate the top-level system design for non-governmental education. Second, transforming the government functions is the major incentive to achieve good governing and stimulate the intrinsic vitality for non-governmental schools. Third, improving the corporate governance is key to the micro self-government and stable operations for non-governmental schools. With the deepening of comprehensive reform in education, the institutional environment of non-governmental education in China will be further improved.
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    International Law and Private Schools in China: Some Concepts of Private Education
    YUAN Zheng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (6): 27-35+153.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.06.004
    Abstract140)   HTML70)    PDF (596KB)(519)      
    The restructuring of China's private education began more than three decades ago. However, the disproportionate private schools not including kindergartens in China are still very weak and their rights are not properlyguaranteed. An important reason for this is that many lawmakers, administrators and school owners are completely ignorant of the international conventions, which are legally binding in China. This studydeals with the articles concerning education in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child, discussing their legal effect on and significance to private schools in this country.
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    Distribution Justice and Limitations of Education in an Open Society
    ZHOU Xingguo
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (6): 36-41+153+154.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.06.005
    Abstract118)   HTML27)    PDF (507KB)(834)      
    Distribution justice in education is an issue of how to allocate limited education resources among social groups and individuals more fairly. So far, theories on education distribution have focused more on the matter of education as scarce resource. In a closed social system, education justice depends on allocation procedure fairness, and tends to allocate education resources to those outstanding young talents. The closedness of basic social structure makes it possible to realize individuals' unique abilities bred by education. However, in an open society, attention to education resources distribution theories will meet with dual predicaments of international individual brain strain as well as education resources waste. In conclusion,based on traditional education distribution theories, it's necessary, in the open society justice environment, to introduce reflections on responsibility assignment of ability realization into distribution justice.
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    Survey Research on Civic Literacy of Students in Primary School
    ZHANG Jiajun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (6): 42-49+154.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.06.006
    Abstract143)   HTML116)    PDF (559KB)(703)      
    In this paper, the author offers an analysis of a sampling survey on both urban and rural primary schools in different areas of nine provinces in the East, Middle and West of China. The findings show that:a)the level of civic literacy among primary school students is higher on the whole; b) the level of civic literacy among female students is higher than that of male students, which indicates a significant gender gap in the civic literacy of primary school students; c) the level of civic literacy of pupils in the East is higher than that in the central or western areas, but there is no significant difference between the civic literacy of the pupils in the central areas and the civic literacy of the pupils in the western regions. Based on the survey, the author believes that, to improve the students' level of civic literacy, the philosophy of education should be transformed, education of civic literacy should be strengthened, and practical training should be enhanced to achieve the linkage between knowledge and practice. Also, gender stereotypes should be abandoned to promote the idea of gender equality. In addition, it's important that more investment in education in rural areas of central and western regions should be made to ensure a variety of educational resources are available for all.
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    Back to the Body:Toward the Theory of Chinese Language & Literature Education
    YANG Chengyu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (6): 50-63+154.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.06.007
    Abstract146)   HTML25)    PDF (927KB)(575)      
    Chinese Language and Literature (CLL)is a language and the body is the cornerstone of CLL leading to the world. The world is moving from the traditional to the modern. In this context, the body can be divided into natural body, social body and transcendental body. The three dimensions of the body are mutually conditional, establishing a delicate causal relationship. In the process of modernization of Chinese language education, it is necessary to redefine the relationship and division of these three dimensions, rather than adopt one-dimensioned approach. As the three-dimensioned CLL is holistic,present and self-contained,the ontology of CLLcan focus on the difference and fissure of the three kinds of bodies, body and world from a new perspective. The essence of CLL is fissure and poetics is the way to get the essence of CLL.
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    A Neglected Important Educational Topic:Multiple Educational Functions of School Uniforms
    FAN Nanan, YUAN Jingui
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (6): 64-70+155.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.06.008
    Abstract177)   HTML26)    PDF (606KB)(787)      

    School uniforms can serve important educational functions. Looking at the development of school uniforms worldwide, people tend to have high expectations on the unique educational functions of school uniforms. In terms of educational functions, school uniforms have the following multiple functions:a)consolidating educational order, b) nourishing good morality, c) fostering aesthetic pursuit, and d) cultivating a healthy psychology. However, people in China have not given a full play to the educational functions of school uniforms, with the problems of "three surplus and three lacks". Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen supervision over quality assurance, improve the designs of school uniforms and the fostering of aesthetics, as well as promote the industry of school uniforms as a national brand.

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    Study on the Future Tendency of Taiwan’s Textbook Policy
    LIU Hui, LI Hui, LI Juntang, ZHANG Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (6): 71-81+155.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.06.009
    Abstract90)   HTML27)    PDF (895KB)(781)      
    After 1987,Taiwan has a great change in the society, politics, economic and culture, and textbook policy also has change. This article used document analysis and interview to examine the changes of textbook policy at the national education stage. Its purpose is to discover the internal logic of textbook policy and to predict the future tendency of textbook policy in Taiwan. The finding shows that there exists obvious ideology debate in the transition of Taiwan' textbook policy, but a debate situation between stakeholders has formed under the system of edit and audit. The Taiwan's textbook policy in the future is less likely extensive changed.
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    The Suspension of University Problems
    SUI Yifan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (6): 82-94+155+156.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.06.010
    Abstract124)   HTML24)    PDF (858KB)(580)      
    University is the backbone of a nation, contributing to the development of social civilization. In the era of the increasingly competitive knowledge-based global economy, the rise and fall of any country around the world lie in university because of its monopoly in talent cultivation and knowledge innovation. Therefore, it is imperative to solve the problems, which are hampering university development. In other words, these problems should not and cannot be suspended. This paper first examined the question of why we need to put forward the issue of the suspension of university problems, and then analyzed the reason why we should not and cannot suspend the university problems in the context of China's development and innovation and why university needs to be developed to play a greater role in society. In conclusion, this paper discussed the three major university problems which have been long suspended:improving the quality of talent cultivation, creating the world-class universities and de-administration in higher education". Also, it suggested some solutions to the problems.
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    Institutional Research on the Construction of First-class Disciplines: A Case Study of Columbia Journalism School and School of Journalism in University of Missouri
    YAN Sanjiu, NAN Ruiqin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (6): 95-106+156.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.06.011
    Abstract84)   HTML24)    PDF (755KB)(639)      
    Through the analysis on the transformation history of the discipline of journalism in two prestigious journalism schools in America, the authors find out that their discipline institutions share some common features. First, external impetus (like the foundations) has significant effects on the division and configurations of the discipline of journalism. Second, programs of study in journalism discipline can be adjusted through increasing or decreasing curriculums. Third, small classes are taught in both schools, which focus on both academics and practices. Finally, the institutional framework based on joint-management constitutes the institutions of discipline construction in schools of journalism, which can provide inspiration and reference to the construction of top discipline of journalism and communication in China.
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    How Socrates Taught: An Interpretation of Protagoras’ Opening
    LIU Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (6): 107-115+156+157.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.06.012
    Abstract124)   HTML23)    PDF (687KB)(586)      
    Protagoras' opening is not just the prologue of the main content of this book but also the prologue of Socrates' political philosophy career.Taking the educational dialogues between Socrates and Hippocrates as a sample,the article analyzes the educational implication of Socratic dialogues through close reading. In Socratic education, the starting point is the careful reflection on individual's self-mind and the limit, as well as the establishment of spiritual connection of teacher-student relationship. The specific path of education is the realization of individual self-awareness through dialectical dialogues, and leisure is a prerequisite for education to happen. As a model teacher, Socrates' typical significance lies not only in his superb educational skills, but also his love for the polis and its youth.
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    An Empirical Investigation on Teachers’ Application of Educational Information Technology in Primary and Secondary Schools in China
    YANG Fuyi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (6): 116-125+157.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.05.013
    Abstract148)   HTML87)    PDF (819KB)(897)      
    With subjects of 11,190 Chinese teachers from 291 primary and secondary schools in China, this study investigated Chinese teachers' general application of educational information technology and the relationship between it and teachers' demographic features, knowledge backgrounds, courses taught, related training, and other professional activities, and teaching effectiveness. Some policy suggestions were also discussed in this paper.
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    Interactions between Student Teachers and their School Mentors: Perspective of Exchange Theory
    JIANG Shuling, CHEN Xiangming
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (6): 126-136+157.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.05.014
    Abstract168)   HTML23)    PDF (854KB)(613)      
    The analysis on the interaction between student teachers and their mentors can reveal how student teachers learn in the education practice, which helps to deepen our understanding of the exiting tutor system in China. Using the case study methods, the authors provide a deep description of the interaction between student teachers and their school mentors in their education practice in schools. Based on Blau's exchange theory, the paper offers a microanalysis on the exchange of power and emotion in the interaction to explore the learning activities of student teachers. Our findings show that the student teachers and their mentors begin their interaction with rational principle, then balance their giving and rewarding based on the principle of reciprocity and fairness. When the rewarding is accepted by each other, the trend of integration can be observed. If not, the trend of disparity can be observed. In the interaction, the integration and disparity of the power influence the career identity and professional ideas of the student teachers. In some local colleges, student teachers cannot acquire required mentoring from the school mentors, and lose recognition and confidence in their practice. However, some student teachers can manage to change the situation in the exchange of power and emotion.
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    The Origin and Reflection on the “Three Center” of Traditional Education
    HUANG Mengwan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (6): 137-142+158.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.06.015
    Abstract205)   HTML115)    PDF (553KB)(575)      

    In China, it is generally accepted by many educators that traditional education is teacher-centered, textbook-centered and classroom-centered.Actually, the "Three Center" was first invented during the Cultural Revolution to summarize the teaching practice since the establishment of People's Republic of China. In the debate between the traditional and modern education in the 1980s, the "Three Center" was used by some scholars who opposed the traditional education to characterize traditional education. The so-called "Three Center" partly reflects some propositions of traditional education. Therefore, the term has been widely acknowledged in China. Nowadays, scholars tend to use the "Three Center" based on their objective understanding of traditional education. Consequently, the "Three Center" only represents the three key words in the traditional education theory:teachers, textbooks and classrooms. However, in order to avoid any misunderstanding of the traditional education theory, the concept of "Three Center" should be treated carefully.

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    Have 63% Rural Children Never Received High School Education in China:Some Doubts about Scott Rozelle and His Team's Research Conclusions
    Shizhou LOU, Jiawen ZHANG, Haijiang WU
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2017, 35 (6): 143-147.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.06.016
    Abstract274)   HTML43)         

    With the full implementation of the National Outline for Medium and Long-term Education Reform and Development, great achievements have been made in China's rural high school education. However, there still exists the unbalanced development between urban and rural areas to some extent. Rural high school education, as amajor concern of China's educational equity, has attracted much attention from all walks of life. It is important to have a better understanding of the complexity of school-running forms and the management system of China's high school education. Moreover, this can help comprehensively evaluate the current situation of rural high school education so that effective measures can be explored to promote the balanced development of urban and rural education.

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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2017, 35 (6): 148-151.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.06.017
    Abstract93)   HTML9)    PDF (1070KB)(527)      
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