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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences) 2020 Vol.38
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    Need for the Construction of Modern Vocational Education System to Make Vocational Education one Type of Education
    Xu Guoqing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.01.001
    Abstract219)   HTML231)    PDF (574KB)(212)      
    Taking vocational education as a type of education is the logical starting point of all policy designs in the State Council document “National Reform Implementation Plan for Vocational Education”. The pursuit of type attributes in vocational education has taken place throughout the history of vocational education. At present, the demand for type attributes in vocational education is so urgent, because the change in vocational structure in the era of intellectualization has produced the demand for the construction of vocational education system. The theoretical basis for establishing the type attributes of vocational education is the independence of the content of technical knowledge, the complexity of the formation process of technical knowledge and the diversity of the sources of technical knowledge. The practical strategies include ensuring the stability of the vocational education system and the fairness of policies, to establish more diversified forms of vocational education for the training of skilled personnel, to rationalize the internal links of vocational education, to manage vocational education according to the characteristics of vocational education and to improve the social status of skilled personnel.
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    The Confusion of the Higher Trait of Higher Vocational and Technical Education and its Current Solution
    Kuang Ying
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (1): 12-22.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.01.002
    Abstract166)   HTML262)    PDF (799KB)(139)      
    Higher vocational education in China has ushered in a period of development opportunities. However, the basic positioning of higher vocational and technical education is still a pain point, especially for the definition of “higher trait”, which affects the growth of higher vocational and technical education to some extent. It’s essential to understand the connotation of “higher character”. The confusion of the connotation of “higher trait” is one of the inborn particularities in China, which is also accordant with the trend of the development of higher education. The connotation of “higher trait” has experienced three doctrines including “equal cultural level”,“technical education position” and “high skills”. In the present era, those three doctrines are all out of date. It is of importance to build up a new connotation of “higher trait” of higher vocational and technical education based on the notion of “Type Education”. Through the new connotation, the higher vocational and technical education will present a complete new pattern.
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    Reformation and Innovation: Response of Higher Vocational Education to Enrollment Expansion
    Fu Xueling
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (1): 23-32.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.01.003
    Abstract147)   HTML144)    PDF (653KB)(136)      
    The policy of higher vocational and technical education (HVTE) enrollment expansion is conducive to improving the economic structures and deepening vocational reforms in the new era, which will bring challenges to the developmental ideology, cultivation models and quality standards of HVTE. HVTE should follow the ideas of mass education, persist in the principle of characteristic development and improve the growth of technical and skilled talents. To meet the diversified demands of expansion, HVTE should reform the entrance examination, create the multiple cultivation models and improve the flexible educational system to meet the diversified demands, establish the mass quality idea based on value added and hold fast to the higher education standards to ensure the quality.
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    Strengthening Applied Research: The Road to Professional Construction in Higher Vocational Colleges Under “Double High Program”
    Bin Enlin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (1): 33-42.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.01.004
    Abstract188)   HTML142)    PDF (676KB)(135)      
    In order to implement the “National Vocational Education Reform Implementation Plan”, China has issued the “Double High Program” related policy documents, aiming to build a batch of high-level higher vocational colleges and programs. This should be another opportunity to improve the professional connotation of higher vocational colleges. The traditional professional construction path can no longer function again. It is necessary to strengthen the technical application research focusing on technology and product research and development, so that higher vocational colleges can go beyond the previous professional construction in the curriculum reform, teaching reform, teacher reform and other paths. This can help vocational colleges play their own unique professional advantages. However, at present, the application of high-level applied research still faces a series of problems such as difficult to obtain problems. It’s difficult for higher vocational colleges to conduct research project, apply research results, form methods and teams, and construct indicator systems. Therefore, it's suggested that all the problems should be addressed systematically.
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    Is It Profitable for Enterprises to Participate in Internship of Vocational Schools? Based on the Empirical Analysis of 109 Enterprises
    Ran Yunfang, Shi Weiping
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (1): 43-59.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.01.005
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    From the perspective of cost-benefit analysis, the cost-benefit and influencing factors of 109 enterprises in Zhejiang and Shanghai that participated in the internship of vocational schools were studied by structural interviews. The findings are as the following: during the internship, the company is profitable on the whole, but there are still more than 40% companies that are in losses; the short-term costs or benefits of enterprise are mainly related to human costs or benefits. The break-even point and payback period of enterprises' participation in internship are respectively in the 4th and 8th month of students' on-the-job internship, but there are huge differences between enterprises. The low student retention rate makes the long-term benefits of enterprises participating in the internship not high. The cost and benefit of enterprises participating in internship are all significantly affected by some enterprise characteristics and internship characteristics, and short-term cost and benefit have a significant impact on long-term benefits. It is necessary to establish a cost-sharing mechanism, standardize the internship content, respect the formation cycle of post skills, enhance the short-term interests of enterprises, and establish the cost-benefit accounting mechanism to subsidize the companies that are in losses. Meanwhile, it is necessary to strengthen the exchanges and communication between schools and enterprises and improve the enthusiasm of enterprises to work with the schools so as to promote the quality of students’ on-job training.
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    The Tasks of School: A Phenomenological Approach
    Malte Brinkmann
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (1): 60-72.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.01.006
    Abstract135)   HTML141)    PDF (722KB)(275)      
    The article considers the school as a special institutionalized place with a special logic of action related to teaching and learning. The task of the school is not limited to the reproduction of social functions and socialization, or in the transformation of social issues and problems in educational field. Rather, the self-logic of pedagogical action in the school is itself productive in an active relationship to other social fields and practices. From an institution-theoretical perspective, first of all, Hegel defines the school as a place in which an independently institutionalized and artificially organized educational practice takes place. At school, there is a special pedagogical logic of action that differs from other social spheres, institutions and practices. Secondly, from the perspective of the theory of education and Bildung, this practice, is described by Martinus Langeveldas artificial and artistic didactic action, in which extrinsic pedagogical questions and problems are transformed into a timely, spatial and social pedagogical order. Thirdly, according to Eugen Fink, school practice is viewed from a social theoretical perspective and determined as mutual consultations under the conditions of a powerful and conflict-oriented, pluralistic (post) democracy.
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    Analysis on the Implementation of Performance-based Pay System in High Schools: Based on the Investigation of 13 Provinces in Eastern, Central and Western China
    Ning Bentao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (1): 73-84.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.01.007
    Abstract165)   HTML204)    PDF (1116KB)(154)      
    This paper, based on the investigation of teachers from four different levels of schooling in 13 provinces in eastern, central and western China, examines the status quo, dilemma and improvement of the implementation of performance-based pay policy in high schools by using research methods including questionnaire survey, interview and text analysis. The findings show that performance-based pay system in high schools is not functioning well for lack of incentives. In particular, such a system fails to effectively guarantee a satisfactory pay for high-quality teachers, resulting in the loss of those teachers. This paper further analyzes the causes of the above problems from the aspects of the total level of performance-based pay, the setting of evaluation indicators, and the single economic incentive of performance-based pay. Therefore, it is essential to improve the performance salary system in high schools, like increasing the total performance-based pay and establishing a mechanism of pay rise. Also, the effect of economic incentive should be enhanced, and it’s necessary to implement the reform of the performance-based pay system. Combined with the application of students’ comprehensive quality evaluation, efforts should be made to enhance the scientific and fair teacher performance appraisal.
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    The Evolution of Internal Governance Models for Western Universities: From Collegial Governance to Entrepreneurial Governance
    Zhu Jian
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (1): 85-96.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.01.008
    Abstract143)   HTML124)    PDF (772KB)(143)      
    The internal governance model (IGM) is one of the key issues for university governance. Against the background of emphasizing the improvement of internal university governance for contemporary Chinese universities, this paper systematically reviews the evolution of IGMs for western universities. Generally, there are four governance models that have emerged chronologically, and they are collegial governance, bureaucratic governance, managerial governance and entrepreneurial governance. The four IGMs have to some extent reflected on the four different kinds of context where western universities operate. The four chronological models have not been replaced by each other; rather, they have coexisted for a period of time. The evolution of IGMs for western universities has characterized the following two trends. Firstly, academic power has been ensured to some extent. Secondly, the execution of administrative power has been increasingly professional. Undoubtedly, the reform of IGMs for western universities is still ongoing. Network governance is therefore regarded as a possible solution to the weaknesses of the existing four IGMs theoretically; however, it deserves more practical examination. The evolution of IGMs for western universities could offer some solutions for the governance reform of China’s higher education institutions.
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    Report on the Development of Preschool Education in Western China
    China Development Research Foundation null
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (1): 97-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.01.009
    Abstract217)   HTML112)    PDF (1471KB)(142)      
    In recent years, preschool education in China has made remarkable progress. However, the gaps among different regions are still wide, and many children still lack access to preschools in the rural areas of western China. The CPC Central Committee and the State Council attached great importance to preschool education and develops several important guidelines and measures. During the implementation of Preschool Education Three-Year Action Plan, the provincial authorities in western China have explored and enacted local policies based on the local situation. At the same time, many social organizations also made a lot of useful explorations in rural preschool education development. All the measures have effectively promoted the popularization and quality of preschool education. This report summarizes the current situation and the challenges of preschool education in western China. By sorting out the policies and measures of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, local authorities, and some social organizations as well, this report proposes policy recommendations. This report consists of five parts: (1) the significance of the development of preschool education in western China; (2) the achievements and challenges of preschool education development in western China; (3) the formulation and implementation of preschool education policies and measures; (4) international experience and several projects for preschool education in the rural areas of western China; (5) the policy recommendations for the development of preschool education in western China.
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    Retrospect and Prospect of Educational Administrative Disputes and Their Resolution in China—Taking “Top Ten Administrative Disputes in Promoting the Rule of Law in Education” as Examples
    Zhan Zhongle, Jin Lantao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (2): 1-18.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.02.001
    Abstract195)   HTML528)    PDF (894KB)(292)      
    The Administrative Procedure Law has been enacted for 30 years, and educational administrative disputes are characterized by diversified types, diversified subjects and complicated cases. Correspondingly, a multi-disciplinary dispute resolution mechanism including intra-school appeals, off-campus appeals, administrative reconsideration and administrative litigation has also taken shape. At the same time, judicial practice has gradually established the principles of due process, proportionality, self-sponsorship and rights protection, highlighting judicial activism. However, compared with various legal disputes and multiple claims for rights, there is still room for improvement in the design of relevant systems and judicial practice. This involves weak effectiveness and cohesion of dispute resolution, lack of legal basis for due process principle. Also, the scope of judicial review is relatively narrow and its intensity is relatively weak. In order to effectively prevent and properly resolve the administrative disputes in education, we should establish an academic review mechanism that returns to knowledge rationality, respects the law of education and the ontological characteristics of different disciplines, promotes the academic evaluation back to academic logic and strengthens the administrative procedure legislation in the field of education. At the same time, it is necessary to effectively integrate different educational administrative dispute resolution mechanisms, clarify the boundaries between school autonomy and judicial review, and enable rights claims to be expressed through institutionalized, standardized, and rule of law channels, so as to properly resolve conflicts.
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (2): 19-19.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.02.002
    Abstract268)   HTML340)    PDF (277KB)(420)      
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    The Research Design of the 5Cs Framework for Twenty-first Century Key Competences
    Wei Rui, Liu Jian, Bai Xinwen, Ma Xiaoying, Liu Yan, Ma Lihong, Gan Qiuling, Kang Cuiping, Xu Guanxing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (2): 20-28.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.02.003
    Abstract395)   HTML584)    PDF (848KB)(627)      
    China Education Innovation Institute of Beijing Normal University and the Partnership for Twenty-first Century Learning (P21) cooperated on the research of Twenty-first Century Key Competences. On the basis of the 4Cs framework proposed by P21 (critical thinking, creativity, communication and collaboration), cultural understanding and inheritance competence was added to form the 5Cs framework. Through in-depth literature review, discussion and comprehensive argumentation, the 5Cs framework including five first-level dimensions and sixteen second-level dimensions is established. Through extensive investigation and further in-depth elaboration, we completed the establishment of 5C framework, connotation interpretation and behavioral performance, hoping to provide a set of feasible competences framework for promoting the implementation of Twenty-first Century Competencies education.
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    Cultural Competence: Part I of the 5Cs Framework forTwenty-first Century Key Competences
    Liu Yan, Ma Xiaoying, Liu Jian, Wei Rui, Ma Lihong, Xu Guanxing, Kang Cuiping, Gan Qiuling
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (2): 29-44.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.02.004
    Abstract333)   HTML447)    PDF (821KB)(383)      
    Cultural competence refers to the process and behavior of people’s cognition and understanding, inheritance and aufheben, development and innovation of culture, which is of far-reaching significance to individual development and social harmony. The competence can be further interpreted into three elements: Cultural understanding, cultural identity and cultural practice. The connotation of each element is expounded, and the behaviors of each element are listed as examples. This paper discusses the implementation of cultural competence in educational practice from the aspects of systematic design of curriculum, comprehensive integration into disciplines, carrying out activities in a rich context, and enhancing cultural consciousness.
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    Critical Thinking: Part II of the 5Cs Framework for Twenty-first Century Key Competences
    Ma Lihong, Wei Rui, Liu Jian, Ma Mingyan, Liu Yan, Gan Qiuling, Kang Cuiping, Xu Guanxing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (2): 45-56.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.02.005
    Abstract267)   HTML370)    PDF (876KB)(324)      
    Critical thinking has become an important part of core literacy model in many countries or regions, world organizations or economies, and also one of the significant education goals at different levels. In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the cultivation of critical thinking. However, critical thinking has not been clearly defined. In view of the fact that critical thinking skills can’t be completely separated from the dispositions and critical thinking dispositions need to be exposed through critical thinking skills, this study tried to integrate critical thinking skills with dispositions based on previous research, and suggests that critical thinking is the core literacy that individuals need in the future. An individual with critical thinking can not only unceasingly question, rationally analyze, constantly reflect, and draw reasonable conclusion or offer effective solutions when facing different situations, but also consider other people’s views carefully and respect their challenging. The conceptual framework in the present research includes questioning and criticizing, analysis and argumentation, synthesis and generation,reflection and evaluation. The interpretation of critical thinking in this study conforms to the pluralistic characteristics of critical thinking and provides some reference for the cultivation and evaluation of critical thinking in our country.
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    Creativity Competence: Part III of the 5Cs Framework for Twenty-first Century Key Competences
    Gan Qiuling, Bai Xinwen, Liu Jian, Wei Rui, Ma Lihong, Xu Guanxing, Liu Yan, Kang Cuiping
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (2): 57-70.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.02.006
    Abstract251)   HTML465)    PDF (838KB)(491)      
    Creativity is the fundamental power of human civilization progress and social development. Creativity is generally regarded as a kind of key competence of people in the 21st century. It is urgent to cultivate the creativity of primary and secondary students. An individual with creativity can use relevant information and resources to produce novel and valuable ideas, programs, products and other results. This competence includes three elements: creative personality, creative thinking and creative task engagement. Creative personality focuses on emotion and willpower; creative thinking focuses on internal thinking processes and methods; creative task engagement focuses on explicit behavior input, which is important for the cultivation of creativity. This study deconstructs creativity and elaboratesits connotation. And it also gives some examples of the behavior of creativity and provides some specific guidance on how to cultivate the creativity of primary and secondary students.
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    Communication Competence: Part IV of the 5Cs Framework for Twenty-first Century Key Competences
    Kang Cuiping, Xu Guanxing, Wei Rui, Liu Jian, Zheng yan, Liu Yan, Gan Qiuling, Ma Lihong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (2): 71-82.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.02.007
    Abstract245)   HTML463)    PDF (749KB)(435)      
    With the development and progress of society, communication competence plays an increasingly important role in individual development, thus becoming one of the core qualities of talents in the 21st century. However, there is no clear definition of the connotation and structure of communication competence. Based on analysis of the international researches on core literacy in the 21st century and related literature, this study proposes that communication competence is a complex literacy that includes language ability, thinking ability and social emotional ability, involving three elements: deep understanding, effective expression and empathy. Among them, deep understanding and effective expression are two important processes of communication, which require language skills, thinking skills and social skills, while empathy is the most important social emotional skill to promote effective communication. Primary and secondary schools provide an important stage to cultivate students’ communication competence. The clarity of the connotation and structure of communication competence in this study will help primary and secondary schools to build a communication competence training system, and provide a reference for the improvement of students’ overall literacy.
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    Collaboration Competence: Part V of the 5Cs Framework for Twenty-first Century Key Competences
    Xu Guanxing, Wei Rui, Liu Jian, Li Jingyi, Kang Cuiping, Ma Lihong, Gan Qiuling, Liu Yan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (2): 83-96.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.02.008
    Abstract225)   HTML511)    PDF (764KB)(332)      
    Collaboration competence is a must for citizens in the 21st century. Stressing the importance of developing students’ collaboration competence has far-reaching implications. As a composite of a series of skills and attitudes, collaboration competence can be further classified into three subskills: the ability of identifying common goals and values, the ability of taking shared responsibility and the ability of communicating and negotiating for a win-win situation. In this model, identifying common goals and values is the starting point of a collaborative activity and taking shared responsibility plays a central role in the process, while communicating and negotiating for a win-win situation provides an effective means to achieve common goals. These three subskills complement and integrate with each other. Collaboration competence can be developed through school education and the development process should be designed in a scientific manner. Present and future studies on collaboration competence in China should focus more on how to develop and assess students’ collaboration competence in the Chinese context.
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    On the Confidence of Educational Culture in China: The Sixth Reflection of “What Exactly is Pedagogy”
    Chen Guisheng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (2): 97-102.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.02.009
    Abstract162)   HTML466)    PDF (500KB)(177)      
    China has experienced a century-long process of western learning and takes the word “Pädagogik” as “Pedagogy”. However, we have been unaware of the similarities and differences between “Pädagogik” and “Pedagogy” for a long time. As a result, it is not uncommon to see the heated debates on “pedagogy” issues from foreign perspective and local as well as the criticism on the achievements of Chinese “Pedagogy” from the perspective of “Pädagogik”. This study tries to reveal the crux in the construction of “Padagogik” by the comparison of Chinese and western education culture, so as to improve the confidence of educational culture in China to some degree and understand the “Pädagogik” and western learning in a way which differs from “Pedagogy”.
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    On the Learning from the Perspective of Phenomenology: A New Possible Direction
    Peng Jie
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (2): 103-113.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.02.010
    Abstract210)   HTML389)    PDF (593KB)(218)      
    Learning, teaching, education and Bildung, as the most fundamental phenomenon in the field of school, are complicated practical activities in school education. School is a special place in which independently institutionalized and artificially organized educational practice takes place. There are many different theories and opinions on the goals and tasks of schools. However, it is undeniable that, whatever kind of school missions and purposes, it must be realized via learning, the most fundamental educational phenomenon and practice. On the basis of critical combing of the classical learning theory of psychology, this paper attempts to elaborate a new understanding of "learning" from the perspective of phenomenology, especially body phenomenology. Firstly, learning is a social correlative practice that takes place in a specific context. We always learn from others and in front of others. Secondly, learning has a close relationship with experience. In essence, learning is Umlernen and reorganization of experience and the extension of experience horizon through the negative experience. Thirdly, learning must be based on the body (Leib) under the phenomenological perspective which is both active and passive.
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    Targeted Poverty Alleviation through Education: Long-term Effect of China’s “One Village One Preschool” Project on Rural Children’s Academic Achievements
    Zhao Chen, Chen Si, Cao Yan, Catherine Snow, Lu Mai
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (2): 114-125.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.02.011
    Abstract224)   HTML532)    PDF (834KB)(372)      
    In 2009, the China Development Research Foundation launched the government-supported public intervention, One Village One Preschool (OVOP) project, which provided access to early childhood education (ECE) to disadvantaged rural and minority children in central and western rural China. From 2009 to 2018, OVOP established about 2300 centers in ten provinces, enrolling over 170000 rural young children, free of charge for all. We analyzed longitudinal data collected from a sample of 1962 children in one county (comparing OVOP attendees to children with no ECE, private ECE, and public ECE), using an inverse probability weighting approach to reducing selection bias in evaluating the effects of OVOP on children’s academic achievement during the first 5 years of elementary school. We found that children who attended OVOP centers attained higher scores in elementary grades than children who received no ECE or attended private township ECE. However, OVOP children scored lower than children who went to well-resourced public township ECE. In addition, the OVOP children had similar growth rates to public-ECE children; both groups improved more quickly than children in the non-ECE or private-ECE group. We conclude with a discussion of the value of providing low-cost ECE to rural children in China.
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    How Technology Unlock the Potential of Lifelong Learners?-Dialogue on the Future Education and Learning Upgrading between Zhu Yongxin and John Couch
    Zhu Yongxin, John Couch
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (3): 1-15.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.03.001
    Abstract239)   HTML416)    PDF (630KB)(296)      
    How to use technology to unlock future education and learning? How to use the network to upgrade the current education system for digital natives to move from the original Project-Based Program to the current Challenge-Based Program? This is the future education topic that the academic circles of Chinese and American are concerned about. By comparing the historical traces and the actual dilemmas of education reform between China and America, it is found that the main reasons for the different forms of education reform between the two countries are culture and policy systems, but even so, the social and educational concerns of the two countries are changing from “teaching” to “learning”, education reform is becoming more and more dependent on people. Future education will develop towards educational ecosystem, integrated educational resources inside and outside the school, and constructing multi-learning centers. Constantly improving modern learning content and finding the best learning effect points is of great significance to promoting the development of future education and learning in China.
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    Reconstruction of the Jurisprudence of Student Discipline
    Guan Hua
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (3): 16-24.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.03.002
    Abstract216)   HTML389)    PDF (728KB)(202)      
    The legislation of students discipline is coming, however its jurisprudence needs to be reassessed. Theoretical paradigm should be based on Chinese education legislation, justice and administration. As the mainstream paradigm of state power expands, it faces difficulties and the paradigm of society power can offer further explanation more. The power of discipline is not from the policy of state developing education in Article 19 of the Chinese Constitution but from the right to education in Article 46 and the right of special protection in Article 49.
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    An Analysis of Teachers' Disciplinary Behavior and Its Regulation
    Hu Jinsong, Zhang Xiaowei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (3): 25-31.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.03.003
    Abstract173)   HTML174)    PDF (590KB)(182)      
    Educational punishment is a negative intervention measure implemented by schools or teachers to help students recognize their mistakes and correct their behavior. Even though the current education law is not explicitly stated, teachers' right to education and teaching can provide a legal basis for teachers to carry out punishment. Regulations can regulate school disciplinary behavior, but not teachers' disciplinary behavior. It may be a possible regulatory choice to learn from overseas experience and use administrative guidance or administrative orders to guide schools to make disciplinary rules for teachers, or directly authorize schools to make disciplinary rules for teachers. It conforms to the educational behavior attribute of teachers' punishment and respects teachers' professional rights.
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    Legal Nature of Educational Discipline in Universities
    Xu Jian
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (3): 32-41.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.03.004
    Abstract175)   HTML114)    PDF (571KB)(133)      
    The discipline is a blamable punishment for a person within a special status relationship. It can be divided into social punishment, administrative punishment, and disciplinary measures. In civil law countries, public universities are positioned as public installations or public corporations. Therefore, educational discipline is characterized as a disciplinary measure. In China, education law legislation positions universities as social subjects. So, in judicial practice, educational discipline is characterized as an administrative penalty authorized by law for universities. However, it cannot be explained why education punishment other than expulsion from school is not within the scope of administrative litigation. Educational discipline in universities should be classified as a (similar to) corporate punishment. The state can regulate the education discipline of colleges and universities through interventional legislation of severe discipline and prohibition of improper discipline.
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    Anticipating Other Worlds, Animating Our Selves: An Invitation to Comparative Education
    Iveta Silova
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (3): 42-56.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.03.005
    Abstract164)   HTML117)    PDF (1007KB)(139)      
    This article aims to reimagine education – and our selves – within the context of multiple, more-than-human worlds where everything and everyone (both human and non-human) are deeply interrelated. The aim is achieved by purposefully pursuing two speculative thought experiments – an epistemological and an ontological “regressions” – to connect and bring into conversation seemingly unrelated knowledge systems across space and time – European “paganism” and 13th century Japanese Buddhism, as well as excerpts from indigenous, ecofeminist, and decolonial scholarship. These speculative thought experiments are conducted through a series of “and if” questions around education and schooling, occasionally interrupted by shadows of butterflies fluttering at the edge of extinction. The article proposes to radically reimagine education in two ways. First, it invites readers to reconfigure education as a “connective tissue” between different worlds, bringing together rather than differentiating, ranking, and hierarchizing them. Second, it proposes to reframe education as an opportunity to learn how to anticipate and animate our ongoing entanglement with more-than-human worlds. This entails reframing learning as encountering and encountering as learning through comparison “otherwise”. Using the concept of “metamorphosis” as an antidote to Western metaphysics, the article re-situates education within a wider set of possibilities in relation to the taken-for-granted ways of knowing and being, as well as the notions of space and time.
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    On Building the Classroom Culture
    Zhu Xudong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (3): 57-70.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.03.006
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    The article makes the proposition of urgency and necessity of building the classroom culture in support of the education reform. It first constructs the connotation of the classroom culture, then discusses the values of building the classroom culture, and finally puts forwards the approaches to building culture of the classroom.
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    A Study of the Warning Mechanism and the Ideal Matching Pattern between Sleep Time and Academic Achievement of High-school Students
    Liu Jian, Zhao Liman, Du Xiaofeng, Xu Guanxing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (3): 71-79.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.03.007
    Abstract173)   HTML187)    PDF (655KB)(257)      
    Based on the survey of education quality in high schools in S province in China, a quantitative method is applied in this research to explore the ideal matching pattern between sleep time and high academic performance of high-school students. A multi-level warning mechanism is established for schools that sacrifice students' sleep time in pursuit of high academic achievement. The results show that “students with the highest scores when they slept for eight hours or more” was the ideal matching pattern for high-schools to ensure the healthy development of students and maintain a sound educational environment; more than 60% of schools in S province have unbalanced relationship between academic performance and sleep time. It's suggested that the administrative bodies, schools and teachers and parents should hold positive values and understand the relationship between students' sleep time and academic performance. Multi-level warning mechanisms should be in place to supervise and warn schools that blindly pursue high scores at the cost of students' sleep time.
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    Trend in Science of Learning in Latest Two Decades: Based on a Textual Analysis of Report Series of How People Learn
    Xu Guangtao, Xu Zuodong, Li Yingming, Huang Jianlan, Li Yao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (3): 80-92.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.03.008
    Abstract163)   HTML130)    PDF (1140KB)(221)      
    The report series of How People Learn incorporate insights gained from research conducted in the past decades and inspire researchers of science of learning all over the world. To examine the veins in recent two decades, analyze the change of its focus, and understand the trend of science of learning, this paper conducts a textual analysis of the two editions of How People Learn. The analysis produced data of more than a thousand word frequency. The result is presented in tables and “Word-Cloud” picture. Based on the analysis, we conclude that the newer report answering How People Learn in a wider dimension than the older, expanding the category of learners, transcending single learning space, reflecting technological development, highlighting the inter-disciplinary feature, and further exploring the nature of learning.
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    How to Improve Students' Academic Performance: A Perspective of Learning and Teaching Strategies
    Tang Yipeng, Wang Chuang, Hu Yongmei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (3): 93-105.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.03.009
    Abstract292)   HTML199)    PDF (827KB)(289)      
    From the perspective of learning and teaching strategies, and based on a large-scale evaluation data of a province in eastern China, this paper explores what kind of teaching and learning strategies can more effectively improve the academic performance of primary and secondary school students. The results of the multi-level linear regression models show that cognitive strategies (CS), metacognitive strategies (MS) and inquiry strategies (IS) can significantly improve students' performance, among which CS have the greatest effect; individualized teaching strategies (ITS), participatory teaching strategies (PTS) and guided-inquiry teaching strategies (GTS) can significantly improve students' performance, and GTS have the greatest effect. The quasi-experimental design of CEM shows that teaching strategies can significantly promote the improvement of various learning strategies, especially for primary students' CS and MS and junior students' MS.
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    Reviewing and Reappraising: Piaget's Genetic Constructivism and Learning Theory from his Perspective
    Bai Qian, Feng Youmei, Shen Shusheng, Li Yi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (3): 106-116.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.03.010
    Abstract186)   HTML120)    PDF (634KB)(299)      
    In genetic theory, Piaget's genetic constructivism of knowledge concept can be explained from two perspectives: From the perspective of the occurrence and construction of knowledge, knowledge and thinking are concomitant and develop together, with internal consistency. Knowledge is subordinate to thinking, and thinking is based on knowledge. In fact, they are two aspects of the state and process of the occurrence of knowledge. From the perspective of the occurrence and construction of structure, the occurrence of knowledge is the occurrence of knowledge structure which is caused by the occurrence of thinking. While knowledge structure is subordinate to thinking structure, the level of thinking determines the status and level of knowledge structure, and the realization of thinking is based on the knowledge structure. It's found that constructivism learning theory only inherited Piaget's “construction”, but missed the essence of “genetic”, thus ignoring the process of knowledge occurrence for learning theory, and eventually missing the in-depth understanding of the generation and development of knowledge. Re-examining the learning theory in the light of Piaget's genetic constructivism helps to gain new enlightenment on the concept of knowledge, learning and teaching.
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    Targeted Poverty Alleviation through Education: A Study of Myopia Among Rural Students in China and Prevention and Control Policy Recommendations
    Zhao Jin, Wang Huan, Guan Hongyu, Shi Yaojiang, Robin Li, Scott Rozelle
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (3): 117-125.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.03.011
    Abstract194)   HTML177)    PDF (715KB)(179)      
    Providing vision care to students in rural areas may serve the purpose of poverty alleviation by improving education and health. This study aims to provide a comprehensive review of myopia studies among rural students in China and offer policy recommendations for the national myopia prevention and control plan under “Targeted poverty alleviation through education”. The results show that in rural China, 25% of primary school students and 50% of lower secondary school students are myopic. Moreover, more than 70% of rural myopic students suffer from uncorrected vision, which negatively affects student academic performance and mental health. Correcting myopia also has a significant positive impact on student academic achievement. Studies show that vision screening is an effective way to identify myopia among rural students. Providing subsidies for the families of myopic students to obtain eyeglasses, and providing incentives to teachers, can significantly improve the uptake and usage rates of eyeglasses. A county hospital-based vision center may be an effective platform for reducing children's visual impairment in rural China.
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    An Empirical Study on Graduates’ Employment: Based on 2019 National Survey
    Yue Changjun, Xia Jie, Qiu Wenqi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (4): 1-17.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.04.001
    Abstract332)   HTML452)    PDF (794KB)(294)      
    Based on the sample data from 2019 National Survey of 32 universities in 17 provinces and cities, this paper conducts an empirical analysis on the employment of college graduates. It is found that: (1) The overall placement rate of college graduates in 2019 is 80.1%. Compared with 2017, the proportion of graduates in employment declines, while proportions of waiting for employment and going to college increase, making employment more difficult. (2) From the perspective of employment distribution, graduates still prefer to work in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and other cities in eastern China. The proportion working in large and medium-sized cities exceeds 80%. Education and private enterprises absorb the most graduates. (3) Human capital is still an important factor affecting college graduates' job-hunting outcomes and starting salary. Meanwhile, family background, school background and labor market differences between regions and industries also have a significant impact on graduates' job hunting, starting salary and job satisfaction.
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    From Ethnic Education to Cross-border Open Education: Transformation of Cross-border Ethnic Education under the Belt and Road Initiative
    Chen Shijian, Wang Yuan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (4): 18-29.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.04.002
    Abstract166)   HTML298)    PDF (646KB)(136)      
    Under the Belt and Road Initiative, the cross-border ethnic education is endowed with new connotation. It is necessary to construct innovative values for cross-border ethnic education, which is not only to build a regional educational development community to promote the development of cross-border ethnic education or strengthen the multilateral cooperation to drive the development of education, but also to strengthen the common understanding of peace and cooperation to safeguard social prosperity and stability in border areas, maintain social prosperity and stability in border areas or promote interconnection with the people of neighboring countries. With the development of the Belt and Road Initiative, the cross-border ethnic education has changed and presents new characteristics. Firstly, the content system has evolved to diversity. Secondly, the mode of development has become active and advanced. Thirdly, the function of cross-border ethnic education orients to service domestic and aboard. Therefore, in order to further promote the sustainable development of cross border ethnic education in the new era, it is necessary to reconstruct the structural system and enhance the quality of cross border ethnic education and build the education centers along the Belt and Road. Also, various social forces should be united to promote the coordinated development of cross-border ethnic education and society; information technology should be integrated into educational area to support the information exchange and of cross-border ethnic education.
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    An Empirical Study on the Relationship between International Students from Countries along The Belt and Road and China’s Foreign Direct Investment
    Cai Wenno, Yan Jiali
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (4): 30-39.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.04.003
    Abstract150)   HTML174)    PDF (856KB)(178)      
    Based on the 2006—2017 study period, the PVAR model used the study to empirically analyze the number of international students from 44 sample countries along the Belt and Road route and the ongoing impact of China's direct investment in China. On the whole, there is a significant interdependence between the two. The results show that the growth of OFDI scale has a significantly positive impact on the inflow of international students in the countries along the route in the short term, which is a strong driving force for the further development of the relationship between the two countries and has a certain guiding effect. The overall quality is not high and its economic contribution rate is low. While OFDI expansion has a certain pull for its own further development, the motivation is not enough,Influenced by the internationalization level of higher education in China, and the status of the international value chain and other factors, the contribution of bilateral talent stock to attracting international students to come to China is limited. Therefore, the study holds that the government should reasonably evaluate the investment environment of the countries along the route and intensively operate the OFDI development model for the optimization of the location resource structure and improve the global value chain. At the same time, it’s important to set up an international talent exchange system and improve the quality assurance system of study international education for, the development of China's core competitiveness of human resources.
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    The Macro Logic of University Personnel System Reform and the Micro-Action of Teachers’ Academic Work: The Game between Audit Culture and Academic Culture
    Lin Xiaoying, Xue Ying
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (4): 40-61.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.04.004
    Abstract134)   HTML164)    PDF (986KB)(168)      
    Since 2014, the comprehensive education reform plan of Chinese universities takes the reform of teachers’ personnel system as its breakthrough, hoping to achieve the goal of building a world-class university. The logic of the reform is to start with the hypothesis of economic man, attract talents with high salary and stimulate output, and conduct market competition through performance appraisal and elimination system, so as to stimulate the academic vitality and output efficiency of teachers. This is the ideal picture of academic production projected by the reform of personnel system, and also the typical performance of audit culture entering into higher education. However, through the analysis of teachers’ behavior strategies in the promotion of professional titles, it is found that the incentive of taking benefits as exchange conditions and rewards and punishments as incentives will not only erode teachers’ pure love for learning, but also damage the good academic environment and academic culture, resulting in incalculable and permanent internal injuries. The dislocation between the macro logic of the school and the micro action of the teachers is the collision and competition between the audit culture from the management perspective and the academic culture from the individual perspective. The macro logic of personnel reform policy requires a lot of transparent information, but it destroys the most valuable trust in academic culture. Facing the compulsory accountability of audit culture in higher education, we need to redefine the key concepts of “university quality” and “academic competitiveness” from the perspective of academic culture, so that they can reflect the significance of academic community.
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    Non-academic Impact of Scientific Research and its Assessment: What, Why and How?
    Wang Nan, Luo Junwen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (4): 62-71.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.04.005
    Abstract135)   HTML114)    PDF (634KB)(152)      
    Non-academic impact of scientific research is assessed by their contribution outside academia to the whole society, economy, culture, public policy, health care, environment and life quality of citizens etc. In recent years, some international cases have demonstrated the transformation of evaluation paradigm of scientific research, with a new dimension of impact assessment which focuses on comprehensive impact involving both academic and non-academic. With the evolution of science and society, impact assessment of scientific research is increasingly valued which follows the logic of knowledge production, facilitates public accountability, and helps strengthen social responsibility of researchers. So far, the three main methods of impact assessment are metrics (e.g. econometrics, altermetrics), filed investigations (e.g. survey, interview) and case studies which complement to one anther. We recommend involving non-academic impact assessment in China's reforming evaluation system of scientific research so that more diverse contribution of research to the whole economy and society can be made, together with increased awareness of social responsibility of researchers and improved research environment.
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    Development of Assessment Tool of Learning Progressions: Taking Primary School Students’ Statistical Thinking Test for Example
    Li Huaxia, Song Naiqing, Yang Tao, Xin Tao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (4): 72-82.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.04.006
    Abstract203)   HTML161)    PDF (816KB)(314)      
    Learning progressions can describe the trajectory of students’ thinking development and reveal students’ learning patterns, but the development of assessment tool restricts its research and application. This article takes primary school students’ statistical thinking test for example to develop the assessment tool of learning progressions.The methodology involves learning progressions research framework, building the theory hypothesis of primary school students’ learning progressions of statistical thinking, collection of problem sets, item quality analysis, verification by students’ performance. The results indicate that the leaning progressions theory hypothesis of primary school students’ statistical thinking is basically in accordance with the students’ performance, and this paradigm can provide more reference for teaching and students’ thinking. Also, it can help discover new learning patterns from a new perspective.
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    An Empirical Research Based on Word Association Tests: The Development of Learning Concepts among Chinese Students from the Perspective of “Virtue and Mind Model”
    Gao Ruixiang, Zeng Qiyuan, Fan Zhiling, Wu Jiazheng, Li Yina, Fan Yinqing, Mo Lei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (4): 83-95.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.04.007
    Abstract169)   HTML111)    PDF (1073KB)(161)      
    Students’ learning concepts, i.e., epistemological beliefs about learning from emic perspective, have resulted from their intuition about learning phenomena and the experience. In the late 20th century, Chinese American Professor Jin Li conducted systematic research on structural differences between Western and East Asian learning concept models, using adult college students as subjects and Word Association Tests. She concluded that Western way of learning emphasizes on “Mind Orientation” while Chinese or Asian learning model focuses on “Virtue Orientation”. We examined the development of learning concepts among Chinese students ranging from first graders of primary school to college juniors, with some amendments to Li’s methods. The result shows that Chinese learning concepts evolve with age from “Virtue Only Model” to “Virtue and Mind Model”. This is because virtue-oriented learning tradition is deeply rooted in today’s Chinese students, but global cultural integration and modern education system have also brought about increasing element of mind model. For the foreseeable future, the gap between Virtue and Mind models is sure to be narrowed and even eliminated. And the ideal education vision of learning model should pay balanced attention to both virtue and mind.
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    The State, Guild and Labour in the Process of Skill Formation: A Sociological Approach to the Evolution of Appenticeship in England
    Wang Xing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (4): 96-106.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.04.008
    Abstract143)   HTML115)    PDF (732KB)(177)      
    The apprenticeship system of England was working from 12th century to 20th century. The process of its evolution can be divided into three stages, namely handicraft period, state intervention period, and industry revolution period. During the handicraf period, the apprenticeship system was embeded into the social relationship between master class and apprentice class, thus building the social base for its skill formation. The power of free market changed this kind of social base, and the mode of merchant dominated production meant the change of production relationship. This also led to the stratification of master class. During the industry revolution, the regulation power of apprenticeship moved from guild to skilled trade union. The apprenticeship was reduced to the tool of labour conflict. In conclusion, the failure of apprenticeship resulted from the change of social class structure in England rather than technical innovation.
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    The Dilemma and Orientation of Rural Vocational Education Development under the Rural Revitalization Strategy
    Qi Zhanyong, Wang Zhiyuan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (4): 107-117.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.04.009
    Abstract169)   HTML113)    PDF (781KB)(184)      
    Rural revitalization strategy is an important policy in China in the new era. To support rural revitalization, rural career education plays a crucial role in promoting people’s self-realization, preventing the intergenerational transmission of poverty, developing rural industry and facilitating agricultural and rural modernization. However, rural vocational education is challenged by some practical dilemmas: the acceleration of agricultural modernization versus the malfunction of rural vocational education, the transitional employment of rural population versus the deficient rural vocational education, the traditional “jumping the agricultural gate” versus deviation of rural vocational education, the aging rural population versus lagged rural vocational education, and so on. Facing the mission of revitalizing rural areas, the functional orientation of rural vocational education should meet the needs of agricultural and rural modernization in the new era. Moreover, the survival foundation should involve conserving the gene of local culture, while the cultivation should precisely target new professional farmers, and the supply and demand adaptation should constantly tap the dividend of aging population.
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    Analytical Framework and Action Paradigm of Education’s Response to Public Crisis: Based on the Outbreak of COVID-19
    Lin Kesong, Zhu Dequan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (4): 118-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.04.010
    Abstract222)   HTML109)    PDF (640KB)(273)      
    The ability of coping with public crises is an important consideration for measuring the modernization level of education governance. Systematically, there are three links of action paradigm in education’s response to public crisis: execution and introspection and a six-dimensional action scale: professional degree, recognition degree, synergy degree, innovation degree, awareness degree and promotion degree. In response to the outbreak of COVID-19 crisis, education encounters challenges in design, execution and introspection, such as the consensus crisis like “keeping on studying while schools are closed”, the absence of cognition and ability of online teaching and the lack of imagination of “epidemic education”. In the post epidemic era,to improve the ability of coping with public crises, it's necessary to build a normalized public crisis response mechanism, establish a timely public crisis information communication mechanism and a diversified public crisis governance participation mechanism. Also it's important to implement a precise improving mechanism of online-education quality, develop a multidimensional public crisis reflection mechanism and implement a capacity building mechanism of progressive public crisis.
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    Educating Students for Their Future, Rather than Our Past
    Andreas Schleicher
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (5): 1-21.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.05.001
    Abstract372)   HTML623)    PDF (1145KB)(409)      
    This chapter reviews some of the changes in the demand for knowledge and skills that are placed on young people to be successful in their future, and then examines what this entails for teaching, teachers and the work organisation in education. The chapter also acknowledges that the laws, regulations, structures and institutions on which educational leaders tend to focus are just like the small visible tip of an iceberg. The reason why it is so hard to move school systems is that there is a much larger invisible part under the waterline. This invisible part is about the interests, beliefs, motivations and fears of the people who are involved in education, parents and teachers included. To address this, the final part of the chapter examines issues around the political economy of changes in education to facilitate this, including incentives to encourage innovation and the need to redesign assessment.
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    New Findings in Reading Literacy Assessment among Students in the Four Provinces/Municipalities of China in PISA 2018
    Chen Chunjin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (5): 22-62.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.05.002
    Abstract263)   HTML409)    PDF (5176KB)(349)      
    Adolescents’ reading literacy is affected by both ascribed and self-achieved characteristics,while the research on the heterogeneity effects of the ascribed and self-achieved factors is insufficient. Based on the data from Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in the four provinces/municipalities of Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang in 2018, this paper used the methods of Shapley value decomposition, quantile regression model, and structural equation model, aimed to examine the impact of ascribed and self-achieved factors on students’ reading literacy. The study finds that: (1) the effect of ascribed factors on the students’ reading literacy is significantly lower than the self-achieved factors. Using effective reading meta-cognitive strategies, keeping positive self-expectations and strong enjoyment of reading are the key elements of higher reading performance of students in the four provinces/municipalities of China. (2) The impact of family background on students’ reading literacy is heterogeneous at different stages of education, different types of schools, and different regions. (3) Self-achieved factors such as meta-cognitive strategies and reading enjoyment are more significant for students’ reading performance in upper secondary level, vocational schools, and rural areas. (4) The effects of family background on students’ reading literacy in different quantiles is lower at both ends and higher at the middle, especially for students in the 50th quantile who have the greatest influence on reading literacy. (5) Compared to understanding and remembering strategies and summarizing strategies, assess credibility strategies had a higher positive effect on students’ reading literacy in low quantiles. (6) Obsessed with digital reading or paranoid about printed reading is not the most effective reading habit. Read books equally often in paper format and on digital devices were more conducive to improving students’ reading literacy, and significantly reduced the effects of family background. These findings indicate that the key to improving adolescents’ reading literacy lies in cultivating adolescents to grasp diversified meta-cognitive strategies, strengthen the construction of communities with home-school cooperation, and promote the deep integration of digital reading and printed reading.
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    Learning Beyond School Walls in Times of Inequality
    Yang Po
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (5): 63-77.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.05.003
    Abstract208)   HTML138)    PDF (1044KB)(257)      
    Against the background of the parallel development of economic inequality, equalization of compulsory education, and growth of online technology, private tutoring enters a new era, characterized by extensive and intensive household participation. It has gradually transformed into a new form of out-of-school learning, provided by the government and the market. Such learning activities are governed by micro-, meso-, and macro-level factors. There are three new trends in this field. First, the equalization policy for basic education and the stratification strategy for tertiary education have jointly pushed the basic education competition out of the school wall. Second, income inequality forces parents to increase their time and financial inputs, and thus the intensive parenting spreads out globally. Third, internet technology removes household’s barriers to participate in after-school learning, and increase their choice. The interactions among the policy, the culture, and the technology facilitate the institutionalization of learning beyond school walls. One significant consequence of such transformation is that the low-level equilibrium, characterized by high within school competition, low outside-school competition, and low-level private tutoring, is replaced by a new high-level equilibrium, characterized by low within school competition, high outside-school competition, and high-level private tutoring. In the post-tutoring era, learning beyond school walls is turning into a major instrument for social mobility and stratification. As such, the government needs to adjust its understanding and take the responsibility of closing the class divide in out-of-school learning opportunities.
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    Online Tutoring or Offline Tutoring: Evidence from Family Decisions on Private Tutoring
    Tang Rongrong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (5): 78-92.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.05.004
    Abstract228)   HTML138)    PDF (791KB)(247)      
    Today, with the institutionalization of shadow education, it is common for pupils to attend supplementary lessons, but the existing literature lacks discussion on the forms of tutoring. This article focuses on famil’s choice of the forms of tutoring, trying to explore the relationship between online tutoring and offline tutoring. The analysis of China Family Online Tutoring Survey conducted by CIEFR in 2018 indicates that, on the one hand, online tutoring and offline tutoring, as supplementary education choices, are subjected to parent’ education levels and expectations. On the other hand, some factors with significant impact on offline tutoring have no significant effect on online tutoring, mainly in terms of distance and income. This reflects the fact that online tutoring can reduce transportation costs and search costs, thereby lowering the threshold of household tutoring consumption and making the distribution of educational resources less uneven. Further analysis shows that, pupils participating in offline tutoring are more likely to attend online tutoring as well, both from a financial-constraint and a demand-satisfaction perspective. In other words, when parents make their tutoring decisions, they do not choose between offline and online . Instead, they choose both, which confirms the popularization of private tutoring.
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    Does Private Tutoring Help High School Students Gain Higher Education Opportunity?
    Xue Haiping, Zhao Yang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (5): 93-102.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.05.005
    Abstract266)   HTML137)    PDF (792KB)(230)      
    Based on the four-year mixed cross-section data of the Peking University Chinese Family Tracking Survey in 2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016, a structural equation model was used to test the intermediary effect of private tutoring and the quality of general high schools between family capital and higher education opportunities. The findings show that: (1) participating in private tutoring can help high school students get into college, but it cannot help them to further into undergraduate colleges; studying in general high schools with high teaching quality can help high school students go to college and get into undergraduate college; (2) high school students’ participation in private tutoring and school quality differences play a part of the intermediary role between family capital and whether they are admitted to university. The intermediary role of participating in private tutoring is slightly greater than that of school quality differences; The difference in school quality between general high schools played an intermediary role between family capital and whether they were promoted to undergraduate colleges, while private tutoring did not play an intermediary role between family capital and whether they were promoted to undergraduate colleges.
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    In-school or Out-of-school: Household Spending on Children’s Basic Education in China
    Wei Yi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (5): 103-116.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.05.006
    Abstract326)   HTML123)    PDF (738KB)(457)      
    Using national data from 2017 CIEFR-HS, we first examine the full cost of household expenditure on children’s education and the structure of in-school and out-of-school education expenditure. Second, we take advantage of the detailed information about household education expenditures, including those that occurred within and outside schools, to examine how families’ marginal propensity to spend on education-related items and activities varies across household income, mother’s education level, and residency groups. On average, families spend over 10000 yuan on education per student per academic year, covering about 16% of annual household consumption. About one-third of the household spending on education is spent outside school. The analysis of the marginal propensity to spend on education shows that families with higher income, families with better educated mothers, families with only one girl, and families with urban hukou tend to increase their spending on education when the total household consumption increases, especially on in-school developmental spending and private supplementary education. In conclusion, the level and structure of in-school and out-of-school spending for children from different families have become more stratified.
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    Textual Research and Explanation of “Textbook”
    Wu Xiao'ou
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (5): 117-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.05.007
    Abstract197)   HTML111)    PDF (769KB)(304)      
    In 1866, ‘text-book’ was first introduced into China in the English and Chinese Dictionary edited by a German missionary Wilhelm Lobscheid, but it was not translated to ‘Jiaokeshu’. The Chinese word ‘Jiaokeshu’ appeared in the Meiji Restoration period of Japan and was introduced to China by Huang Zunxian in the Annals of Japan in 1887. In 1896, Kang Youwei listed 59 textbooks in the Bibliography of Japan. In 1899, Bai Zuolin, a normal university student of Nanyang Mission College, wrote an article named Advice on Compiling Textbooks. At the beginning of the 20th century, textbooks became the major concern of China’s educational reform. Luo Zhenyu, Xia Xiefu, Yan Fu, Zhang Zhidong, and others held a special discussion on textbook system and its implementation. A series of folk textbooks were published. In 1904, a textbook review and approval system was established. The popularity of the word ‘Jiaokeshu’ in China is a sign of cultural progress, which highlights the value and growing space of modern education. ‘Jiao’ emphasizes the method, order and volumn of teaching, ‘Ke’ stresses the classification, system and arrangement of knowledge, and ‘Shu’ clarifies the style, norms and copyright of compilation. ‘Jiaokeshu’, as a conceptual tool and ideological resource, determines the logical relation of the essence by its literal meaning. It sets a clear boundary, norm and framework for modern education. It has also laid down a new ‘cultural infrastructure’ for Chinese society and become the keyword of modern China’s enlightenment.
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    Establishing Computational Education Subject: Position, Paradigm and System
    Zheng Yonghe, Yan Xiaomei, Wang Jingying, Wang Yangchunxiao, Liu Shiyu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (6): 1-19.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.06.001
    Abstract154)   HTML500)    PDF (1309KB)(209)      
    The emergence of big data and the development of smart technology have promoted the intelligent educational practice and the systematic change of its research paradigm. The development of computing theories, technology and big data in education laid the foundations for computational education. Based on the analysis framework of subject construction, computational education is a new subject which use computing technology on quantified educational data to explore the real problems in education. It values practices and cross-disciplinary research. It has a unique research paradigm, based on computing techniques, shifting from top-down research tradition to combined research methods. Nowadays, the main research methods include both computing simulation experiments and data-intensive scientific discovery. This paper argues that computational education still lacks knowledge construction and social construction of the subject. It then puts forward a framework for systematized construction of subject knowledge from the aspects of breakthrough in subject theory and key technologies, research paradigm and generation of subject knowledge, interactive environment and construction of teaching application, and also from the aspects of building professional societies, personnel training plans and academic evaluation. Finally, some constructional suggestions on the subject development of computational education in China are put forward. It is not limited to the development of educational research paradigm based on data science. As an independent, emerging and application-oriented interdisciplinary discipline, computational education needs to systematically strengthen basic theoretical research, applied research, establish professional societies and an integrated platform of production, learning, research and use, and gather the strength of all sectors of society to promote the development of this subject.
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    The Influence of the College Entrance Examination Reform on Freshman’s Academic Adaptation: Inhibition or Promotion?
    Bao Wei, Jin Honghao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (6): 20-33.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.06.002
    Abstract181)   HTML403)    PDF (817KB)(258)      
    In 2014, the Chinese government initiated the college entrance examination reform (CEE reform). Aiming at promoting student’s transition from high school to college, the CEE reform tries to reconstruct high school students’ academic experience and strengthen competency-based education. Based on the national college student development survey data, this paper examines the impact of the CEE reform on freshmen's academic adaptation using PSM-DID method. The data analysis found that the academic performance of the freshmen from Zhejiang and Shanghai has slightly declined due to the impact of the CEE reform on their academic foundation in high schools. With the strengthening of career education in the high school, the CEE reform has significantly improved the interest-major congruence of freshmen. In addition, the impact of the CEE reform on freshmen's academic adaptation is heterogeneous. For freshmen from rural areas with weak educational resources, the decline of their academic adaptation is more significant compared to their counterparts.
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    A Discussion on Scoring and Adjusting Methods for Elective Subjects of College Entrance Examination in China
    Wen Zhonglin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (6): 34-42.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.06.003
    Abstract124)   HTML117)    PDF (631KB)(136)      
    There are elective subjects in the new schemes of college entrance examination in China. However the original scores of different elective subjects are incomparable because the group ability of candidates and the difficulty of test paper may vary from subject to subject. Paper difficulty of each subject is set at the same level when using the standardized scores or grades with preset percentage to elective subjects, but the group ability of candidates is also set at the same level at the same time, which brings about a series of problems. The problems are discussed in detail for several typical schemes of college entrance examination in China. A feasible way to solve the problems is to statistically adjust the scores of each elective subject according to candidates’ scores of compulsory subjects. In addition, several issues about the score adjustment in elective subject are addressed. The adjustment procedure might be designed very simply and easy to understand. A special case is that on the basis of grades with preset percentage, candidates can only upgrade, not downgrade.
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    What Kind of Failure is the Mother of Success?—Instructional Design of STEM under the Perspective of Productive Failure
    Liu Hui, Yang Jiaxin, Xu Lingling, Zhang Peng, Wang Siyan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (6): 43-69.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.06.004
    Abstract196)   HTML127)    PDF (3595KB)(340)      
    As a productive way to cultivate innovation, STEM has drawn a lot of attention domestically and abroad. However, there are few research on STEM instructional design and there are also many misunderstandings in practice. In the STEM class, students often face so demanding tasks that failure is inevitable. However, failure provides us a perspective to study STEM instructional design. In this paper, we use a design-based research method to iterate the theoretical prototype in practice and constructe a productive guiding paradigm of STEM. Then we compare three types of teaching, from which it is found that the productive guiding type is significantly better than the unsupervised and guided in the migration effect. At the same time, the four types of behaviors including productive failure, productive success, unproductive failure and unproductive success are coded to further clarify the connotation of different behavior types, thus deepening the understanding of failure and success. Effective class behavior can promote migration, while effective class behavior occurs in the effective guidance type. Our study develops Kapur’s theory of productive failure, and puts forward suggestions for STEM instructional design from the aspects of goal, evaluation and process, which have enlightenments for STEM teaching and the competency-oriented teaching reform at present.
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    Identifying the “Best Evidence”: How to Use Meta-analysis to Conduct a Literature Review—A Case of STEM Education’s Effect on Students’ Academic Achievement
    Zeng Zhaobing, Yao Jijun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (6): 70-85.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.06.005
    Abstract190)   HTML177)    PDF (874KB)(246)      
    Compared with the method of traditional subjective literature review, meta-analysis is more objective, normative, and can effectively sort out general conclusion from existing empirical researches. Therefore, it has become an important method to identify the “best evidence” in the process of evidence-based educational reform. So far there are few educational studies in China using the meta-analysis method to review the empirical literatures. In view of this, this research analyzes the impact of STEM education on students’ academic achievement as an example of how to use meta-analysis to synthesise existing empirical research. We found: 1) STEM education is conductive to students academic achievements (d=0.410); 2) factors like educational methods, students’ educational stage, location and sample size can affect the effects. The study provides the general evidence of effects of STEM education and explores how to obtain reliable evidence through a literature review to support educational reform.
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    Parental Generational Tenure in the Family Structure of Left-behind Children
    Wu Chonghan, Qi Wunian
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (6): 86-101.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.06.006
    Abstract126)   HTML100)    PDF (767KB)(204)      
    Social economic transformation and urban-rural dual structure, as well as the transfer of rural labor force to cities have led to the widespread phenomenon of rural left-behind families and intergenerational upbringing. However, the absence or separation of parents does not necessarily lead to the absence of parental rearing or break-up of parent-child relationship. The subjective perspective transcends the presupposition of binary opposition, creating its own history in the structure. Through the edification of social culture, the perception of parent-child relationship, and the substitution of important others in schools and communities, left-behind children develop a cognitive schema of parental generational tenure based on their own perspectives. The structure of parental generational tenure in children can be divided into three levels, Basic Level (symbolizing parents and transcendental parents), Core Level (concrete parents and responsible parents), Support Level (guardian’s maintenance of parent’s role and the important position of acting parent). Such an interpretation framework of parental generational tenure from a child’s perspective has an important enlightenment, for schools to communicate and cooperate with families of Left-behind children, and for rational choice of methods of family education for left-behind children.
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    Urbanization and Human Capital: Early Childhood Development in Rural China
    Zhang Siqi, Shi Yaojiang, Wang Lei, Yang Ning, Liu Buyao, Dang Ruirui, Bai Yu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (6): 102-115.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.06.007
    Abstract145)   HTML118)    PDF (883KB)(194)      
    Human capital is an important driver of economic growth in the process of urbanization. It is important to improve early childhood development (ECD) since ECD is essential for human capital accumulation. In the process of human capital accumulation, parenting practices play a very important role in ECD. Using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III (BSID-III) and household survey form, we examine the rates of developmental delays among 6-36 months old infant/toddler in four major types of rural communities in China. We also explore the relationship between parenting practices and ECD. The results show that: 1) the shares of developmental delays are high in our samples; 2) only a small share of caregivers engages in the interactive parenting practices with their infant/toddler; 3) interactive parenting practices are significantly and negatively associated with developmental delays. Under the background of urbanization, early childhood development in rural communities urgently requires more attention if China hopes to build up enough human capital towards a high-income economy.
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    Thinking Under COVID-19: Life Principle and Life Education —Dialogues between He Huaihong, Gao Desheng and Ma Guochuan
    He Huaihong, Gao Desheng, Ma Guochuan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (6): 116-125.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.06.008
    Abstract190)   HTML137)    PDF (534KB)(211)      
    On February 27, 2020, Mr. He Huaihong was interviewed by Mr. Ma Guochuan, exploring the life philosophy under COVID-19. The interview, titled Always Prioritizing Life Principle, soon became popular online. The topic is closely related to education. Rethinking school education, we can see quite a few drawbacks. Therefore, the Journal of East China Normal University (Educational Sciences) invites Prof. Gao Desheng to join Mr. Ma and Mr. He in a further and detailed dialogue based on the interview, and thus the article, which is published here to enhance the practice and thinking on life principle and education in the education community and beyond.
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    Stage Characteristics of Large-Scale Online Teaching in Chinese Universities:Empirical Research Based on Group Investigation of Students, Faculty and Academic Staff
    Wu Daguang, Li Wen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (7): 1-30.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.07.001
    Abstract325)   HTML602)    PDF (2494KB)(399)      
    In order to fully understand the online teaching of colleges and universities in China during the coronavirus pneumonia epidemic in 2020, the online teaching research group of the Teacher Development Center of Xiamen University launched a questionnaire survey on online teaching. A total of 334 universities, 13,997 teachers and 256,504 students participated in the survey. The survey results show that the first large-scale online teaching in China has achieved or its intended purpose. It is a successful online teaching practice, which has important reference for the construction of colleges and universities in the post-epidemic era and the realization of blended teaching. However, due to the epidemic situation, the current large-scale online teaching, has shown many stage-specific characteristics in teachers’ and students’ preparation, teaching platform support, online services provided by the university, online teaching modes and features, online teaching effectiveness, the main factors affecting online teaching, the problems of online teaching, the challenges faced by teachers and students, and the suggestions for teachers and students to improve their online teaching and learning. In the long run, these staged characteristics leave room for promoting the subsequent teaching reform. Drawing on these phased features, this article proposes five relationships that need to be dealt with correctly from the perspective of education informatization in the post-epidemic era: the relationship between planning and market allocation of online teaching resources, hardware construction and teaching beliefs, fairness and efficiency, the understanding and practice of different subjects, and domestic practice and international experience.
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    How Online Teaching Can Help College Classroom Revolution:Understanding Large-Scale Online Teaching Under Epidemic Situation
    Liu Zhentian, Liu Qiang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (7): 31-41.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.07.002
    Abstract204)   HTML439)    PDF (654KB)(278)      
    The online teaching survey conducted by the Teacher Development Center of Xiamen University during the epidemic period shows that the large-scale practice of online teaching in colleges and universities during the epidemic period has injected new tools, new ideas and new vitality into the traditional teaching, promoting a profound ideological innovation to the view of time and space, teaching, knowledge and governance of school education and teaching, and showed the light of hope of the classroom revolution in colleges and universities. At the same time, there are still many inherent limitations of online teaching in the classroom revolution, such as the hinderance of traditional teaching, the fragmentation of online learning, the dispelling of one-way education to spiritual growth, etc., which restrict the value release of online teaching in colleges and universities to the classroom revolution. Looking ahead, colleges and universities should grasp the trend of the vigorous development of internet information technology, comprehensively deepen the integration of information technology and school education, promote the reconstruction of school education and teaching ecology, promote the deep reform of teaching paradigm, and realize the revolution of teaching, learning and governance.
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    Research on Contributing Factors of University Students’ Online Learning Experience
    Chen Wuyuan, Jia Wenjun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (7): 42-53.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.07.003
    Abstract266)   HTML420)    PDF (3845KB)(326)      
    College students are the major subject of online learning, and to some extent, their online learning experience reflects teaching results and satisfactions. This study is based on the online teaching survey (student paper) compiled by the online teaching task group of the Teacher Development Center of Xiamen University. With a sample of 209099 valid student questionnaires from 334 universities in China the study presents a one-way analysis of variance, cluster analysis and multivariate linear regression analysis supplemented by collecting and collating qualitative data, interviewing ten students with different backgrounds. It finds that both students’ genders, disciplines, grades, regions, types of university and instructors' flexibility in using various platforms and students' proficiency in teaching tools during online teaching have become the significant factors affecting college students' online learning experience. Also, classroom live broadcast effects and mutual discussion among classmates can help improve the online learning experience. Universities, instructors and students are the major subjects of online learning, and they bear important responsibility in improving online learning experience. Therefore, universities should upgrade course platforms and offer more technical support, instructors should improve their IT skills, and students should change traditional learning methods and develop good learning habits.
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    Investigation and Research on College Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Online Teaching in Post-pandemic Era
    Zheng Hong, Xie Zuoxu, Wang Jing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (7): 54-64.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.07.004
    Abstract205)   HTML157)    PDF (761KB)(394)      
    This study based on online teaching survey conducted by the Teacher Development Center of Xiamen University during the epidemic period, investigated the attitudes to post-pandemic online teaching of 13997 college teachers during the pandemic, and used statistical methods to analyze the differences in online teaching attitudes among teachers with different backgrounds and online teaching experiences. The study found that more than three fourths of college teachers are willing to adopt the “online + offline” hybrid teaching after the pandemic and online teaching experience is an important factor that affects teachers’ attitudes to post-pandemic online teaching; teachers from different types, levels, regions of universities and with different teaching ages and disciplines have significant differences in their willingness to improve online teaching. Teachers from different backgrounds unanimously ranked student improvement opinions as the most important factor to continue online teaching. The research discussion points out that the experience of online teaching during the pandemic is very beneficial to teachers’ online teaching after the pandemic; the differences in teaching improvement opinions reflect the differences in college teachers, universities conditions,teaching levels and disciplines, and the inertia of traditional teaching is an obstacle to online teaching; teachers should be clearer about their responsibilities as students’ learning guides. Finally, it puts forward suggestions to encourage more teachers to recognize and carry out post-pandemic online teaching after the pandemic from three aspects: college system, technical support and individual teachers.
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    Reflections and Recommendations on the Reform of Online Teaching Reform in Universities
    Xue Chenglong, Guo Yingxia
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (7): 65-74.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.07.005
    Abstract177)   HTML106)    PDF (662KB)(377)      
    The online teaching survey conducted by the Teacher Development Center of Xiamen University during the epidemic period shows that the coronavirus epidemic forced Chinese universities to directly switch from offline teaching to online teaching, leading the future online teaching a breakthroughat the theoretical and practical level. In the post-epidemic era, there will be four changes in online teaching reform: educational resources change from segmentation to sharing, student learning from linear to non-linear, curriculum reform from structured to unstructured, and educational technology from auxiliary means to deep integration and transformation with teaching.The article pointed out that in order to cope with these changes, we must strengthen the construction of infrastructure in the central and western regions, establish a sharing mechanism of higher education resources and a curriculum credit recognition mechanism.Besides, universities should provide students with more flexible learning arrangements; universities must change their narrow professional education thinking, establish a more open curriculum resource sharing mechanism, and comprehensively update and improve the academic evaluation system. Finally,universities must strengthen the construction of teaching platforms, reshape the university learning space, and comprehensively enhance teachers digital literacy .
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    Research Integrity and Academic Reputation: Reflections Based on Political Philosophy and Game Theory
    Wu Guanjun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (7): 75-86.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.07.006
    Abstract136)   HTML117)    PDF (728KB)(159)      
    The issue of research integrity has become a socially heated topic since the Zhai Tianlin incident in early 2019. The same issue among Chinese researchers has attracted the attention of international academic community since the Han Chunyu incident in 2017. Instead of taking the ethical angle, this paper tackles the issue of research integrity by incorporating the analytical skills from political philosophy and the game theory. Maintaining research integrity and protecting academic reputation does not just egotistically and strategically protects the researchers themselves, but at the same while politically and socially protect the academic community.
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    The Conceptualization and Model Building of Instructional Leadership: Based on the Interview with Philip Hallinger
    Dong Hui, Li Lulu, Zhang Jie
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (7): 87-96.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.07.007
    Abstract133)   HTML107)    PDF (626KB)(256)      
    Instructional leadership (IL) is considered to be one of those key concepts and classic theoretical models in the field of educational leadership studies. For about forty years since it was launched in the middle of 1980s, this concept and model has guided researchers and even practitioners in their work all around the globe. The authors of this article recently conducted a thematic interview with Philip Hallinger, one of the founding scholars who first developed a clear conceptualization of instructional leadership, and made it possible to look at the process of the development and change of this concept and theory from his own perspective. Besides, this article tries to picture the dynamics of how IL corresponded to challenging leadership concepts, diverse cultural contexts as well as shifting educational reforms and eventually developed into a helpful organizing concept up till now. It concludes with reflections on some key issues concerning the themes, perspectives and interests for knowledge building in this field, discussing matters of historical roots and the future ahead for leadership study in education.
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    The Relationship Research of Transformational Leadership and School Teachers’ Organizational Commitment:A Mediating Effect of Teachers’ Self-efficacy
    Liu Lili, Kong Man
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (7): 97-105.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.07.008
    Abstract159)   HTML109)    PDF (1044KB)(355)      
    In order to study the direct impact of the transformational leadership of the principal on the organizational commitment level of teachers and the mediating effect of teachers’ self-efficacy in the impact mechanism, the transformational leadership and teacher self-efficacy were designed for 520 high school teachers from many provinces and cities. By using AMOS 23.0,we construct a structural equation model to explore the mechanism of interaction between variables, combined with Bootstrap to introduce the teacher self-efficacy as a mediator variable for the empirical analysis. The analysis results show that the principal’s transformational leadership and teacher’s self-efficacy have a significant positive impact on teacher’s organizational commitment; teacher’s self-efficacy plays a partial intermediary role in the relationship between the principal’s transformational leadership and the teacher’s organizational commitment. The principal's transformational leadership influences teachers’ organizational commitment by affecting teachers’ self-efficacy.
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    Knowledge, Method and Belief in Science Education from the Perspective of Philosophy of Science
    Zhu Jing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (7): 106-116.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.07.009
    Abstract180)   HTML109)    PDF (578KB)(190)      
    Drawing on recent development in social epistemology and philosophy of science, this study explores the importance of understanding the nature of science in science education, more than just basic knowledge of science facts,which is to help students make evidence-based decisions on science-related issues in the future. Moreover, it clarifies that the job of science education from an epistemic perspective and the division of cognitive labor, is to establish or maintain the epistemic authority of science. Students should be provided with the recent researches on scientific practice in philosophy of science about the real and complex image of science, and the real practice of scientists in history of science to develop a richer and more authentic understanding of science. Philosophers of science need to engage in constructive conversation with the science education community to explore a schema of teaching scientific practices with a pragmatic approach that takes into account students' levels, their prior knowledge as well the context of learning.
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    How Students’ Science Capital Influences their Career Aspiration in Western China
    Li Ling, Zhu Haixue, Pan Shimei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (7): 117-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.07.010
    Abstract134)   HTML100)    PDF (623KB)(129)      
    The concept of science capital is derived from technological capital on basis of Bourdieu’s cultural reproduction theory. It was first introduced into education in China. In this paper, we try to explore the mechanism of how science capital influences ninth grade students’ science career aspiration, using the monitoring data of education quality from 107 middle schools in western China. The results show that students with high level of science capital are more likely to choose science career than those with middle or low level. In terms of their career aspiration, the former are more influenced by family cultural capital (be determined) while the latter are more influenced by their own educational expectation (self-selection). In addition, there are significant group differences in science career aspiration. Students with high level of science capital are more influenced by self-science attitude and science confidence. In conclusion, it’s suggested that we should increase science capital of middle school students to help cultivate high-quality talents of science and technology innovation.
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    Practices and Experiences of Randomized Controlled Trials in China’s Targeted Poverty Alleviations in Education
    Shi Yaojiang, Zhang Linxiu, Chang Fang, Liu Han, Tang Bin, Gao Qiufeng, Guan Hongyu, Nie Jingchun, Yang Jie, Bai Yu, Li Ying, Tang Lei, Yue Ai, Ru Tong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (8): 1-67.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.08.001
    Abstract320)   HTML702)    PDF (2216KB)(291)      
    Since the late 20th century, educational research has continued to intersect with such disciplines as economics, medicine, psychology, and computer science. As typical multidisciplinary research methods, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have gradually become a key step in making developmental policies worldwide, especially in the fields of education and social policy. Since 2003, the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL) and Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA) have conducted nearly 300 RCTs in education in 44 countries around the world, whose empirical findings have been utilized to facilitate educational policies in developing countries such as South Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Owing to their enormous contribution to global poverty reduction, the founders of J-PAL also won the 2019 Nobel Prize in Economics. Although a large number of international studies have corroborated the positive roles of RCTs in promoting educational output and raising the incomes of poor groups, similar research efforts in the field of targeted poverty alleviation in education in China underestimated. This paper is a comprehensive review of literature that involves more than 30 publicly available RCTs on targeted poverty alleviation in education from 2007 to 2019. It is found that the RCTs in education conducted in poor rural China focus on four areas: teachers and education, information technology and education, nutrition & health and education, as well as early childhood development. The overarching topic discussed in these four areas is the intergenerational trap of human capital in poor rural China, followed by the exploration of more cost-effective and feasible solutions to issues existing regarding rural education. We further summarize the development of applying RCTs in promoting quality rural education in poor areas in terms of its developmental pathway, status quo, and practical experiences, so as to provide operable ways for the implementers of rural education, data-based empirical support for the decision-makers, as well as effective strategies verified by RCTs for national designers of targeted poverty alleviation policy in education. In addition, this paper also introduces the application of quasi-experimental methods to facilitate making targeted poverty alleviation policies in education in situations where RCTs may not be applicable.
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    Cost-effectiveness Analysis in Randomized Controlled Trials: Methods and Practice in China’s Rural Education
    Nie Jingchun, Gao Qiufeng, Yang Jie, Guan Hongyu, Cai Jianhua
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (8): 68-91.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.08.002
    Abstract141)   HTML501)    PDF (1019KB)(177)      
    In recent years, scholars in the field of education have carried out a large number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and provided many evidence-based interventions to improve the academic performance and to increase enrollment rate from different perspectives. However, given limited resources, how can researchers compare among different options of interventions and choose the most effective plan? Such a question can be answered by conducting cost-effectiveness analysis. This paper hereby provides a detailed introduction to basic methods of cost-effectiveness analysis, including cost accounting methods and the interpretation of effectiveness. It also introduces a case to illustrate the steps of conducting a cost-effectiveness analysis. Further, the cost-effectiveness of RCTs in education conducted worldwide are summarized, which provide valuable implications for policy-makers to promote rural education in China. In conclusion, researchers suggest the cost-effectiveness of interventions should be included in the analysis of RCT results, so as to facilitate the comparisons among different projects and to provide more powerful evidence for policy-makers.
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    Opening Up the “Black Box” of Education Policy Research: Application of Theory-Based Impact Evaluation in Randomized Controlled Trial Studies
    Tang Lei, Ma Jing, Liu Han, Yue Ai, Bai Yu, Meng Chun, Ma Chengjun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (8): 92-109.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.08.003
    Abstract170)   HTML285)    PDF (1038KB)(200)      
    Impact evalution aims to understand the impact of policies/interventions on the welfare of participants. The key is to establish a causal relationship between the two (what works) and to understand the mechanism of policies/interventions (why it works). Theory-based impact evaluation (TBIE) is widely believed to help answer the question of “why it works”. TBIE clarifies the intervention mechanisms by establishing a causal chain from input to output and then to impact, and using empirical data to test the validity of the theory and potential hypotheses that may play a role in the causal chain. This paper reviews and summarizes the core concepts and principles of TBIE, and uses examples to illustrate how to apply TBIE when conducting random controlled trials.
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    Randomized Controlled Trials and Its Policy Implication on Poverty Relief Globally
    Shi Rong, Shi Yaojiang, Bill Bikales, Ricardo Morel
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (8): 110-125.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.08.004
    Abstract167)   HTML120)    PDF (790KB)(202)      
    With increasing attention drawn to Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) after the announcement of the Nobel Prize winners in Economics Science 2019, this paper attempts to discuss the policy impact of RCTs and highlight its importance not only as an academic methodology but also as a useful policy tool. In this paper, four channels have been identified through which RCTs could help policy maker and development agencies in making their decisions. For each channel, detailed case studies are provided to further illustrate the impact of RCTs. The four channels discussed in the paper are 1) scaling up effective interventions, 2) adjusting programs to better allocate resources, 3) generating public goods and knowledge sharing, 4) institutionalizing evidence-based policy making.
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    Laws of Education and their Researches
    Yuan Zhengguo
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (9): 1-15.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.09.001
    Abstract342)   HTML654)    PDF (696KB)(408)      
    This article starts with the philosophical questions of whether there are laws, whether laws can be understood and and how to understand them. It first presents a historical review of First Philosophy sought by ancient philosophers, the success of empirical science and rationalism, the challenges posed by irrationalism and phenomenology. Then it argues that rules are the unity of certainty and probability, of universality and specificity, of free will and group choice. Pavlov’s research on learning, Dewey’s educational experiments from man-made situation to real-life situation and Piaget’s research on genetic epistemology, show that understanding laws of education is a process of progressive improvement. A deeper understanding of laws of education results from the interaction between ideas and evidence, as well as the breakthrough of empirical research methodology.
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    Empirical Education Research in China(2015—2019): Characteristics, Trends and Prospects
    Zhu Junwen, Ma Yinqi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (9): 16-35.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.09.002
    Abstract277)   HTML456)    PDF (1407KB)(318)      
    Since the establishment and organization of the National Educational Empirical Research Forum for five consecutive years, the number of participants has been growing. Does the prosperity of academic exchanges mean that empirical methods are more and more widely used in educational research in China? Which institutions, scholars and fields is empirical research more widely used in? In response to the above questions, the study selected 15 high-level educational journals as samples based on the empirical research on clearly defined education, and conducted a bibliometric analysis of 3808 papers published between 2015 and 2019.The result shows that in the past five years, empirical research on education in China continues to grow and is more widely used. However, there is still a huge gap compared with the universal use in developed countries. The number of empirical research papers published by normal universities is larger than that of other institutions, and the proportion of empirical research papers in the total number is growing rapidly, but it is at the lowest level of different types of institutions. In the empirical studies on education, more than half of the papers were co-completed by multiple institutions, and the proportion of papers published independently decreased from 63.4% to 57.8%, while the proportion of co-published papers increased by 5.6 percentage. The core authors of the empirical study on education are getting younger. More than half of the core authors of empirical studies on education in the past five years have interdisciplinary backgrounds other than pedagogy. From the perspective of the changes in the professional background distribution of the annual core authors, the proportion of interdisciplinary authors continues to rise. In the past five years, the subjects of empirical research on education have been rich and diverse, with obvious differences among different types of institutions. For the future development of empirical research on education in China, we believe that in view of the dominant position of normal universities in education research, the acceleration of empirical transformation will fundamentally change the paradigm of education research in China. Collaborative research across disciplines and institutions will continue to grow and advance empirical research in education. Young scholars' preference for empirical research on education will become the endogenous driving force to promote empirical transformation. Comprehensively promoting international cooperation in scientific research will help accelerate the transformation of empirical research on education in China.
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    The Quantitative Methods in Education Empirical Research in China: A Review on Five Years’ Application
    Lyu Jing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (9): 36-55.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.09.003
    Abstract189)   HTML294)    PDF (1070KB)(333)      
    Since the “National Educational Empirical Research Forum” was first held in 2015, the application of quantitative methods in the field of education science in China has been popular. However, due to the limitation of research level and research environment, investigating the methodology of quantitative methods and applying quantitative methods in quantitative or mixed research are still a weak point in educational research in China. The academic community has not formed a comprehensive and objective understanding of the application of quantitative methods in education empirical research. Even though some scholars review the application of quantitative methods in education empirical research in China, they only describe and summarize the statistical data, and there is limited analysis on the specific problems with the application. Moreover, there is no correction for the misuse of quantitative methods, which cannot help the applicators effectively. Therefore, efforts to analyze the practical application of quantitative methods in China and give more specific suggestions on its shortcomings are of great significance for the development of quantitative methods in China. This paper examined the articles published in 11 comprehensive education journals included in the Chinese Social Science Citation Index (CSSCI) from 2015 to 2019 as the objects. It summarized the application of quantitative methods in educational empirical research in China in the past five years, and provided suggested solutions to some specific issues. Also, it presented the misuse of some widely used quantitative methods, and made the correct application suggestions; analyzed the future trend of applying quantitative methods in educational empirical research in China.
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    Scrutinizing “Qi”, Seeking “Dao” and Transforming Knowledge into Wisdom: Critical Systematic Review of Qualitative Education Research in 2015—2019 and Mission Prospects of the Chinese Scholarly Community
    Chen Shuangye, Wang Yiting
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (9): 56-77.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.09.004
    Abstract197)   HTML133)    PDF (2007KB)(198)      
    The number of qualitative education research has mounted since the mid of 1990’s when Professor Chen Xiangming at Peking University introduced it into China. In 2015, the Faculty of Education of East China Normal University launched a national “Educational Empirical Research Forum”, which accelerated the development of qualitative research and mixed research with qualitative design. This paper first draws on the Chinese traditional concepts of “Dao” and “Qi” to distinguish the scientific pursuit of the scholarly community and the forms of qualitative research, and proposes to revisit the “scientific” mission of the Chinese education research. Then, this paper scrutinizes the qualitative research papers published in the 37 key Chinese education journals in 2015—2019, focusing on the research design, sampling method, qualitative data source, qualitative data analysis, credibility and ethics. By comparing those qualitative research papers published in 2004—2014 with English qualitative papers published in 2015—2019 in four top education journals in the United Kingdom, the United States and Europe, this review reveals the patterns and features of the qualitative education research in China in the past five years. Finally, this paper concludes by encouraging the Chinese scholarly community to consolidate their consensus and further the internationalization, localization and diversification of Chinese education research.
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    A Systematic Literature Review of the Empirical Research into Pre-service Teacher Education in China (2015—2019)
    Song Huan, Tian Shixu, Wu Yuchen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (9): 78-102.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.09.005
    Abstract154)   HTML184)    PDF (1389KB)(230)      
    Pre-service teacher education is a core issue in the field of teacher education policy, practice and research. In China, with the transition of teacher education, the gradual diversification of paradigms in the field of education research, and the focus on evidence-based policy decision-making and educational practice, the research outcomes of pre-service teacher education are gradually enriched. Based on the analysis framework of “teacher education research as a social practice”, this study comprehensively reviewed the empirical studies on pre-service teacher education published in Chinese journals during 2015—2019. It summarized explicit content of pre-service teacher education research, including research participants, research methods, researcher identity, research topics, research findings, etc. And the study further analyzes the underlying assumptions, logic of argument, micropolitics, quality of evidence and assumed implications in the researches. As revealed, in the past five year, the empirical research on pre-service teacher education and policy reform in China has relatively been fragmented, and there is a lack of response to changes in the social, political and economic environment and the demand for educational reform. On the whole, although the current research on pre-service teacher education highlights “practice”, it also suffers from an insufficiency in the theoretical teacher education curriculum. The existing research has the limits of repetitive research content, insufficient localised exploration and varied research quality. For example, apart from the weak standard of designs, the prominent single method and insufficient ethical concern, the logic of argument needs to be strengthened. In the future, we should enrich the topics of pre-service teacher education research, expand the team of researchers, and broaden the types of research methods.
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    Empirical Research on Rural Education for Scientific Decision Making
    Liu Shanhuai, Zhang Xue, Zhu Xiuhong, Huo Ming
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (9): 103-118.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.09.006
    Abstract122)   HTML114)    PDF (957KB)(173)      
    In the past five years, empirical research has become more and more important in the field of rural education with the growing number and enhancing standardization of empirical studies. Driven by public decision-making issues, empirical research on rural education has formed the basic paradigms of large-scale investigation, relational research, intervention experiment research, predictive research and constructive research. For rural education researches, these research paradigms enrich the methodology, expand the problem domain, promote the theoretical development, and respond in a scientific way to major decision-making issues in rural education, such as the allocation of rural education resources, the construction of rural teachers and the development of rural students. In the future, the shift in rural education research issues, the rise of “causal inference”, the use of educational big data and the urgent need for theoretical development will continue to promote the transformation and upgrading of rural education empirical research paradigms, and further promote the scientific public decision-making of rural education.
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    From Philosophical Research to Empirical Research: Paradigm Shift in Education Equity Research
    Huang Zhongjing, Sun Xiaoxue, Wang Qian
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (9): 119-136.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.09.007
    Abstract163)   HTML107)    PDF (1102KB)(296)      
    This paper analyzes 932 academic papers published in CSSCI databank and explores the development of educational equity research in China in recent ten years and analyzes the transformation of educational equity research paradigm through content analysis and coding research. Research findings: (1) the research topics of education equity shift from macro-equity research to micro-equity research; (2) the research method of education equity shift from philosophical research to empirical research; (3) looking at the correlation between research topics and methods, empirical research is strongly related to resources distribution in input equity, context factors in access equity, curriculum and pedagogical materials in process equity, and individual output in education output equity. The new education equity research methods include experimental economics, geographic information system, educational ethnography, and information technology in education, etc.
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    Opening the Black Box of Educational Production: The Retrospect and Prospect of Educational Production Function
    Li Bo, Huang Bin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (9): 137-161.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.09.008
    Abstract152)   HTML113)    PDF (1149KB)(145)      
    Educational production activities are interrelated. Educational output is affected by many input factors, such as families and schools, among which the relationship among input factors is complex. There is always a gap between theoretical construction and practical observation in educational production and the empirical research methods and conclusions are quite controversial. The impact of educational input on educational output is a “black box” that hasn’t been solved for a long time in the research of economics of education. The study of educational production function perfectly integrates the theories and methods of economics and pedagogy. It is the core topic of education economics to discuss the relationship between the allocation of scarce educational resources and the output of human educational activities, and it is also a useful and powerful tool to crack the “black box” of educational production. This study examines the empirical research on education production function and introduces the types of education production function. It then analyzes the empirical research results of family input and school input education production function, summarizes and rethinks the basic trend and existing problems of the empirical research on education production function in the past five years. Finally, it puts forward the prospects of the future empirical research on educational production function.
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    Exploring the Mysteries of Learning: A Review of Empirical Research on Learning Sciences in Recent Five Years in China
    Shang Junjie, Wang Yuru, He Yilin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (9): 162-178.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.09.009
    Abstract210)   HTML115)    PDF (895KB)(374)      
    This paper presents a comprehensive research and systematic analysis on the empirical research literature of learning sciences in the mainland of China in the past five years. It points out that learning sciences have attracted researchers of cognitive science, educational psychology, educational technology and other disciplines in the past few years. Scholars have made great achievements in the research of basic learning mechanism, learning environment design and learning analysis technology, and also made a keen exploration in terms of research methods. However, the depth and breadth of research and the understanding of learning sciences need to be strengthened. The research work of learning sciences needs to be comprehensively promoted in the future, especially the research topics, such as study on neural mechanism: influencing factors and cultivation strategies of cognition and learning for infants, children and adolescents; dialogue analysis, teacher-student interaction, learning evaluation and other learning analysis research based on classroom teaching; study on cognitive tool design based on simulation, emulation, game, VR/AR and other new technologies; study on intelligent learning environment design; and study on online learning and hybrid learning; etc.
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    The Empirical Research into College Students’ Learning and Development in China (2015—2019): Themes, Methods and Commentary
    Yin Hongbiao, Shi Lian, Yang Liu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (9): 179-199.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.09.010
    Abstract170)   HTML186)    PDF (1011KB)(278)      
    Due to the international attention to quality assurance of higher education, the enrollment expansion policy in China, and the global rise of “evidence-based” educational research, there has been a worldwide growth and prosperity of research into college students’ learning and development. This study comprehensively reviewed the empirical studies on college students’ learning and development published in Chinese journals in 2015—2019. It summarized the various themes emerging from these empirical studies, and analyzed the features and defects in their research methodology and design. As revealed, in the past five year, eight themes have emerged from the empirical studies on college students’ learning and development in China and quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods designs have been widely used. Researchers from 15 “Double First-Class” universities take the leading role in the empirical research into college students’ learning and development. Based on these findings, we suggest that the “Pyramid Model” of Chinese college students’ growth should be further enhanced by embedding students’ multi-layer growth into a nested contexts consisting of the individual, instructional, institutional, and policy factors which influence college students’ learning and development. These empirical studies, with varied themes, methods, and scholars’ increasing awareness of methodology, have deepened our understanding. However, some notable defects are also revealed, such as unbalanced application of research methods, unjustified research designs and procedures, lack of accumulations, and insufficient theoretical awareness, etc. These shortcomings point out the directions for future improvement.
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    Empirical Research on University Governance 2015—2019: Characteristics, Trends and Prospects
    Zhou Guangli, Guo Hui
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (9): 200-227.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.09.011
    Abstract125)   HTML96)    PDF (3082KB)(143)      
    In the five years from 2015 to 2019, driven by the movement of empirical research in education, a field full of theoretical and speculative traditions--university governance--began to attempt evidence-based research. This article examined 77 empirical research papers on university governance from 17 domestic CSSCI educational journals as the research object, and 22 empirical research papers on university governance from 5 foreign SSCI educational journals as the reference object. The multi-dimensional statistical analysis found that in terms of the metrological characteristics in literature, empirical research in China’s university governance research is rising steadily. The co-cited literature reflects that the empirical study of university governance has distinct characteristics of knowledge input. The empirical study of university governance has obvious interdisciplinary characteristics. In terms of the characteristics of knowledge production, the research topic turns from macro to micro, with “university (organization) governance” as the main topic. The research methods adopted are diversified, with qualitative “literature analysis” and “case analysis” as the main methods. The empirical study of university governance takes university as the main unit of analysis. The iterative updating of knowledge production has “policy dependence”. The five years of empirical research on university governance have solved some important problems of governance at the system level, university level and grassroots academic organization level. As the researchers have not fully mastered the methods of empirical research in education, the advantages of this research paradigm in knowledge accumulation have not been brought into play. In the future, it is the mission of university governance researchers to vigorously advocate empirical research paradigm, standardize research methods and improve research quality.
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    The Knowledge Production of the Empirical Research and Its Value Guidance for the Development of Preschool Education in China: Based on the Analysis of Sample Papers from 2015 to 2019
    Zhang Bin, Cheng Chen, Zhang Shuai, Yu Yongping
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (9): 228-250.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.09.012
    Abstract148)   HTML114)    PDF (1242KB)(172)      
    This study selects 124 empirical-research papers published from 2015 to 2019 that focus on the development of preschool education in China and that have a certain academic impact, and compares with non-empirical research papers on similar topics. It offers a quantitative analysis of their quantity distribution, authors, hot topics, research paradigms and methods, theoretical application, influence, etc. Through a content analysis of the core conclusions of the papers, we identify the main knowledge production, and thus reveal the empirical research’s value guidance for the development of preschool education in China and promotion to it. It is found that in recent years, empirical research has produced four kinds of knowledge: description, explanation, improvement and prediction, involving the comprehensive development status of preschool education, resource supply and allocation, teaching staff construction, investment and guarantee, government supervision and administration, quality of nursery and education, etc. Empirical research promotes the development of preschool education by presenting basic facts, proving basic concepts, discovering basic principles and proposing basic strategies. This study also puts forward some suggestions to promote the development of empirical research on preschool education in China.
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    An Analysis of Teacher Performativity as a Global Issue: A Perspective of Biopolitics
    Chiang Tienhui
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (10): 1-20.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.10.001
    Abstract161)   HTML749)    PDF (747KB)(157)      
    Michel Foucault invents biopolitics to illustrate how contemporary society exercises the art of governing through shaping subjects’ subjectivity. Its purpose is to transform people into self-regulators. This governmentality derives from market freedom through which social members can engage in free choices and practice democratic values. This rationalized automation embodies the mechanism of political economy that lets government change its subjects moving from society to population. Creating freedom enables the government to reshape their self-knowledge. Accordingly, neoliberalism becomes the gateway for accomplishing the art of governing. In order to administer their lifestyles, the state devotes itself to creating freedom. According to this principle, both public managerialism and performativity not only perform the ideas of free market logic but also secure the practice of governing technologies. Drawing upon biopolitics, this essay sets out to explore why performativity becomes a prevailing world issue and how it operates. Its analytical focus is how the government employs international competitiveness to broadcast the discourse of collective responsibility commanding teachers to become self-improvers. Considering the regime of performance management, it also sheds light on a related issue on how the state constitutes their self-consciousness through ethics, which turns teachers into the implementers of performativity. As self becomes the site of power struggle, this essay also explores why and how teachers enact education policies.
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    An Empirical Analysis of the Contribution of Human Capital and Physical Capital to Economic Growth: Celebrating the 60th Anniversary of Human Capital Theory
    Huang Yifan, Ding Xiaohao, Chen Ran, Min Weifang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (10): 21-33.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.10.002
    Abstract187)   HTML843)    PDF (1072KB)(519)      
    The comparison of the contribution of human capital and physical capital to economic growth is a core issue of economics of education. We use traditional GDP and green GDP to measure economic growth, adopt panel data from 143 countries and regions from 1990 to 2014, introduce human capital into the Solow model to compare the output elasticity of human capital and physical capital and analyze their elastic ratios at different economic levels and different industrial structures. The result shows that both traditional GDP and green GDP are more flexible to human capital than to physical capital. Also, compared with traditional GDP, green GDP, which reflects the level of sustainable economic development, is more sensitive to the changes of human capital, especially when it is an economy in a more developed stage. This research provides an empirical basis for a deeper understanding of the role of human capital in economic growth.
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    Contribution of Education Human Capital to the Development of Green Economy: Based on the Analysis of Threshold Characteristics of Industrial Structure Changes
    Cai Wenbo, Huang Jinsheng, Yuan Xue
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (10): 34-47.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.10.003
    Abstract123)   HTML633)    PDF (781KB)(144)      
    Facing increasingly serious ecological and environmental issues, it is essential to strengthen the core role of human capital in green development. Using the provincial panel data from 2000 to 2017 in China, this paper empirically examined the impact of education human capital on the green economy, and analyzed the threshold characteristics of industrial structure changes. The research results show that education human capital has significantly promoted the development of green economy. Also, the threshold characteristic of industrialization level between education human capital and green economy is remarkable. With the rising level of industrialization, the green effect of education human capital is increasing, and this phenomenon has regional universality. The threshold characteristics of industrial upgrading are not significant, but under the constraints of industrialization, it has a significant role in promoting the green economy as a whole. In addition, with the improvement of green economy, the green effect of education human capital does not show an increasing trend, and the green benefit is the lowest at the middle level of green economy. Based on the above conclusions, we put forward some suggestions to strengthen the investment in education and optimize the industrial structure, in order to fully tap the green benefits of education human capital under the industrial changes.
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    On the Misconceptions about Key Competences
    Yang Xiangdong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (10): 48-59.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.10.004
    Abstract220)   HTML141)    PDF (693KB)(321)      
    Emerging from the fast-growing discussions about key competences are a few misconceptions and improper claims.Some consider key competences as key abilities, essential characters or important values; some view domain-specific key competences as the decomposed lower-level realization of the cross-disciplinary key competences; others argue that key competences can be cultivated beyond any specific domain and situations and promoting competence development must go through the cognitive hierarchy as specified in Bloom’s taxonomy of learning outcome, etc. Such misconceptions or claims are primarily due to lack of proper understanding of the epistemology and conceptualization underlying the concept of key competence as well as the new learning perspectives it implies. This article discusses such issues critically based on the relevant theoretical perspectives.
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    Limits of Big Data Application in Education
    Tang Hanwei, Zhang Jiangkun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (10): 60-68.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.10.005
    Abstract121)   HTML138)    PDF (595KB)(152)      
    The application of big data boosts educational changes with broad prospects, but it is far from being omnipotent, instead it has certain boundaries and limits. It is conducive to the rational application and development of big data in education to attain self-reflections on and insights into the limits of the application of big data in education. Ontological limit, epistemic limit, value limit and ethical limit constitute the basic limits of application of big data in education. The ontological limit means that big data in education cannot be equated with a true and complete educational world in an ontological sense. The epistemic limit refers to the flaw of big data as a new angle of understanding education. The value limit refers to the impossibility of the instrumental value of big data in education to cover the cultivation value of education. Finally, the ethical limit means that the application of big data to education is inevitably bound by ethics, in addition to being controlled by the logic of technology.
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    The Unsustainability of the Listing of Educational Assets: Based on an Empirical Analysis of Hong Kong Stock Exchange Listed Educational Enterprises
    Dong Shengzu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (10): 78-88.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.10.007
    Abstract115)   HTML118)    PDF (762KB)(134)      
    The “Variable Interest Entity” (VIE), derived from the “Red Chip Model”, realizes the consolidation of financial statements by controlling the operating entity through agreement, which is currently the main framework adopted by domestic educational institutions to list abroad in China. In this way, some overseas listed educational institutions have bypassed domestic legal supervision in order to raise the stock price, relying on asset mergers and acquisitions and factor restructuring to rapidly expand the scale of schools, controlling a large number of non-profit non-governmental schools directly or in disguise, resulting in “unilateralism” in school governance. Meanwhile, many actual controllers of such institutions use various “related transactions” to master school operating costs as well as the school balances, and obtain “grey returns” from them, resulting in reduced teaching input and declining quality of education. With the continuous improvement of laws and regulations, the government will strictly regulate and supervise the changes of organizers (actual controllers), mergers and acquisitions of school assets and related transactions. Educational listed enterprises rely on the unconventional operation of VIE framework, therefore can only be short-term prosperity and unsustainable. Existing overseas listed educational enterprises and many entity schools directly or indirectly controlled by them should return to the right path as soon as possible. In addition, they should adhere to the public welfare nature of education, as well as running schools in accordance with the law, regulation and integrity.
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    Research on School Safety and its Legislation: From the Perspective of Risk Regulatory
    Shen Suping, Zhou Hang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (10): 89-100.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.10.008
    Abstract116)   HTML161)    PDF (592KB)(150)      
    Since the reform and opening-up, the legal regulation of school risk in China has gone through the stages of policy regulation, legal regulation and comprehensive regulation. It has initially established a legal regulation system of school risk which is dominated by the government, participated by multiple subjects and connected with the public security governance system in China. From the perspective of risk regulatory, there are many deficiencies in the principles, purposes, subjects and methods of risk regulatory. In order to promote the formulation of Regulation of School Safety, we should establish the principle of risk prevention, reconstruct the purpose of risk regulatory, expand the activities of risk regulatory and redefine regulatory space.
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    Reconstruction of the Connotation of “The Aged”: Lifelong Learning Based on Non-reflexive Existence——Dialogues between Naren Gaowa, Ma Lihua and Atsushi Makino
    Naren Gaowa, Ma Lihua, Atsushi Makino
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (10): 101-109.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.10.009
    Abstract121)   HTML124)    PDF (573KB)(148)      
    Japan has now entered into a super aged society and high consumption society. Its most obvious characteristics are the super aged population structure and the diversity and immediacy of social values. The development of society makes itself give up the reflexive characteristic based on continuity and consistency, and the social convention and thinking mode of industrial society in the past began to appear. In this kind of society, people’s life style has changed. The connotation of “social participation” and “development” of the aged is also very different from that of the past. Even the “existence” of the aged presents new characteristics, which is a non reflexive existence. In order to adapt to the development of the super aged and high consumption society, and promote the comprehensive development of return education and lifelong learning, the whole society needs to face up to the reconstruction and innovation of the connotation of “the aged”. This is also of great significance for the development of lifelong learning and education for the aged in China.
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    An Empirical Research on the Employment of Chinese University and College New Graduates Under the Impact of COVID-19
    Li Tao, Sun Nuan, Wu Zhihui, Shan Na
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (10): 110-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.10.010
    Abstract344)   HTML134)    PDF (1258KB)(979)      
    The dual pressures of employment and the COVID-19 have made the employment of new college graduates unprecedentedly difficult. The research group conducted a comprehensive survey on the employment of university and college graduates in 34 provinces of China, autonomous regions and municipalities during the epidemic from April to June, 2020. Based on the collected data, we have the following research findings. Half of the after-tax salary was concentrated at 3001 to 5000 RMB, and the stability of the job on arrival was relatively high.The subjective factors of unemployed graduates and the objective epidemic situation increased the difficulty of employment. Job location and salary were the most valued by the new graduates. The epidemic did not significantly changed the employment expectations of unemployed graduates. The expected job type offers a poor match with the employers’ main job type, at the same time, the expected salary of the unemployed graduates was usually higher than the actual salary of the employed graduates and the national monthly disposable income. Graduates' satisfaction evaluation of college employment guidance service was generally positive. However, the issues such as small scale of full-time teachers, professional level was not high etc. Through a logistic regression analysis, it was found that gender, place of origin, family economic status, school type, school level, subject type, subject level, educational background, academic performance, foreign language level, expected salary, job-hunting cost and entrepreneurial consideration had significant differences in influencing employment among different groups. Meanwhile, the four employment problems tend to be ignored and need to be taken seriously. Greater attention must be paid to unemployed graduates from rural areas, the precise assistance of graduates who face financial difficulties in finding jobs; concealed and unavoidable employment discrimination against rural graduates; the issue of substantively helping graduates start businesses to promote employment.
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    The Behavioral, Psychological and Socio-cultural Perspectives of Student Engagement Research: Perspective Shift and its Implications for Improving the Quality of Teaching and Learning in Chinese Universities
    Yin Hongbiao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (11): 1-20.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.11.001
    Abstract226)   HTML709)    PDF (1067KB)(270)      
    The dominant research approach to student engagement in higher education follows a behavioral perspective, which neglects the possible discrepancies between students’ behavioral engagement and psychological status, making largely invisible the links between student engagement and specific socio-cultural contexts. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the research on student engagement in higher education to shift its views and include diverse perspectives. The Motivation and Engagement Wheel, a psychological perspective of student engagement, provides a more appropriate conceptual framework and research tools. Targeting Chinese university students, three empirical studies based on the Motivation and Engagement Wheel revealed a series of findings. First, there were four types of learners among Chinese university students according to their motivation and engagement, and two of them showed some discrepancies between their internal motivation and external behaviors. Those “maladaptive but engaged learners” typically reflect the influence of Chinese cultural and educational traditions on student engagement. Second, although the relationships between motivation and engagement largely echoed Anglo-American researchers’ previous findings, maladaptive motivation was found to sometimes facilitate, rather than impair Chinese university students’ engagement. These findings reflect the cultural specificity of student engagement in higher education. Third, students’ course experiences significantly influenced their motivation and engagement. According to the nature of effects, these course experience factors can be classified as ideal, paradoxical and weird indicators. The paradoxical and weird indicators mirror some characteristics and long-standing problems of university teaching and learning in China. To improve the quality of university teaching, academic affairs administrators and instructors should clarify the connotations of good teaching in higher education, attach more importance to the cultivation of students’ independence and self-regulated learning, and promote assessment for learning in university teaching. They also need to pay attention to the double-edge effects of Chinese cultural and pedagogical traditions on learning and teaching in higher education. Meanwhile, although the three studies follow a psychological perspective, they can not only help us identify the close associations between student engagement and the socio-cultural context in China, but also take account of students’ engagement behaviors, which makes it possible for researchers to conduct student engagement research from a holistic perspective in future.
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    Comparative Research on Shadow Education: Historical Developments and Future Directions
    Zhang Wei, Mark Bray
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (11): 21-38.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.11.002
    Abstract254)   HTML1002)    PDF (1270KB)(262)      
    This paper reviews research on private supplementary tutoring, widely known as shadow education during the first two decades of the present century. It takes as its starting point the first global study of the phenomenon, published in 1999, despite some scattered national and subnational literature before 1999. During the initial two decades, great expansion of the research on shadow education brought more depth and stronger awareness of commonalities and differences in different cultures. From initial mapping and identification of factors shaping demand came work on ecosystems with deeper sociological and economic analyses, together with greater attention to research methods. The agenda ahead will need to keep up with the changing times, e.g., through the impact of technology, and develop stronger interdisciplinarity to explore additional domains. It will also need continued attention to definitions and methods.
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    Information Capital and Household Education Choice: Evidence from China
    Yang Po, Xu Ying
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (11): 39-55.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.11.003
    Abstract176)   HTML725)    PDF (927KB)(210)      
    Increasing household education expenditure is critical for improving human capital investment and expanding household consumption in China. This study analyzes how information capital embedded in internet usage influences household’s education choice and investment. Based on 2014 and 2016 wave of China Family Panel Survey data, this paper constructs a parent-child matched sample and uses the Coarsened Exact Match method to estimate the causal effect of using internet on human capital investment, and evaluate how inter-household variation in access to internet influences education investment gap. This study shows that mother’s internet use significantly increases the likelihood of a household’s participating in education choice in terms of school choice, school quality choice, and after-school tutoring. Information capital also induces families to spend more money on non-mandatory education expenditure and private tutoring. However, such positive effect disappears as the access to internet expands over time. Moreover, migrant children are less likely to benefit from this kind of digital dividend.
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    The Participation in Shadow Education of Adolescents: School Peer Group and Ascribed Difference——A Multilevel Analysis Based on CEPS Data
    Xi Wei, Li Ying
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (11): 56-68.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.11.004
    Abstract162)   HTML410)    PDF (836KB)(201)      
    The influence factors and their impact on shadow education opportunities are not fully discussed in existing studies. Applying China Education Panel Survey data and multilevel analysis model, we find that adolescents’ shadow education is influenced by family background and school peer group factors. More than 40% of the variance comes from the school level, and the school factors play a role in shadow education mainly through peer effect. In addition to the direct impact, peer group factors also indirectly affect the role of ascribed factors by moderation effect. In the subdivision, different types of shadow education are affected by different ascribed factors. The academic type is mainly influenced by the social capital and economic capital of the family, while the talent type is mainly influenced by the cultural capital of the family. These findings can provide a reference for further understanding of the behavior of family education investment and the role of shadow education in social reproduction function.
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    Beyond the Logical Framework of Liberal Education:A Structural Transformation in University General Education
    Cui Yanqiang, Wei Miaomiao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (11): 69-77.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.11.005
    Abstract137)   HTML107)    PDF (596KB)(141)      
    What general education has been pursuing is “rational freedom”, which requires to transcend the conception “liberal” from “liberal education”. However, due to the intersection of definitions and historical facts, general education and liberal education are regarded as two conceptions with plenty of similarities and interactions by some scholars. Dewey criticized the “class nature”, “political symbol” and“cultural symbol” of liberal education from the perspective of educational democracy, pointing out its “traps of illiberality”. Therefore, general education must transcend the logical framework of liberal education to achieve its own goal of “liberty”. Under the ideological framework of educational constructivism and empiricism, Dewey provided the theoretical basis for his core educational concept by “construction-deconstruction-reconstruction”. This special liberal education is different from the traditional one, offering a leading direction for the modern general education in university, which is expected to solve a series of problems faced by general education.
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    The Questionnaire Design and Basic Characteristics of Undergraduates’ Course Experience: A Survey of 2018 Graduates in Shaanxi Province
    Lu Genshu, Li Lijie
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (11): 78-89.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.11.006
    Abstract141)   HTML110)    PDF (733KB)(186)      
    Undergraduates’ course experience is a key indicator of teaching quality. Based on Course Experience Questionnaire complied by McInnis and other researchers, we designed the Shaanxi Graduates’ Course Experience Questionnaire with the model of presage process and product (3P model) by combining self-developed “the University Mathematics Classroom Environment Questionnaire (UMCEQ)” and applied it to investigate all the graduates in Shaanxi Province of 2018. The analysis of the survey data showed that the questionnaire performed well in validity and reliability, and can be used to measure graduates’ course experience in Shaannxi scientifically, effectively and reliably. Hence, it is an effective measurement to evaluate the teaching quality. And if we marked graduates’ score different dimensions of course experiences in percentage grading system, then their perceptions reached the passing level in four dimensions (Learning Resources, Course Organization, Good Teaching,Independence) and reached medium level in seven other dimensions (Student Support, Clear Goals and Standards, Learning Community, Appropriate Workload, Appropriate Assessment, Intellectual Motivation and Graduate Qualities). Based on what we’ve found, we are still facing some challenges in pursuing the first-class undergraduate education. In addition, graduates’ course experiences are significantly different considering their backgrounds like gender, major, and institutional level. Therefore, targeted measures should be taken to optimize undergraduates’ course experience and improve education quality of regular colleges according to undergraduates’ gender, major and institutional level.
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    Do Teachers Truly have a “Learning-centered” Professional Vision: An Analysis Based on Video Clubs
    Xia Xuemei, Fang Chaoqun, Liu Xiao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (11): 90-100.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.11.007
    Abstract134)   HTML106)    PDF (782KB)(153)      
    Many schools and teachers claim that they stress students’ learning and endeavor to achieve the transitioning from teaching-centeredness to learning-centeredness in the classroom. So do teachers truly have a learning-centered professional vision? How can videos be used to promote the development of teachers’ professional vision? This study uses the video club approach to explore answers to the above questions. The results show that professional vision of teachers studied are more oriented towards superficial learning activities, and less oriented towards such key dimensions as creating a safe learning environment, designing challenging tasks, triggering higher-order thinking and peer arguments, and paying attention to individual differences. By analyzing three groups videos of varying degrees of learning-centeredness, it is also found that the average scores of the “focus on student” criteria and the “shared understanding” criteria are significantly different, while those of the “substantive discussion” criteria show no significant difference.
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    The Crisis and Outlet of China’s Enlightenment about the Prominent Morality and the Weakening Ethics
    Yan Conggen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (11): 101-108.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.11.008
    Abstract147)   HTML137)    PDF (568KB)(441)      
    Morality mainly directs one’s spiritual order, while ethics primarily point to the extrinsic social order, so they are not unified, and the appropriate way is keeping balance between morality and ethics. However, in modern enlightenment of our country, morality is increasingly prominent, ethics is gradually weakening. The enlightenment of ethical retreat deviates from the essential pursuit of education, which contributes to the disappearance of individual freedom and the confusion of the spirit, and easily leads to ethical disorder and community decline. To resolve the crisis while fully respecting the achievements of moral education, this study suggests that our country should regard modern ethic community as the starting point of moral education, and take the cultivation of modern ethical people as the goal, using human relations and customs as the main content and means of education to carry out enlightenment.
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    On the Logic of Value Education
    Li Yixi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (11): 109-118.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.11.009
    Abstract114)   HTML123)    PDF (569KB)(147)      
    Knowledge and value are both taught in the course of education. But they work differently. Under the influence of Benthamism, intelligence education with the purpose of teaching knowledge is extensively researched and practiced. There is no adequate understanding of rules for value education. This could adversely affect the practice of value education and the impetus of education for holistic development. This paper mainly explains two key conditions to define the value education, and puts forward three value education logics, namely, the significance assignment of behavior as the object, the rational construction with the individual as the carrier, and the value judgment based on history and culture. It also discusses the internal relationship of the three logics and the relationship between them and the two key conditions of defining value education. Finally, how to use the understanding of the rules to carry out the practice of value education is studied.
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    Compensating Education Cost for Students from Poor Families/Regions: Theory and Method
    Ma Hongmei, Lei Wanpeng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (11): 119-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.11.010
    Abstract134)   HTML136)    PDF (894KB)(123)      
    The paper reviews the theoretical underpinning and technical framework for approximating students’ educational cost differentials by taking individuals’ background characteristics into account. The study addresses the issue of how much more cost a poor student needs to achieve the same academic performance by employing weighted formula widely-used in existing literatures, as children born in poor families or neighborhoods where challenges are inevitable need extra public expenditures to reach the same level of accomplishments, which need to be financially equalized across schools or broader geographic units. Hedonic price theory tailored for equalizing differences will serve as the theoretical foundation for interpreting education cost differentials for those disadvantaged pupils. The article provides both conceptual framework and empirical strategy for providing quality education service across different geographic spaces, and sheds light on how to evaluate local governments’ efforts in targeting population in poverty and helping them out as well.
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    Sociology of Education in Mainland China: Interruption & Loss (1949—1979), A Comparison Based on the “Sky of History”
    Cheng Tianjun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (12): 1-20.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.12.001
    Abstract207)   HTML676)    PDF (992KB)(159)      
    As for the 30-year interruption of the sociology of education in mainland China from 1949—1979, it is inappropriate to touch on it lightly or vaguely, and a comparison based on the ‘sky of history’ is an effective way to review it and its loss. Compared with Soviet Union, it is found that while China was following & surpassing this Big Brother’s old disastrous road, its sociology of education had achieved rapid progress and peaked in the 1960—70s. And a comparison with Taiwan demonstrates that the both sides have the same root but different consequences. Unlike the complete interruption in mainland China, sociology of education in Taiwan at that time fulfilled two tasks of transforming from ‘sprouting’ to ‘laying foundation’ and from educational sociology to sociology of education. In the same period, sociology of education throughout the world developed quickly and promoted its discipline status from the edge to the mainstream. When China’s Opening & Reform came, the 30-year interruption had left us Chinese scholars blind both in time and space. We forgot the nearly 30-year-entrepreneurial-history of the sociology of education in China which had been swept aside during the interruption and also was unfamiliar with the flourishing of the international sociology of education at that moment. As a result, we had to restart learning and carry out the so-called ‘discipline re-construction’ which had never been heard before in the history of the development of sociology of education.
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    A Framework of the Innovative Study on the Internal Governance System in the Higher Education Institution
    Sui Yifan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (12): 21-32.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.12.002
    Abstract126)   HTML1382)    PDF (816KB)(125)      
    The higher education institution (HEI) is a complex academic ecologic organization consisting of many elements, and this determines the complexity of the HEI internal governance system and its innovation. This article first discusses the background of the HEI system innovation and its research values. Then it attempts to create a logic framework for the innovative study on the HEI internal governance system. This framework involves many related studies, like the theoretic study on the construction of effective HEI internal governance models, a study on the past and present HEI governance models, a comparative study on the HEI internal governance models among the higher education powers, a study on the innovation and construction of HEI internal governance in China, the improvement of HEI’s charters, a study on the rule of law in HEI internal governance, and on the culture of HEI internal governance. In conclusion, from aims to contents, this article presents an in-depth analysis of the problems with the system innovation of the HEI internal governance.
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    Research on Improving the Quality of Innovation and Entrepreneurship Courses for College Student in “Double First-class” Construction
    Huang Zhaoxin, Du Jinchen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (12): 33-41.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.12.003
    Abstract140)   HTML645)    PDF (695KB)(121)      
    This research group conducted a questionnaire survey on the quality satisfaction of innovation and entrepreneurship courses of students from national “Double First-class” construction of universities through questionnaires by means of random sampling, and then conducted an empirical analysis on 12269 samples by using SPSS. From the data analysis results, it can be seen that students with different entrepreneurial consciousness have different satisfaction with entrepreneurial education. Students of different grades and majors also have significant differences in the satisfaction of innovation and entrepreneurship education. The difference between innovation and entrepreneurship curriculum and traditional curriculum is not obvious. Finally, students’ satisfaction with the faculty of innovation and entrepreneurship needs to be improved. Based on the above conclusions, this study argues that to improve the quality of innovation and entrepreneurship courses, it is necessary to meet students’ curriculum needs and establish a diversified selection mechanism for innovation and entrepreneurship courses. Besides, it's important to enrich the content of entrepreneurship and innovation courses and increase the proportion of innovation and entrepreneurship practice courses that focus on innovation and innovation integration. Also, assessment of innovative course teaching is needed to optimize students' learning of innovation and entrepreneurship course. We should give full play to the role of mentors for entrepreneurship and innovation and establish a system of double mentors to guarantee students’ entrepreneurship and innovation activities.
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    Capacity Structure of Innovation & Entrepreneurship Education Teachers: An Empirical Study on 1231 China’s Universities
    Wang Zhiqiang, Long Zehai
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (12): 42-52.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.12.004
    Abstract126)   HTML456)    PDF (790KB)(146)      
    The aim of innovation & entrepreneurship education focuses on cultivating knowing, understanding, practicing knowledge of multiple disciplines and the ability of seizing opportunity in an uncertain circumstance, solving complex problems. Compared with other disciplines, the teacher majored in innovation & entrepreneurship education has special competence requirements in knowledge basis, background, practical experience. Based on the division of organizational support and teacher capacity structure, this research examines the impact of the teacher capacity structure on the quality of innovation & entrepreneurship education by using organizational support as mediating effect. Using the data analysis of a large sample of 13000 faculties in 1231 universities and colleges, this study proposed the research hypothesis and structural model of organizational support as mediating effect on the entrepreneurship education, designed the research variables and structural questionnaire, made a regression analysis and structural equation effect analysis to explain how the organizational support as a mediating effect influenced the entrepreneurship education quality. Finally, this study offers related suggestions on multilayer and diverse organizational support mechanisms to improve teacher capacities and innovation &entrepreneurship education quality.
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    Study on the Improvement of Students’ Satisfaction with the Quality of Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education in Colleges and Universities in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    Zhuo Zelin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (12): 53-63.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.12.005
    Abstract113)   HTML426)    PDF (717KB)(169)      
    Innovative and Entrepreneurial talents serve as the core to build an international innovation technology hub in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, where the higher education is the major carrier for those talents cultivation. In a random sampling, a total of 5, 021 valid questionnaires were conducted in 58 colleges and universities in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area which includes 9+2 cities.The results showed that the total score of students’ satisfaction evaluation of innovation and entrepreneurship education in colleges and universities was 3.43, which is in the middle and upper level. Specifically, the implementation and popularization of innovation and entrepreneurship education in colleges universities is satisfactory and the corresponding curriculum system can be adjusted in accordance with the strategic development trend. However, there are some problems to be solved. First, it is still difficult to integrate effectively with regional innovative and entrepreneurial resources in the process of innovation and entrepreneurship education. Second, the innovation and entrepreneurship education lays stress on theory with a single teaching method and insufficient integration with professional education. In addition, there is a shortage of innovation and entrepreneurship platforms, and the cooperative mechanism among colleges and universities, society and government needs to be improved. Last, there is a serious shortage of teachers for innovation and entrepreneurship education. In order to promote the development of innovation and entrepreneurship education, colleges and universities must establish a hierarchical system for innovation and entrepreneurship education based on their own conditions. They can take advantage of the innovative and entrepreneurial resources and industrial characteristics of the core cities in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. Moreover, it's necessary to develop excellent courses integrating professional education with innovation and entrepreneurship education and improve the mechanism of appointment and performance evaluation.
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    An Empirical Study of Influencing Factors of University Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education Effects: Based on the Data from 150 Universities with Typical Experience of Innovation and Entrepreneurship in China From 2016 to 2018
    Hu Ling, Yang Bo
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (12): 64-75.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.12.006
    Abstract91)   HTML531)    PDF (838KB)(133)      
    With the education of innovation and entrepreneurship as the national strategy, it has attracted more and more attention. Based on the relevant data collected from the universities with typical experience from 2016 to 2018, this study selected the courses offered, specialized institution of innovation and entrepreneurship, practice area on and off-campus, and the number of full-time mentors as the four input factors. Meanwhile, we selected the annual average number of relevant projects, the number of benefited students and annual average number of registered entrepreneurial teams as the output factors. Through the hierarchy analytic process and grey correlation analysis, the study calculated the weight of influence, and then measured the input-output relationship in the field of university innovation and entrepreneurship. The findings showed that all the four input factors had significant positive impacts on the implementation effect of university education; and the number of courses and the on-and-off campus practice area had a more significant effect on innovation and entrepreneurship education. Finally, based on the relevant results, the paper made some suggestions for the future construction of innovation and entrepreneurship education system in Chinese universities.
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    Research on the Relationship Between Entrepreneurial Values and Mental Health of College Students
    Lin Gang, Wang Chengchun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (12): 76-84.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.12.007
    Abstract126)   HTML499)    PDF (744KB)(123)      
    In the process of entrepreneurship, values of entrepreneurs have a certain impact on their mental health. This paper investigated 1855 college entrepreneurs from 36 universities through questionnaires, empirically tested the connection between their values and mental health, and verified whether entrepreneurship education had a moderating effect. According to the survey, there is a significant correlation between profit-oriented value and mental health, and there is a weak correlation between satisfaction customer-oriented and social-service oriented value and mental health. Entrepreneurship education has a significant regulating effect on the profit-oriented value, but has no significant regulating effect on the satisfaction of the customer-oriented and the social-service oriented value.
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    Employability of Humanities PhD Graduates and Labor Market Mismatches
    Qing Shisong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (12): 85-98.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.12.008
    Abstract133)   HTML504)    PDF (815KB)(108)      
    Identifying skills and competences for PhD graduates can help to improve the doctoral training mechanism and the effectiveness of high-end talents. Using cross-country survey data of PhD graduates and employers, this paper analyzes their views on the skills needed in job markets. It is found that doctoral graduates not only need specific knowledge and research abilities, but also need a wide range of general skills such as oral communication, writing, collaboration, interpersonal skills and project management. Looking at PhD graduates' and employers' views, it is found that PhD programs fail to equip graduates with skills needed in employment market. There is a skill gap and mismatch. In the new era of knowledge innovation, the core component of doctoral education is academic training, but employability agenda should be an integral part of this process. Stakeholders involved in the process of developing PhD graduates' employability should establish partnerships. This research contributes to understanding doctoral qualifications and approaches to cultivating them.
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    A Study on the Current Parents’ Education Satisfaction and Its Influencing Factors: Based on the Survey of 140 High Schools in S Province
    Feng Pingting, Xiao Leifeng, Zhou Da, Liu Qimeng, Liu Jian
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (12): 99-108.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.12.009
    Abstract158)   HTML603)    PDF (1018KB)(152)      
    With the deepening of the government’s requirements for “education satisfaction of the public”, the research community focuses on the factors influencing education satisfaction, aiming to provide constructive suggestions for improving regional school education. Based on the survey data of more than 14000 parents and students in 140 high schools in S province, this article dealt with the influencing factors of parents’ education satisfaction using the statistical method of multiple regression analysis. The results showed that at the school level, the relationship between teachers and students had the greatest impact on parents’ education satisfaction. At the student level, the interests, subjective well-being and academic performance of students had positive predictive effect on parents’ education satisfaction. Meanwhile, the frequency, content and method of family-school communication also had crucial impact on parents’ education satisfaction. Therefore, it’s suggested that basic hardware facilities and a good campus environment should be created, and a harmonious teacher-student relationship should be built. In addition, high-quality educational resources should be shared, and students’ interest in learning be stimulated to practice the educational concept of the new era. Finally, it’s important to establish a family-school communication mechanism to further promote family-school cooperation.
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    The Important Role of Education in the Targeted-poverty Alleviation: Empirical Analysis on Rural Economy and Education Development in the Poverty-stricken Areas of Northwest China
    Meng Zecha, Hao Wenwu, Hong Songsong, Wang Zhongxiao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (12): 109-120.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.12.010
    Abstract131)   HTML495)    PDF (1315KB)(116)      
    Poor families are unable to get rid of poverty and return to poverty due to the lack of cultural and human capital. Promoting the development of rural education and increasing the cultural and human capital of poor families is an effective way to get rid of poverty and block the intergenerational transmission, which has fundamental and long-term effects. The empirical analysis on the economic and educational development of peasant households in the core areas of the north-west poverty-stricken areas reveals that the income/consumption structure is single, that the economic burden of investment in education is heavy, and that the increasing educational level of peasant households members will obviously promote the benefit of peasant households economic development. Poor families have weak potential for sustained development of human resources, and the problem of population aging is severe. There are obvious differences between the development of poor families and that of non-poor families. There is a high demand for specific education to get rid of poverty, and the distribution is more concentrated. We need to combine the way of economical poverty alleviation and educational poverty alleviation, accelerate the inclusive reform of rural education, carry out the program of “Education Moving Down”, push education into the peasant households and provide targeted service.
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    The Status Quo of Reading Teaching in Rural Primary Schools in China: PIRLS Questionnaires in Guizhou and Jiangxi
    Jia Miqi, Gao Qiufeng, Peng Lanxi, Nie Jingchun, Wang Huan, Zhou Qian
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (12): 121-129.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.12.011
    Abstract179)   HTML515)    PDF (756KB)(149)      
    The development of adequate reading skills at an early age has an enormous influence on the academic achievement of students throughout the course of their educational career. This study explores the status quo of reading teaching in rural primary schools in China from the perspective of schools and teachers, and its findings could help promote the development of early reading for rural students. The survey in 150 rural primary schools in Guizhou and Jiangxi and the results of PIRLS show that teaching of reading still needs to improve.The sample rural teachers had lower level of education, and had not received sufficient reading trainings. The reading materials for teaching were quite single and the schools did not develop students’ reading skills in time. The regression results show that there were significantly positive correlations between teaching of reading and student reading achievement in rural China. And education levels of rural teachers and reading training are especially important for reading development. In order to develop student reading, it is necessary to improve reading training and reading environment, and enrich reading resources for teachers in rural primary schools.
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    The Dalton Plan in China: The Chronicle of Helen Parkhurst’s Activities in China in 1925
    Xie Changfa, Zhou Ying
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2020, 38 (12): 130-138.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.12.012
    Abstract193)   HTML504)    PDF (660KB)(120)      
    Helen Parkhurst, one of the greatest American educators in the 20th Century, visited China to promote the Dalton Plan in 1925. Her visit to China was a big event in the history of educational exchange between the US and China, promoting the research and experimentation of the Dalton Plan in China and advanced Sino-American intellectual exchange in education and culture. However, due to the lack of historical records, Parkhurst’s complete journey remains unknown. Referring to archival holdings in the Dalton School and Yale University and other historical records in China, this article focuses on investigating Parkhurst’s complete itinerary in China, which could make the history of the Dalton Plan clearer and shed light on research on the Dalton Plan in China.
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