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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences) 2022 Vol.40
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    Research on the Construction of High-quality Early Childhood Education Indicators System in China
    Liyan Huo, Qiangqiang Sun, Zhengyu Long
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (1): 1-18.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.001
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    This study uses the thinking method of “four beams and eight pillars”, draws on the structural logic of the CIPP evaluation model and follows the five-step research path of sequential evidence-based to analyze the status quo, international comparison, theoretical formulation, empirical construction and policy suggestions of China’s early childhood education indicators system. First, it selected the current Chinese early childhood education texts that have great influence in China to conduct content analysis to structurally describe the status quo of China’s early childhood education indicators system. Then it analyzed the structural problems of China’s current early childhood education indicators system by juxtaposing and comparing the structural framework and specific indicators in both domestic and international early childhood education indicators system. Subsequently, it conceived the structural framework and specific contents of the high-quality early childhood education indicators system including four first-level indicators of background, input, process and outcome, 13 second-level indicators and 55 third-level indicators. Then, based on empirical research, it constructed the “four beams and eight pillars” and key indicators of the new era China’s high-quality early childhood education indicators system, which includes four first-level indicators (value quality, condition quality, process quality, and outcome quality), eight second-level indicators (value orientation, social background, system and mechanism, resource allocation, care and education, management of kindergartens, popularization and universal benefit, safety and high quality) and 57 third-level indicators. Finally, it put forward five policy recommendations for the construction of China’s high-quality early childhood education indicators system. First, actively construct a structural framework to impove overall attention to systemic quality. Second, pay special attention to background factors to ensure priority attention to value quality.Third, pay attention continuously to input factors to ensure long-term attention to condition quality. Fourth, put emphasis strongly on process factors to ensure focus on process quality. Fifth, rationally strengthen the output factors to ensure comprehensive attention to the outcome quality.

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    Trace on Calculation Method of Evaluation Reform of Education
    Xin Yang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (1): 19-29.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.002
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    In terms of calculation method, the evaluation reform of education is questioned, which is not only a critical response to the evaluation on the basis of information technology, but also to grasp the breakthrough in the evaluation reform of education while clarifying the challenges and risks. The challenge of evaluation reform of education promoted by calculation lies in how to correct the educational concept, improve the scientificity of improving the evaluation; secondly, how to produce the knowledge of education and promote the professionality of evaluation; thirdly, how to optimize the educational governance and manifest the objectivity of the evaluation. However, limited to the complicated cognition behind the calculation, the evaluation may meet the risks such as the bias intensification, ranking trap, digital divide, materialization dilemma and etc. Regarding this, in order to realize the pursuit of the reform of “putting the risks into challenges”, it is necessary that the breakthrough of the calculation method of the evaluation reform of education should be prompted from the aspects of method in cognition, aim, object and mode, that is to surpass the self-fulfilling prophecy through pursuing the causes, transcend the race via peace agreement, to use the overall development to go beyond the individual features, finally the ample data to take place of the insufficient data.

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    How to Evaluate Universities? The Rise, Spread and Institutionalization of International Evaluation in China’s Top Universities
    Qu Yu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (1): 30-42.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.003
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    China’s university evaluation has always been accompanied by a strong top-down administrative dominance for a long time. The allocation of government resources among universities is also closely related to the evaluation results. In such a system, universities are more likely to highlight advantages rather than problems. In the process of promoting the construction of world-class universities, the evaluation system of Chinese universities has gradually changed and international evaluation has become an important way for leading universities to carry out self-evaluation. This study found that the early international evaluations mainly originated from universities’ initiation for specific issues. Under the strong willingness to reform in the universities, international evaluations were introduced into the self-evaluation systems of these universities and promoted organizational changes, such as personnel system reform, university and school management system reform, inter-discipline construction. Since then, the international evaluation mechanism has continued to spread among the first-class universities in China. This article believes that changes in the environment of higher education evaluation system is an important foundation for the spread of international evaluation mechanisms, and the learning and imitating of pioneers is the direct cause of proliferation. Under the effect of the legitimacy mechanism, international evaluation has accelerated its spread among the first-class university groups in China. It has become an important part of the continuous self-reformation of universities.

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    What is the Practical Experience of Impact Evaluation of PK-12 Educational Programs in the United States:Thematic Text Analysis Based on 25 High-Quality Evaluation Research
    Chenchen Shi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (1): 43-59.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.004
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    The impact evaluation of PK-12 educational programs in the United States not only started early in practice, with a relatively solid foundation, but also has developed into an important type of educational scientific research and the evidence source for the evidence-based educational reform at present, accumulating a lot of relatively mature practical experience. After thematically analyzing the text of 25 high-quality evaluation research, this research found that its practical experience is as follows. First of all, adequate evaluation funding is the first prerequisite for evaluation. The funding support comes from government and other sources, the raising is a collective action of wisdom, and the allocation runs through the entire evaluation process. Secondly, professional evaluators are the core input of evaluation. The evaluators come from professional organizations such as universities and colleges, and appropriate evaluators will be carefully selected and determined based on many factors, and there are currently three types of evaluator role positioning, namely, internal evaluators, external evaluators, and evaluators who collaborate internally and externally. Thirdly, scientific evaluation conducting is the key process of evaluation. The evaluation planning usually determines the evaluation type and questions. The evaluation design will clarify the theoretical basis, evaluation methods and outcome measures. And the evaluation implementation will attach great importance to sample recruitment, intervention implementation and data collecting. Fourthly, utility fruit is an important output of evaluation. The evaluation findings will be properly analyzed and reasonably explained. The evaluation results will be written by specifications and presented in various ways. And the evaluation products will be vigorously disseminated and used effectively. In addition, while striving to improve its quality, the impact evaluation of PK-12 educational programs in the U.S. has also begun to burst out new practical trends.

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    A Study on the Inequality of Basic Education Expenditure per Student in China: Based on the Gini Coefficient and Theil Index
    Lele Geng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (1): 60-73.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.005
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    The equity of expenditure per student on basic education affects the equity of educational process and outcome. Based on the data of expenditure per student on basic education and the data of current students from 1995 to 2018, this paper estimates the equity degree of expenditure per student on basic education in China by calculating the Gini coefficient and Theil index. It is found that the equity of expenditure per student on basic education is generally at a “relatively fair” and “relatively reasonable” level and became more equitable from 1995 to 2018. The inter-provincial difference of basic education expenditure per student is greater than the regional difference. The expenditure of basic education per student in eastern China varies greatly among provinces, and the degree of equity is low. The fairness of the average expenditure of senior high school students tends to decrease. According to the research findings, relevant policy recommendations are put forward.

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    Are Your Educational Expectations Rational? Research on Effects of Parent-Child Discrepancies in Educational Expectations on Academic Performance
    Gang Cheng, Sihui Du, Qian Yu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (1): 74-87.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.006
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    Educational expectations are the expectations of individuals, parents, or teachers for the future level of education of learners, which have a great impact on academic performance and individual development. Numerous studies have overlooked the prevalence of differences in educational expectations between parents and children, while such differences can easily result in poor behavioral and performance. Based on the large-scale data of the 2014—2015 China Education Panel Survey, we use OLS, PSM and corrected Bootstrap method to explore the effects of parent-child discrepancies in education expectations on the academic performance of adolescents, as well as the differences in the influence mechanisms. The research has found that, firstly, parent-child discrepancies in education expectations have negative and significant effects on the academic performance of adolescents. Secondly, upward-biased parent-child discrepancies in education expectations, typically manifest as holding high hopes for children, are not rational, with a significant and negative effect on academic performance. However, there is no significant relationship between downward-biased parent-child discrepancies in education expectations and academic performance. Thirdly, psychological stress, academic burden and negative emotions play partial mediating roles in the relationship between the upward-biased parent-child discrepancies in education expectations and academic achievement. Finally, compared to that of girls, the academic performance of boys is more susceptible to the negative impact of upward-biased parent-child discrepancies in education expectations. Based on the results of empirical research, we put forward countermeasures such as forming appropriate educational expectations and improving parent-child communication.

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    System Review and Legalization of Compulsory Withdrawal from Colleges and Universities
    Hang Zhang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (1): 88-101.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.007
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    The handling of compulsory withdrawal from colleges is the behavior of colleges and universities to forcibly terminate the legal relationship of students in school, including disciplinary withdrawal and academic elimination. The legal nature of compulsory withdrawal is a state administrative act, and in the specific type of administrative act, it belongs to the cancellation or abolition of unformatted administrative acts that grant benefits. In view of the fact that the handling of compulsory withdrawal has excessively restricted or even deprived students of their basic rights such as the right to identity and the right to education, the formal legality of the compulsory withdrawal system must follow the principle of legal reservation, the principle of clear norms, and the principle of due process. In terms of substantive rationality, the above should comply with the principle of proportionality, the principle of prohibition of improper connection and the principle of trust protection. Based on the conclusions of the legality and rationality of the system, the legalization of the system should be carried out from four aspects. Specifically, first, the basis for withdrawal should be partly based on the principle of relative legal reservation to assign authority; second, the reasons for withdrawal should be divided into political standards, disciplinary standards and academic standards to be determined separately; third, the withdrawal procedure should be established as an open procedure, hearing procedures and period procedures; fourth, rights relief should be improved and explored in school appeals, administrative reconsideration, judicial litigation and administrative compensation and other systematic remedies.

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    The Educational Thoughts and Practice of the Early Tongcheng School: A Focus on the Three Ancestors of Tongcheng
    Zhengping Tian, Ziwei Pei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (1): 102-115.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.008
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    As a well-known cultural group in Qing Dynasty which long lasting, large in numbers and influential, the Tongcheng School is commonly regarded as a literary school because of its famous ancient style prose. Actually, most of the Tongcheng Scholars had rich teaching experiences and educational ideas and closely related to education. Represented by the “Three Ancestors”, the early Tongcheng School took an active part in imperial examination and academies of classical learning in Qing Dynasty and made great effects. Studying on their educational thoughts and practice will help to enrich the comprehensive understanding of education in Qing Dynasty and figure out the internal logic of the later Tongcheng School’s performance in the process of Chinese education modernization.

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    How Expository Writing Has Become the Only Required Course at Harvard University: A Conversation between Nancy Sommers and He Mingzhu, Yu Haiqin
    Nancy Sommers, Mingzhu He, Haiqin Yu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (1): 116-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.009
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    Writing is a way to both literally and metaphorically put a mark on the world. It is a process to lead students to read critically and deeply, and write effectively and clearly. It is also an approach to figuring out what ideas students really care about and guiding them to write about these ideas with care and depth. Writing courses are usually required in American colleges and universities, which aim to cultivate undergraduates’ written communication ability and critical thinking. The Harvard College Writing Program was founded in 1872, and its expository writing course is the only academic experience required of every undergraduate today. Beginning with her college writing handbooks and expectations for cooperation with China, the interview was carried out with a focus on the following themes: why Nancy Sommers has devoted herself to writing education; why she has focused her research on revision and responding; why she set up the Harvard Writing Project; why she created the Harvard Study of Undergraduate Writing; and why she set up the Writing Workshop for graduate students. In this profound and impressive interview, Sommers attributed her success to loving to read and loving to write. She pointed out that learning to write is a great way for college undergraduates to learn more effectively about the various other subjects which they study, and regarded writing as the power that helps students set a course in life for themselves. At the same time, she stressed that writing is the center of undergraduate education, and that at the heart of writing is really revision. Sommers also elaborated on revision strategies of student writers, responding to student writers, writing partners in the Writing Workshop, the idea of ten thousand hours of practice, the relationship between speaking and writing, “personal dragons,” and avoiding plagiarism.

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    Conceptual Framework of Children’s All-round Development through a Multi-disciplinary Approach
    Xudong Zhu, Xiuyun Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (2): 1-16.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.001
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    Conceptual framework of children’s all-around development through a multi-disciplinary approach is based on Marxist “all-around development of humans”. It attempts to construct a conceptual framework for children’s all-around development through a multi-disciplinary perspective, consisting of “five pairs of concepts and twelve categories”. Specifically, it includes the conceptual construction of children’s civic and moral development through the lens of political science and ethics; the conceptual construction of children’s cognitive and emotional development through the lens of psychology and brain science; the conceptual construction of children’s social and personality development through the lens of sociology, psychology, social psychology; the construction of children’s artistic and aesthetic development through the lens of art studies and aesthetics; the conceptual construction of children’s health and safety development through the lens of human kinematics, nutrition, and safety; the conceptual construction of children’s physical and brain development through the lens of physiology and brain science. The construction of children’s all-around development through a multi-disciplinary approach is to deepen the discussion around the basic theories for children’s development. The conceptual framework provides theoretical reference for a more comprehensive grasp of the goal of education, as well as theoretical basis for constructing a scientific educational evaluation system.

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    The Cultural Studies on Labor Education
    Shaoming Xiao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (2): 17-28.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.002
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    Labor education is a process of cultural practice in which people transform the external world, realize the cultural value of people’s free and all-round development, and meet people’s material and spiritual cultural needs. The critique of “labor worship”, “labor determinism”, “labor ends” and “human being’s origin in labor” and the debate on labor education in Chinese and foreign education history reveal that culture is the essence of labor and labor education, and their studies require cultural study. “Labor”, “culture” and “education” have common meanings in etymology. Labor education, as cultural practice, is the unity of “civilizing” to transform nature through material and energetic transformation and “education” to transform society through information-language. It contains different levels of culture and its practice synthesis, such as value-norm, behavior-function, language-symbol, knowledge-technology and so on. Labor education has the characteristic of culture materialism. In another word, it has the cultural characteristics of material and broad masses, based on material production and social reality oriented mass culture. The cultural value of labor education lies in that it is the cultural enlightenment to liberate all people, and its knowledge and culture enlightenment to reflect and express the culture of social life. In a word, the cultural essence and practice of labor education fully present the transformation of substance, energy and information, the material transformation and spiritual creation among human, nature and society. It is a historical, realistic and social dialectical relationship and unity between the “education” of labor and the “labor” of education, physical labor education and mental labor education, civilizing and enlightenment, elite and the public, theory and practice.

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    What is a Good Evaluation of the Effect of Education Policy
    Zhanyong Qi, Yue Du
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (2): 29-42.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.003
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    The evaluation of the implementation effect of education policy is the basic guarantee for the orderly operation of education policy activities and even the education system. A good evaluation of the implementation effect of education policy is not only the fundamental way to achieve the goals of the education policy, but also an important measure to strengthen the operation and implementation of the education policy. Besides, it is the basis for “reengineering education policy” or “producing new education policy”. The evaluation of the implementation effect of education policy is an activity, where the subject of evaluation, based on certain value standards, uses specific ways and methods to describe the facts and value judgments of the impact of educational policy implementation activities on the social system elements in the policy target area, and feedback in the policy cycle. It involves complicated stakeholders, ambiguous and extensive goals, unstable and uncertain processes, limitations of methods, and feedback of results. The current evaluation of the implementation effect of China’s education policy has problems such as the lack of theoretical research, and the evaluation horizon is stuck in the empirical paradigm. Also, the evaluation method and technology are single; the professionalism of the evaluation activities need to be improved; and the feedback and utilization of the evaluation results are inefficient. Based on this, a good evaluation of the implementation effect of education policy needs to be reconstructed from the following aspects. The evaluation standard adheres to the unity of facts and values; the indicator system takes into account the multiple elements and linkage coordination; the evaluation methods and technologies are practical, and the results of the evaluation emphasize both analysis and feedback application. In this way, the phenomenon of policy vacancy, policy suspension, and policy failure in the implementation of education policy should be minimized or disappear.

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    Obesity in Primary and Middle School Students: Inter-school Differences and Time-use Patterns
    Wenming Zhang, Jiasheng Chen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (2): 43-56.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.004
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    Does school environment shape students’ bodies? To answer this question, based on the data from the Survey of Primary and Middle School Students’ Learning Situations and Learning Environments (2020), we investigated, through an “individual-centered” research perspective, latent profile analysis and multilevel ordinal logistic regression, whether inter-school differences and time-use patterns in basic education have an impact on obesity among primary and junior secondary school students. This research found that, first, at the primary and middle school level, the school level and the school type have an effect on the obesity of students. The effect of school factors at the senior high school level was not significant. Second, there are significant time-use patterns in obesity levels and two characteristics with school level. At the primary and middle school levels, students with more quiet time for homework and video games are more likely to be obese. Third, the time-use patterns of obesity among primary and middle school students were variable with inter-school differences and was particularly evident at the middle school level. Students in public middle schools were more likely to show differences in the time-use patterns of obesity compared to students in private middle schools. Therefore, the structural characteristics of obesity in primary and middle school students should be fully considered in the formulation of school and student health policies. Policy interventions should be made through the time spent on homework, cell phones (games), sport and sleep, so as to effectively curb the occurrence of overweight and obesity.

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    To What Extent Does the Course “Moral and Civic” Affect Students’ National Identity: Based on an Empirical Survey of Primary and Secondary School Students in Macao
    Chenzhi Li, Shuting Liang, Xiaoming Guo
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (2): 57-70.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.005
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    This study used self-compiled national identity, Moral and Civic Course Perception questionnaire, and cluster sampling method to investigate primary and secondary school students in Macao. The results show that the overall level of national identity is above average, and the emotional domain is slightly higher than the cognitive and behavioral domains. There were significant differences in gender, grade, father’s nationality and parents’ educational level, especially in grade. Most students have a good perception of the objective and content of the course, but the teaching methods and evaluation methods are not diversified. There are significant differences in the factors of curriculum perception among the groups of gender, grade, mother’s nationality and mother’s education level, which is still the most significant difference among grade. National identity is closely related to the course perception of “Moral and Civic”, and the degree of curriculum goal perception is a key factor affecting national identity, but teachers’ teaching methods and evaluation methods have little influence on national identity.It is recommended to pay attention to the differences in nationally recognized grades, to lay a solid foundation for the lower grades, and to check for omissions in the upper grades. Family education is a key link in the implementation of national identity education. It is imperative to offer “parent curriculum” to pay attention to mother education. “Moral and Civic” is one of the key courses to carry out the fundamental task of cultivating people by virtue. The implementation of the course needs to improve the documents of Basic Academic Competence to guide teachers to optimize the teaching methods and evaluation methods.

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    Starting Line Competition: An Analysis of the First Time for Primary and Secondary School Students to Participate in Extracurricular Tutoring—— An Empirical Study Supporting the Implementation of the “Double Reduction” Policy
    Haiping Xue, Huanhuan Shi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (2): 71-89.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.006
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    The effective implementation of the “Double Reducation” policy needs to accurately identify the deep-seated reasons why students choose to participate in extracurricular tutoring. Studying the time when primary and secondary school students participate in extracurricular tutoring for the first time can provide an empirical basis for relieving the extracurricular tutoring needs of parents and students. Based on the data of the 2017 China Institute for Educational Finance Research-Household Survey (CIEFR-HS 2017), this paper uses the method of survival analysis to describe primary and secondary school students’ first-time participation in extracurricular tutoring, and discusses the impact of family socio-economic background on the survival time of students’ first-time participation in extracurricular tutoring. This paper finds that, first, most of the primary and secondary school students in China have participated in extracurricular tutoring, and many of them have participated in extracurricular tutoring relatively early. Second, the time of primary and secondary school students who participate in extracurricular tutoring of subjects for the first time is significantly earlier than that of interest classes, and the difference is more prominent with the increase of grade. Third, there is a significant difference in the first time students from urban and rural and different social classes participate in extracurricular tutoring, but the difference gradually reduces with the increase of school period. Fourth, family socio-economic status has a significant positive impact on the time of students’ first participation in extracurricular tutoring. Students with better family socio-economic backgrounds are more likely to participate in extracurricular tutoring earlier, but this difference decreases with the increase of students’ learning period. In the context of “Double Reduction” policy, it is suggested that the government should continue to improve the quality of elementary education to meet the needs of parents and students for individualized education. Besides, it's important to provide academic counseling for disadvantaged students with poor academic performance, and provide subsidies for the students of vulnerable groups with poor academic performance. Also, it’s important to guide parents to choose extracurricular tutoring rationally, as well as objectively and dialectically examine the impact of extracurricular tutoring on the development of students.

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    Discussion on the Management Mode of Loosely-coupled Disciplines
    Liguo Li, Pengda Feng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (2): 90-99.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.007
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    Under the loosely-coupled system, the development of different disciplines not only holds autonomy and relative independence, but also maintains interaction with organizations. Protected by loosely-coupled system, different disciplines can adopt development measures that suit their circumstances to cope with the environment and pursue legitimacy. The evaluation and resource allocation in discipline governance should be conducted in accordance with the laws and characteristics of different disciplines, reflecting their own particularity, so as to avoid requiring them with uniform mechanical standards. Loosely-coupled discipline governance, conforming to the characteristics of university organizations and the uncertainty of discipline development, will help to deal with the fragmentation of external and internal environment and promote the innovation of discipline development. At the same time, in order to drive the overall promotion of disciplines and the realization of organizational goals, the coupling of disciplines should be strengthened through the construction of shared values and organizational culture.

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    What are the Changes in the Employment Situation of Chinese College Graduates in the Context of the 2021 Epidemic: An Empirical Study Based on National Survey Data in 2021 and 2020
    Tao Li, Nuan Sun, Zhihui Wu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (2): 100-113.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.008
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    The “Comprehensive Investigation of Employment Situation of College Graduates in China During the Epidemic Period” conducted the second round of surveys in 34 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities across the country for two and a half months from June to August 2021. Compared with the first round of survey in 2020, the following findings were found. (a) Nearly 50 percent of graduates signed a monthly salary of 3,001-5,000 yuan after tax. (b) The overall matching rate of job positions and majors increased significantly. (c) Employment satisfaction remained high but declined slightly, and (d) the rate of considering leaving had increased slightly. In 2021, unemployed graduates felt that the impact of epidemic factors on employment had significantly reduced. Their intentions of employment within the government system were obvious. Those who failed in civil service examinations and higher education had strong willing to retake the examinations. Different from the situation of employed graduates, the “salary package” exceeding the “place of work” became a significant employment factor for unemployed graduates. At the same time, the gap between expected salary and actual salary was widening. The ranking of employment expectations for private enterprises had dropped significantly. In the survey sample, employers’ recruitment plans were shrinking, but rates were rising. The salary levels were increasing, as well as the recruitment standards. The satisfaction of college graduates with the employment guidance work of the college remained good, which was the same as in 2020. Through logistic regression analysis, it was found that the variables include gender, household registration, family economic status, school type, school level, subject type, subject level, personal education, academic performance, entrepreneurial willingness etc., had significant differences in the impact of different categories on employment. The same as in 2020, men have a significant employment advantage over women. This employment advantage existed in the comparison of economically non-difficult families with economically difficult families as well. Meanwhile, employment advantage was showed in the comparative between colleges of science and engineering and finance and agriculture and forestry colleges, national "Double Tops" universities and higher vocational college, humanities and social sciences, national double first-class disciplines and ordinary disciplines, master’s degrees and bachelor’s degrees. The graduates from top 20 percent of professional rankings had more advantage than the 20-60 percent and bottom 40 percent graduates. Difference from 2020, the findings show that rural household registration graduates have a higher employment probability than urban household registration graduates, current graduates from medical colleges and normal colleges had a higher employment probability than colleges of science and engineering graduates, the employment probability of undergraduate graduates was lower than that of college graduates, and the employment probability of agricultural medicine was higher than that of humanities.

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    Educational Leadership Reform and Teachers’ Professional Development from the Perspective of “the Fourth Way”: Theoretical Approach and Practical Pattern
    Gang Zhu, Shirley Dennis
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (2): 114-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.009
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    Amid the global education reform movement dominated by neoliberalism, the internationally-renowned education reform and teacher education scholar Professor Dennis Shirley and his colleagues proposed the “Fourth Way” aimed at promoting sustainable development, innovation and inclusive global education reform. At present, the “Fourth Way” reform model has been implemented in countries such as Finland and South Korea. In response to a series of new imperatives in educational reforms, Dennis Shirley considered “leading from the middle” and community organizing as breakthrough points for the new reform model. In view of the importance of teacher education in the global education reform, Dennis Shirley proposed the concept of mindful teachers and explored the five types of professional capital that need to be developed in teacher education, namely human capital, social capital, decisional capital, moral capital and symbolic capital. At the same time, Dennis Shirley also pays attention to the well-beings of teachers and the different kinds of teacher culture in the context of educational reform. In response to the global issues faced by human being, such as the new coronavirus pandemic and climate change, Dennis Shirley called for more cross-cultural dialogues and exchanges to address these challenges. Scholars at home and abroad have conducted in-depth academic dialogue on the theoretical approach and practical patterns on the above issues, in order to show the reform of educational leadership and teacher professional development from the perspective of “the global fourth way”.

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    Children’s Age Staging: Conceptual Tools for Reconstructing Educational History
    Binxian Zhang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (3): 1-9.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.03.001
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    Expanding the research scope and expanding the discipline boundary are the main paths to the discipline construction of educational history in recent decades. With the passage of time, the limitation of epitaxial growth benefit is becoming more and more obvious. This article advocates drawing on the research results of relevant disciplines, introducing children’s age stages as a conceptual tool for understanding educational history, and investigating the historical process of education from the relationship between the change of age stages and educational evolution, so as to change the research perspective and promote the connotation development of the discipline of educational history.

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    Privacy Risk of Teaching Space in the Era of Information Technology
    Conggen Yan, Danqin Chen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (3): 10-19.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.03.002
    Abstract168)   HTML195)    PDF (659KB)(177)      

    Although the teaching space is not a private space, it does have privacy requirements. Establishing, respecting and maintaining the right to privacy in teaching spaces is the need to protect the dignity of teachers and students, ensure freedom of teaching, promote the outstanding growth of teachers and students, and ensure the regular operation of teaching organizations. In the era of information technology, private information in the teaching space is easy to be collected and disseminated, and easier to be reused, causing unpredictable privacy violations. Even the legal method of “notification and permission” and anonymous technical treatment can not effectively reduce the privacy risk of teaching space. Although the privacy risk in the teaching space in the era of information technology is almost impossible to be eliminated, it should be reduced as much as possible. To this end, it is necessary to reshape privacy ethics, reconstruct science and technology ethics, legislate to establish the privacy rights of teaching spaces, clarify the responsibilities of schools and parents, and strengthen privacy protection education for teachers and students.

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    Research on the Mechanism of Principal Curriculum Leadership Components in Primary and Secondary Schools: An Empirical Study Based on PLS-SEM
    Lv Lijie, Ding Yiran
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (3): 20-29.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.03.003
    Abstract287)   HTML187)    PDF (886KB)(233)      

    Principal curriculum leadership is an important guarantee for school curriculum development, teachers’ professional development and students’ quality improvement. Based on the concept interpretation and dimension decomposition of principal's curriculum leadership, this study discusses the constituent elements and mechanism of principal curriculum leadership. Taking principals of primary and secondary schools as the research objects, descriptive statistics and PLS-SEM were used to analyze the status quo and model test, respectively, to explore the relationship between principals’ curriculum awareness and curriculum leadership effectiveness. The results show that principals of primary and secondary schools have strong ability of curriculum planning and management, but weak ability of curriculum awareness and curriculum assessment. Principals’ curriculum management ability and curriculum assessment ability have a direct impact on curriculum leadership effectiveness, while principals’ curriculum awareness has a positive impact on curriculum leadership effectiveness through six mediation pathways (including four chain mediation roles). Based on the above research results, suggestions are put forward to pay attention to the scientific and accurate training of principals’ curriculum leadership, strengthen the empirical research on the emotional and intellectual elements of principals’ curriculum leadership, and build a narration-based mechanism for improving principals’ curriculum leadership.

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    Public Opinion on Education in the Post-truth Era
    Feng Tian
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (3): 30-39.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.03.004
    Abstract226)   HTML28)    PDF (732KB)(263)      

    The post-truth phenomenon is obviously manifested in the field of education. The post-truth phenomenon, initially defined as political manipulation of public opinion, has evolved into “circumstances in which objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief”. By systematically analyzing the characteristics, manifestations and causes of post-truth public opinion on education, this paper proposes the concepts, principles and methods for governance of post-truth public opinion on education at governmental, social and personal levels.

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    Left-behind Experience and Withdrawal Personality: An Empirical Analysis of New Generation Migrant Workers
    Zhijun Liu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (3): 40-56.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.03.005
    Abstract259)   HTML33)    PDF (1093KB)(234)      

    Using the survey data of 2,385 new generation migrant workers, the relationship between left-behind experience in childhood and individual withdrawal personality was investigated through relevant behavioral tendency variables. The results showed that those with left-behind experience were more likely to “not express labor rights complaints for fear of being fired or being dealt with despitely”, showing a relatively withdrawal personality characteristics. Among them, those who had been left-behind during preschool period are most significant influenced, and the longer been left-behind, the greater the influence. The robustness of the above conclusion was verified by comparison analysis before and after propensity score matching and reference analysis of the willingness variable of “whether or not willing to participate in rights movement to fight for oneself” and the behavior variable of “not to complain about the infringement of rights for fear of revenge”. This paper focuses on the measurement of behavioral tendency in real situations to verify the conclusions drawn from psychological scale and qualitative research, and shows that the long-term influence of left-behind experience on withdrawal personality can be extended from college students and other groups to ordinary migrant workers. The results also indicate that in addition to structural logic and historical logic, the study of new generation of migrant workers should be integrated into the ecological logic to pay attention to the developmental ecosystem in childhood. Because withdrawal personality will directly affect social integration and probably lead to social structure tension of “semi-urbanization”, the future care and protection of left-behind children should pay more attention to their personality development, and special attention should be paid to those children left-behind in preschool stage.

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    The Elites with Poor and Humble Families:Cultural Reproduction and Resistance in Elite Universities
    Tong Xiao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (3): 57-74.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.03.006
    Abstract345)   HTML81)    PDF (1160KB)(543)      

    School is not only a place for education, but also an important territory for cultural production and social insight. Through the mixed research paradigm, a five-stage stratified random sampling of 1, 013 rural students was conducted. The two-year follow-up survey recorded the resistance strategies of 18 rural students in elite universities and their transition from students to teachers. The research finds that: in the face of the arbitrariness of “General Culture” in elite universities, the sense of justice and value embodied in “study” is constantly impacted. In the interaction of life experience and dominant structure, students carries out more oriented cultural production around the ethical possibility space of rural “Duty Sense”. When students become teachers and assume the function of “relaisecram” of social reproduction, accompanied by the dangerous leap from “morality” to “rationality” of its survival ethics, "Duty Sense" is once again transferred into the ideology of the school through the civilizing power between social succession, and become the symbol of their conversion to the system.

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    Universalization of Teacher Education: Reflection and Reconstruction
    Xiaohong Zhu, Meng Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (3): 75-88.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.03.007
    Abstract223)   HTML36)    PDF (969KB)(302)      

    Universitization of teacher education has become a world trend. The consensus of university education among countries in the world is to foster the unity of scientific research and talent cultivation. However, the conflicts between academic and artistic in the past and the current disputes over specialization, professionalization and deregulation have always existed in the reform of teacher education in universities in various countries and also perplexed the choice of teacher training mode, which is even stuck in the dilemma of educational ethics. Some universities tend to increase the novice teacher teaching experience with internship courses, but they cannot avoid the negative impact of their teaching behavior mistakes on primary and secondary school students. Adhering to the unity of history and logic research principle, this paper systematically summarizes the history of teacher education in university involvement, and investigates the evolution of the relationship between educational research and pre-service training, and focuses on the main contradictions in the process of universalization of teacher education, that is, the separation between educational theory courses and internship courses. As a normal university, with the main responsibility of cultivating teachers, it draws on the new perspective of “consciousness-experience” provided by the phenomenological philosopher Husserl to reconstruct the methodology of education reform from the perspective of universities, and focus on the inner relationship between educational theory and teaching experience, and explore the new path of the integration of theory, experiment and practice in teacher education curriculum reform.

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    Evaluate and Value Teaching Performance Based on Students’ Achievement
    Wanpeng Lei, Hongmei Ma
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (3): 89-98.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.03.008
    Abstract193)   HTML30)    PDF (1116KB)(183)      

    Error-component analysists argue that residuals generated by subtracting predicted values of test scores from the unconditional class-level mean and then aggregated at the class level can be regarded as teacher effectiveness. The paper tests this argument by using self-collected teacher-student matched data from 22 counties or districts in Hubei province and Guangdong province. Correlated random effect model (CRE) is employed to predict students’ test scores residuals, main findings of this paper are listed as below: (1) there are huge differences among teachers in terms of teaching performance, if a teacher of average quality is replaced by a colleague at 69 percentile whom Hanushek called “a good teacher”, the whole class will witness a net achievement gain of 0.2-0.3 standard deviations depending on which subject is under concern, the effect of which is equivalent to one-year acquisition of knowledge and skills. If he or she is replaced by a “great teacher” standing on the top 16% of the teaching performance distribution, test scores of the class will boost by 0.3-0.5 standard deviations. (2) The economic value of quality teachers is enormous, if a class of 49 students taught by a good teacher is assigned to an average teacher, the present value of earnings losses suffered by the whole cohort of students is between 110 thousand RMB and 240 thousand RMB. By our conservative estimation, the monetary value of a good instructor’s teaching is worth of at least 4.25 million more than a mediocre one across his or her 38-year career life. The article shades light on how to evaluate and value teaching performance.

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    Can Educational Robots Improve Student Creativity: An Meta-analysis Based on 48 Experimental and Quasi-experimental Studies
    Haoxiang Hou, Xianyi Zhang, Dan Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (3): 99-111.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.03.009
    Abstract226)   HTML29)    PDF (837KB)(238)      

    Cultivating innovative talents has become a basic path for our country to build a strong country in science and technology and solve the “stuck neck” technical problems.Catering to the trend of educational reform in the intelligent age, the use of robotics to enhance students’ creativity shows richer practical value and contemporary significance.In this study, 48 domestic and foreign experimental studies and 6, 057 sample sizes were coded using the meta-analysis method, and the findings show that, first, the overall effect of educational robots on students’ creativity was 0.576, reaching a medium or above level of influence. Among them, the effect of promoting students’ innovative practical ability was the most obvious, and the degree of influence on the quality of innovative personality was average. Second, from the perspective of the academic stage, the effect of educational robot on the creativity of students in junior middle school and primary school was more obvious; Third, in terms of disciplines, software programming had the best impact on students’ creativity, followed by information technology. Fourth, among teaching topics, prototype creation had the most impact on students’ creativity and the level was above the intermediate level. Fifth, in terms of the choice of teaching methods, inquiry teaching can better stimulate students’ creativity. Finally, compared with ordinary classrooms, the laboratory environment was more optimistic for the development of students’ creativity. Combined with field research, four practical suggestions are put forward. We need to promote the implementation of artificial intelligence-related courses, taking into account the cultivation of students’ innovative personality and thinking in the teaching process. Schools should focus on the cultivation of low-level students’ creativity, and vigorously promote software programming teaching. Also, schools need to create robots Maker education model, improve the training system and incentive mechanism for teachers of related subjects; schools should promote the design of laboratory hardware and software environment, and raise funds for educational robots in various aspects.

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    Research on the Influence of Dialogic Peer Feedback on College Students’ Online Deep Learning
    Jiajia Yao, Yan Li, Jinjin Pan, Mengmeng Cheng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (3): 112-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.03.010
    Abstract238)   HTML41)    PDF (1001KB)(306)      

    In the context of the intelligent era, colleges and universities need to pay more attention to the cultivation of deep learning talents and the training of student’ deep learning ability. Discussion-based learning with dialogic peer feedback strategy is an important way to stimulate students’ high-level thinking and deepen their learning input in classrooms. Through an exploratory experiment in the natural state, the research explores the influence of dialogic peer feedback strategy based on online discussion in group on college students’ deep learning and the characteristics of students’ online participation. The study found that: (1) dialogic peer feedback strategy based on online discussion in group can significantly promote students’ learning approach from surface approach to strategic and deep approach, especially for surface learners, which may have negative effects on deep learners; (2) such activity can significantly promote the transformation of students’ cognitive levels from unistructural or low-level multistructural to high-level multistructural, but it has not yet stimulated the development of students’ cognitive levels to relational and extended abstract structures; (3) the cognitive level of deep learners who are more actively involved in activities is not better than that of surface learners, although they have an important role in driving surface learners to participate in and deepen their learning approaches. Based on the findings, some suggestions are provided for college teachers to better design deep learning activities in blended learning environment.

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    Causal Inference, Scientific Evidence, and Educational Research: Discussion on the Educational Research of Nobel Laureates in Economics in 2021
    Bin Huang, Bo Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (4): 1-15.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.04.001
    Abstract290)   HTML239)    PDF (987KB)(529)      

    In recent thirty years, causal inference method has become the mainstream method of quantitative research in social science and has been widely used in the field of education. In 2021, the Nobel Economics Prize was awarded to David Card, Joshua D. Angrist, and Guido W. Imbens for their contributions to promoting the development of causal inference methods. Taking the causal inference research of the three economists in the field of education as the starting point, firstly, this paper discusses the dual attributes of educational research, which have both humanistic care and scientific rationality, and expounds the significance of obtaining effective causal evidence in promoting the development of educational science research. Secondly, this paper introduces in detail the important research findings made by the three Nobel Prize winners in the aspects of Return to Education, the effect of Small Class Teaching, and the effect of school investment on the development of students’ cognitive ability. Lastly, this paper discusses the existing problems and future improvement direction of educational causal studies in China.

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    A Study on Grade 7-12 Students’ Online Learning Performance with their Parental Involvement: Investigation and Research Report I on Online Teaching in Primary and Secondary Schools in Jiangsu Province
    Mei Cao, Xiaoyue Zhu, Shusheng Shen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (4): 16-28.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.04.002
    Abstract434)   HTML270)    PDF (850KB)(586)      

    K-12 students were pushed to the forefront of online learning with their widely-involved parents by the Covid-19 pandemic. There is a public concern about their learning performance, adaptability and parental influences. This study is based on the large-scale online teaching survey authorized by Jiangsu Education Department. Several descriptive or exploratory statistical analysis were carried out on 449,650 valid student questionnaires. It's found that with the parental involvement in online learning, students had satisfying learning involvement and acceptable goal attainment, but their learning psychology was not so good, though there were certain demographic differences. Homework guidance and good learning environment are two important parental factors that affect learning outcomes, also positively predicting learning involvement. Besides, parent-child communication atmosphere and family expectations both influence learning involvement. Learning psychology is positively affected by homework guidance, learning environment, parent-child atmosphere and family expectations. There are five typical online learners through cluster analysis, whose characteristics reflect different family parenting styles. The research suggests that in the post-epidemic era blended learning has to pay attention to several aspects such as home-school collaboration, learning psychological intervention, and online learning interaction.

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    The Effect of Parental Involvement on their Perception of Children’s Academic Burnout in the Online Learning Context: Investigation and Research Report II on Online Teaching in Primary and Secondary Schools in Jiangsu Province
    Li Zhao, Yue Liu, Shusheng Shen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (4): 29-42.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.04.003
    Abstract270)   HTML45)    PDF (873KB)(364)      

    Based on the large-scale online teaching survey authorized by Jiangsu Education Department, this study aimed to examine the mediating role of parental educational anxiety between parental engagement and perceived child burnout in the context of online learning of a total of 1,039,155 parents from Jiangsu Province. The results showed that, (1) after controlling for parental literacy, parental educational anxiety positively influenced parental perceptions of their children’s academic burnout while “masking” the relationship between parental engagement and parental perceptions of their children’s academic burnout. (2) Among parents of elementary and junior high school students, the influence of parental engagement on their children’s perceptions of academic burnout was mediated by parental educational anxiety. (3) The inconsistent effect of parental involvement on the perceived academic burnout of high school students was masked by parental anxiety. (4) The mediating effect of parental involvement on the perceived academic burnout of children differed across dimensions. The results of the study showed that in the context of online learning, high parental engagement was beneficial in relieving their children’s academic burnout among parents of elementary and middle school students, while the “masking” effect of educational anxiety among parents of high school students indicated that parents of high school students needed to help their children overcome their academic burnout through relieving their own educational anxiety. The “masking” effect of educational anxiety among parents of high school students indicates that parents of high school students need to alleviate their own educational anxiety to help their children overcome the problem of academic burnout in online learning.

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    Analyzing the Characteristics of High-performing Online Teachers in Primary and Secondary Schools: Investigation and Research Report III on Online Teaching in Primary and Secondary Schools in Jiangsu Province
    Cailan Zhu, Xin Wen, Shusheng Shen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (4): 43-60.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.04.004
    Abstract221)   HTML28)    PDF (1059KB)(242)      

    Primary and secondary school teachers were pushed to the forefront of online teaching by the Covid-19 pandemic. There is a public concern about their teaching performance and effect. This study is based on the large-scale online teaching survey authorized by Jiangsu Education Department. Descriptive statistical analysis and multi-linear regression analysis were carried out on high-performing teachers from 180,965 valid teacher questionnaires and found that high-performing teachers who are experienced in online teaching, have good psychological status, and can adapt to online teaching quickly. They are more flexible in online teaching, emphasizing students’ independent learning ability development. They have diverse needs in online teaching, focusing on online learning environment and resources. There are significant differences among the following three types of teachers: actively competent, adaptive-achieving, and stress-achieving. Accordingly, the following suggestions are made: to play the cascading effect of teachers’ online teaching ability improvement; to precisely target teacher training and promote the regularization of blended teaching; to provide targeted support to outstanding teachers.

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    From Coping to Adaptation: Analysis of the Characteristics of Different Principals’ Online Teaching Leadership Behavior: Investigation and Research Report IV on Online Teaching in Primary and Secondary Schools in Jiangsu Province
    Xiaowei Zhao, Hongyu Shao, Shusheng Shen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (4): 61-76.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.04.005
    Abstract200)   HTML25)    PDF (1096KB)(187)      

    It is of great significance to scientifically evaluate the online teaching leadership behavior of principals during the epidemic period, correctly measure the adaptation and sustainability of online teaching, and judge the main teaching modes adopted by schools in the future. According to the time line, this study examines the changes of online teaching leadership behavior of different principals. This study is based on the large-scale online teaching survey authorized by Jiangsu Education Department. We collect 3,668 valid questionnaires from primary and secondary school principals, and conduct descriptive statistical analysis, Chi square test and one-way ANOVA, supplemented by interviews with 17 principals. The results show that different principals’ online teaching leadership behaviors show common characteristics, and the adaptation shows a trend of increasing assimilation level and stabilizing or reducing sustainable willingness. Then, according to the characteristics of differences, the study depicts four types of principals, namely, the temporary change of opportunity, the change of time, the adaptation to circumstances and the change of initiative. Finally, the study puts forward the promotion strategies that are consistent with different principals, namely, transcending path dependence to promote cognitive evolution, acquiring effective knowledge to expand opportunity space, focusing on reflective learning to create synergy, and establishing future vision based on action research.

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    A Study on the Willingness of Regional Education Administrators to Integrate Online Teaching into Normal Teaching and its Influencing Factors: Investigation and Research Report V on Online Teaching in Primary and Secondary Schools in Jiangsu Province
    Hongquan Bai, Jiaoyang Wang, Shusheng Shen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (4): 77-89.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.04.006
    Abstract196)   HTML25)    PDF (1059KB)(311)      

    Online teaching has played an important role during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic, and how to integrate online teaching into normal teaching after the epidemic has become a hot issue in the field of education. Education administrators play a key role in leading the implementation of online teaching, so it is of great significance to pay attention to their willingness to support the integration of online teaching into normal teaching and its influencing factors. This study, based on the large-scale online teaching survey authorized by Jiangsu Education Department, uses the technology acceptance model and the expectation confirmation model to constructed a willingness model that affects the regional education managers to support the integration of online teaching in normal teaching. Through the investigation of education administrators in various urban areas of Jiangsu Province, it was found that the education administrators generally supported the integration of online teaching in normal teaching. In terms of specialty differences, the education administrators of art and sports majors have the lowest integration intention. In terms of regional differences, the education administrators with low integration intention concentrated in the municipal districts (not the main urban areas) and the areas with low frequency of online teaching in pre-epidemic areas. In terms of influencing factors, satisfaction, performance expectation and effort expectation all have a significant positive impact on the willingness of regional education administrators to support the integration of online teaching into normal teaching, and satisfaction has the greatest impact.

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    Do New University Satellite Campuses Lift Real Estate Prices: Empirical Analysis Based on Micro-transaction Data of Land and Housing in Beijing
    Wenjie Zhang, Wei Ha
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (4): 90-102.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.04.007
    Abstract209)   HTML30)    PDF (959KB)(161)      

    Universities play an important role in promoting local economic growth, especially in the urbanization process in recent years. Taking advantage of the arguably exogenous policy shocks of new satellite campuses and the micro-transaction data of land and housing in Beijing, this paper uses a quasi-experiment design to explore the impact of universities on real estate prices. The findings show that: first, the newly built satellite campus has a significant positive impact on the prices of commercial and residential land within 5 km. Second, the more newly built satellite campuses, the closer the new campuses are to the city center, and the higher the land price. Third, only public universities can significantly increase the price of newly built commercial housing within 3 km radius, while non-public universities have no significant effect on the housing price. Therefore, it is necessary to form a long-term mechanism involving multiple subjects (such as universities, local governments and social forces), to link the construction of new satellite campuses closely with the local economic growth, and to promote the more sustainable interaction between the new satellite campuses and the local economic growth.

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    45 Years: An Experiment in Mathematics Teaching and Reform
    Lingyuan Gu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (4): 103-116.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.04.008
    Abstract217)   HTML31)    PDF (2044KB)(347)      

    This is an experimental report on mathematics teaching reform conducted in an urban-rural fringe area in the west of Shanghai. From 1977 to 2022, this 45-year experiment has witnessed a change of Chinese society from Reform and Opening up to educational modernization. In the early part of the experiment, we found an effective way to improve the quality of education in common conditions. We summed up a Chinese experience that students learn from variant experience and teachers grew up in action research. In the later part, we focused on ability and accomplishment objectives, and we found out some key initiatives to improve students’ inquiry and innovation ability. Then these results brought some actual effect and a positive social impact. The whole report gathered practice crystallization of three generations of old, middle-aged and young people. This experiment went through three stages: first, improving the educational quality generally and dramatically from a very low (1977—1992); second, prioritizing comprehension so as to break through the bottleneck of high cognition (1992—2007); third, perfecting teaching research to promote inquiry and creativity (2007—2022).

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    The Key to Mathematics Education: Inquiry Reading, Computational Reasoning, Speculative Communication, and Happy Learning——A Dialogue with Professor Po-Shen Loh, the Head Coach of the U.S. National Olympic Mathematics Team
    Zhibin Yuan, Loh Po-Shen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (4): 117-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.04.009
    Abstract199)   HTML29)    PDF (537KB)(170)      

    On March 13, 2018, Yuan Zhibin conducted an interview with Professor Po-Shen Loh on topics such as mathematical learning experience, mathematical teaching methods and other topics. From this, we learn more about Professor Po-Shen Loh’s unique and inspiring mathematical learning experience and mathematical teaching methods. This reveals the key to mathematics education: inquiry reading, computational reasoning, speculative communication, and happy learning.

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    The Practical Significance and Realization Path of Codification of Education
    Daquan Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (5): 1-7.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.05.001
    Abstract229)   HTML39)    PDF (605KB)(165)      

    The codification of education code has been included in the legislative programme.Codification is a sign of the maturity of a legal system in a field.The legal system in the field of education is relatively sound, and the quantity and quality of provisions can meet the requirements. Moreover, there is internal logic between legal norms, and the system is relatively mature. The legislative organ and the competent department have also formed a working consensus, which has a realistic basis for codification. The compilation of educational code is of great significance not only for the theoretical study of educational law but also for the practice of educational rule of law. It can promote the reform and innovation of educational system deeply by rule of law. Codification is faced with difficulties such as filling legal gaps, educational transformation, unclear procedures and insufficient theoretical preparation. It is necessary to give priority to filling educational legal gaps, and at the same time carry out systematic and organized research, and promote the codification through systematic integration of educational legal norms and partial innovation of substantive codification mode.

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    Formulating Education Code with the Core of the Right to Education
    Xiaobing Sun, Lanlan Liu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (5): 8-16.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.05.002
    Abstract133)   HTML25)    PDF (768KB)(175)      

    In the new era of codification, education legislation should take the right to education as the core to formulate education legal system and institution. Right to education is the core concept of education code. Realization of right to education should be regarded as the basic principle and guideline of educational legislation, which reflects the human-based value. The essential content of education code is formulation of norms and guarantees of right to education, which combines an internally logical and self-consistent system with five subject aspects, respectively, in national guarantee, institutional establishment, student development, teaching quality and social support. To the purpose of promoting right to education to meet the need of social development, making education code should also keep moderate openness and prospectiveness, which not only consolidates the existing educational system, but also reserves legislative channel for new systems of right to education protection.

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    On the Core Concepts of Education Code: Based on Juristic Act and Administrative Act
    Suping Shen, Hang Zhou
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (5): 17-27.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.05.003
    Abstract119)   HTML16)    PDF (734KB)(128)      

    A code is the symbol and product of highly developed legal technology, and it is also the best model for the construction and precisely application of legal concepts and norms. Establishing the core concepts of education code as a tool for extracting common factors is a necessary prerequisite for compiling education code. However, the choice of the core concepts of education code and the definition of its connotation fundamentally affect the path and structure arrangement of codification, so it should be carefully determined after systematic thinking and system construction of China’s educational rule of law practice. According to the analysis of the concept evolution, value orientation and system function of the core concepts of civil law and administrative law, the core concepts of educational code need to realize the unity of formal rationality and value rationality, to promote the integration of external and internal systems, and to highlight the unique value pursuit of educational law.

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    Comparing and Reference: Basic Function and Path in Codification of Education Law in China
    Huimin Qin, Jun Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (5): 28-39.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.05.004
    Abstract152)   HTML19)    PDF (818KB)(156)      

    In the codification innovation of education law based on the existing education legal system in China, the basic function and path of codification are the two basic concerns. The basic function in codification of education law is systematization, which has the dual dialectical attributes of goal and premise. The systematization has a formal function and a substantive function. The weight of formal and substantive functions carried by the basic form of education codes in major contemporary countries varies, resulting in differences in the degree of realization of the systematization function in the conceptual spectrum of codification compilation and codification innovation. With comparing and reference of the basic forms of foreign education codes and summarizing the innovative experience of the Civil Code, it helps to further understand the basic function and basic path of codification in education law. To explore the basic path of education law codification, it is expected to aim at realizing the systematization function in codification innovation, condense the basic values, legislative principles, and core elements of the education code logic system by discussing the basic issues of top-level design and underlying logic of education law codification.

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    Rationalist Codification of Education Law: Between Ideals and Reality
    Yuwen Peng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (5): 40-52.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.05.005
    Abstract128)   HTML16)    PDF (703KB)(133)      

    Codification is an important measure for the construction of the socialist law with Chinese characteristics. As an organic part of the socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics, the codification of education law inevitably pursues creating a charter for educational development, highlighting national features, promoting the spirit of education law with Chinese characteristics, and ultimately forming the Chinese qualities of education code. However, there is still a gap between ideals and reality. Although the codification of education law in China has a certain foundation, there are still a series of highly challenging dilemmas, including a lack of mature construction of education legal system, the controversial status of education law, the imbalanced development of educational legal construction practice, the uncertainty of the factors for the reform and development of education, and the deficiencies of developing meta-theories of educational law. To address these issues, the compilation of the educational code must balance the relationship between ideals and reality and implement “rationalist thinking”. We should not only lay an ideological foundation from pragmatic and problem-oriented perspectives, and the perspective of cultivating a benign development ecology, but also consolidate a theoretical foundation supported by highly mature academic research and an inclusive public opinion orientation. The article advocates to implement the strategy of “transitional codification”, to improve the synergy of legislature and academic forces, to steer toward future directions through the structure of the code and legislative techniques, and to reinforce the implementation of the codification of educational code.

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    Institutional Positioning and Logical Framework of Education Code
    Hongbo Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (5): 53-62.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.05.006
    Abstract103)   HTML21)    PDF (696KB)(131)      

    The compilation of education code is an important starting point to promote the scientization and systematization of educational law. In the contemporary Chinese legal system, education code is not a departmental law in the general sense, but a domain law aimed at legal issues in specific fields. Based on this positioning, education code should form a framework system including general principles and sub-rules in accordance with the corresponding theories and logic. The general principles mainly include educational objectives, basic principles, educational system, educational subjects, educational management and supervision, international cooperation in education and settlement of educational disputes. The specific provisions should be in accordance with the type and order of education, including preschool education, compulsory education, vocational education, higher education, family education, etc.

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    The Specific Provisions of Education Code: Concepts, Systems and Content
    Haitao Ren
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (5): 63-76.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.05.007
    Abstract121)   HTML21)    PDF (763KB)(130)      

    From the perspective of the connotation and historical evolution of the basic concepts of Chinese education law, the protection and realization of the right to be educated constitute the basic concepts of the specific provisions of the education code, which can be proved from the two aspects of justifiability and feasibility. The unifying effect of the basic concept on the compilation of the education code is not only reflected in the value and function of the basic concept, but also in that the protection of the right to be educated is the core purpose of the general provisions of the educational code. In terms of methodology, it is advisable to adopt the “entry into the code” standard of “horizontal educational legal relations + vertical educational legal system” for the compilation of sub-items, making full use of the legislative technique of “citing”, choosing the style design of “total score structure”, absorbing and extracting common factor legislative technology, and establishing the value rank of “subject first and then object”. On this basis, the sub-sections of the education code are composed of sub-departmental laws such as education subject, school education, education and family, social and special matters. The part of educational subject of the specific provisions includes school legal system, teacher legal system and student legal system. In the specific provisions of the education code, the part of school education includes preschool education system, compulsory education system, high school education system, higher education system, vocational education system, special education system, degree system, and examination system. The part of education and family, and the part of the society mainly include family education system and lifelong education system. The special matters part mainly stipulates the education system for ethnic minorities, the national standard spoken and written language system, and the Sino-foreign cooperative education system, etc.

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    On the Formation Path of Education Code
    Tao Jin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (5): 77-88.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.05.008
    Abstract113)   HTML23)    PDF (805KB)(117)      

    The formulation of China’s criminal law and civil code can provide useful reference for the formulation of education code. The formulation of education code should follow the following guiding concepts, such as the Constitution and the Party’s education policy, coordinating other departmental laws, building a coordinated system, and the operability of provisions. The absorption and reference of existing provisions in education code includes absorbing the provisions of education laws, transforming the contents of education regulations, paying attention to the common problems of school rules and disciplines, and learning from the experience of foreign legislation. The objective need to create provisions to fill the gap means that the compilation of the formulation of education code “is not feasible”. The draft of education code should be fully competitive, take the advantages of various versions, integrate professional thinking and public wisdom, and strive to improve the legislative quality of education code.

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    Research on the Systematization of Educational Finance and Taxation Issues in Education Code
    Tieshuan Feng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (5): 89-99.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.05.009
    Abstract88)   HTML25)    PDF (753KB)(141)      

    Although educational fiscal and taxation regulations span the Education Law and the Fiscal and Taxation Law, they do not refer to all education-related fiscal and taxation norms, but specifically refer to the fiscal and taxation norms with the original intention of promoting the development of education and protecting citizens’ right to education. Whether it is based on the public welfare of education, or the state’s obligation to pay for the right to education, or because of the educational characteristics of education fiscal and taxation norms, it is necessary for the education code to respond systematically to education fiscal and taxation norms. The implantation of education fiscal and taxation norms in the education code can not only promote the system of education fiscal and taxation standards, but also the orderly connection of education law and fiscal and taxation law. On the basis of consideration of standard selection, the fiscal and taxation standards in the education code should highlight the dominant characteristics of education, avoid overlapping with the education provisions in the fiscal and taxation law, and be in line with the fiscal and taxation standards in the education policy. In terms of system structure, the fiscal and taxation regulations in the education code cover education fiscal expenditure guarantee regulations, education finance fund raising regulations, education finance authority and expenditure responsibility regulations, and education tax incentives regulations. In terms of legislative expression technology, the design of the education code’s fiscal and taxation norms should not only adhere to the “general rules + sub-rules” standard layout, but also follow the standard configuration of the relative separation of education finance and education taxation, and use determinism + appointment + approval hybrid rule structure.

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    Codification of Family Education Promotion Law in Education Code
    Ning Liu, Siya Wu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (5): 100-107.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.05.010
    Abstract194)   HTML26)    PDF (617KB)(168)      

    The legal system of family education is a new field of education law adjustment, and it is an inevitable choice to move from systematization to codification. In terms of system orientation, family education is organized into the basic system of education code. The general provisions have a close relationship with the Family Education Promotion Law, which is reflected in the overarching effect of the general provisions on the Family Education Promotion Law and the provision of legislative resources for the general provisions by the Family Education Promotion Law. In terms of the path of codification, first, adhere to the guiding ideology of minor repairs and promotion legislation.Second, take the legal relationship of family education as the main line of logic of compilation; family education is the value level of the sub-rules, and family education promotion law becomes the sub-sections of the education and family, social of education code. Based on the above considerations, in the process of codification of the Family Education Promotion Law, systems such as general provisions, family responsibilities, national support, social cooperation, and legal liability should be comprehensively adjusted.

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    The History of Codification of Code and its Mirror to the Establishment of Education Code
    Haijun Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (5): 108-117.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.05.011
    Abstract113)   HTML23)    PDF (661KB)(114)      

    The history of codification provides an important mirror for the codification work in modern countries, including China’s upcoming education code. China’s formulation of education code should be based on the tradition and history of education code, based on the existing educational legislation in the country, and the demonstration effect of the Civil Code. By enacting a code, it not only responds to the practical education problems, but also realizes the systematization of educational legislation,which can accelerate the development of the rule of law in education, and promote the modernization of national governance. It's important to choose a codification path suitable for China, and in form, integrate the existing educational legislation to form a complete and unified legislative document. In terms of the code structure, it's necessary to take the deduction classification, coordinate the public-private legal relationship and public-private law norms in the education code, reserve a certain legislative space to ensure the development of educational legislation, and learn from the experience of the foreign education code, inherit the tradition of Chinese educational legislation, formulate an education code in line with the spirit of the education law, China’s national conditions of education and the development of the rule of law.

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    The Style Structure of Education Code: Extraterritorial Models and Chinese Solutions
    Binbin Duan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (5): 118-129.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.05.012
    Abstract136)   HTML23)    PDF (827KB)(164)      

    The style structure is not only related to the external form of the code, but also to the choice of the content, the layout of the provisions, the internal logic and the system arrangement. At present, there are three modes of the structure of foreign educational code: loose mode, parallel mode and quasi-main axis mode. Although the loose mode helps the code to accommodate a large number of contents, the lack of logical association between chapters makes it difficult to form an internal system. The parallel mode overcomes the disorder of the loose mode by adding the dimension of parallel classification, but there is still a lack of internal correlation between the dimensions, so it is impossible to judge whether the content of the code meets the requirement of completeness, or whether the style of the code is logical. Although the quasi-main axis mode ensures that the chapters within the core dimension have a good logical correlation and hierarchical structure, there is still a lack of systematic connection between the main and subordinate dimensions, which weakens the logic and system of the code to a certain extent. Based on the pros and cons of various models and the realistic foundation of my country’s educational legal system,the Education Code in China should choose a main axis model with the type of education as the axis, and scientifically handle the logical relationship between general rules and sub-rules, chapters and sub-clauses, chapters and clauses, in order to educate the main body. It controls the general rules of the Code, serializes the sub-paragraphs by education type, refines the chapter arrangement by organizing activities, and determines the order of the laws by logical relations.

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    The Enlightenment of Foreign Civil Codes to the Codification of Education Code of China: Taking the Four Modern Civil Codes as the Research Center
    Sijie Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (5): 130-142.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.05.013
    Abstract120)   HTML26)    PDF (789KB)(154)      

    Codification needs the systematization, which is based on the internal logic of the code. The Civil Code of France took “a free man and his property” as the logic, and the BGB took the standardized right system as the narrative. The education code of China should combine these two logics and focus on the realization of the educated persons and their educational rights. With its abstract and rigorous conceptual system and general principles, the BGB maintained the balance between the stability and openness of the code, and the Swiss Civil Code did it with its open legal source as a lever. In addition, the BGB and the Japanese Civil Code used their own historical resources to bring the nationality into the normative system of the code. The above four famous modern civil codes can provide valuable enlightenment to the codification of the education code of China. An education code with internal logic, highlighting national values, stability and openness will realize the self-transcendence of China’s education law, so as to promote the civilization and progress of the Chinese nation.

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    Research on the Decision Mechanism of Rural Teachers’ Salary Income under the Rural Revitalization Strategy
    Shanhuai Liu, Shuang Wang, Xiuhong Zhu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (6): 1-15.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.06.001
    Abstract300)   HTML76)    PDF (1080KB)(265)      

    Constructing a complete remuneration system is essential for improving the overall quality of rural teachers, promoting the balanced allocation of rural teachers, and stimulating the motivation and development vitality of rural teachers. A large-scale survey of 39 counties (cities, banners) in 12 provinces shows that there is a large regional gap in rural teacher salary income in my country, and rural teacher salary income levels in some areas are low. The teacher salary income gap in counties is small, which does not fully reflect the difficulties and remoteness of schools; and there is a significant gap in the level of salary among teachers, which does not reflect the actual contribution. This remuneration pattern is closely related to the basic composition and determinants of rural teachers’ salary income. The “county-based” fiscal security system determines the overall level of salary income, and the functional design of “compensatory wages” highlights the group differences between rural teachers in the county, while performance pay under “secondary distribution” reflects the individual differences of teachers. In order to give full play to the labor pricing, differential compensation and continuous incentive functions of rural teachers’ salary income, it's necessary to optimize the structure of rural teachers’ salary income, improve the funding guarantee mechanism and the supervision mechanism.

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    The Policy Logic, Implementation Trap and Reform Logic of the Construction of Rural Teachers under the Rural Revitalization Strategy
    Xiuhong Zhu, Shanhuai Liu, Shuang Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (6): 16-30.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.06.002
    Abstract246)   HTML43)    PDF (982KB)(230)      

    With the gradual improvement of hardware facilities and public funding guarantees, the role of teachers in promoting the development of rural education has become more and more prominent. of exploration, under the framework of the overall planning of rural education development, a more complete policy system has been formed for the construction of the rural teaching team: policy goals point to “high-quality development”, policy concepts highlight “reverse compensation”, and policy measures focus on “overall coordination”. However, due to the inertia of the system, the construction of the rural teacher team tends to fall into multiple implementation traps such as “opportunism”, “power hollow” and “policy idling”, resulting in policy failure or inefficiency. Entering a new stage of comprehensive promotion of rural revitalization, how to reasonably avoid the implementation trap and fully release the effectiveness of policies is the key to promoting the high-quality development of rural teachers in order to promote education to revitalize rural areas. To this end, we should strengthen the top-level design of policies, break through the institutional barriers of policy implementation, and promote the coupling and coordination of the policy system and local conditions: one is to design policies in layers and categorization to improve the appropriateness and accuracy of policies; the other is to optimize the institutional environment to improve the operational efficiency of policies; the third is to improve the evaluation and feedback mechanism to promote effective policy integration.

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    Identity Separation and Identity Crisis: Research on the Professional Commitment of Non-staff Teachers under the Rural Revitalization Strategy
    Yunyun Li, Shanhuai Liu, Ailei Xie
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (6): 31-43.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.06.003
    Abstract216)   HTML34)    PDF (864KB)(191)      

    Based on the data collected from a survey of 2,196 non-staff teachers in 12 provinces and in-depth interviews with 36 non-staff teachers, this research systematically explored the professional commitment of non-staff teachers in public primary and secondary schools. The study finds that the professional commitment of non-staff teachers in my country is at a low level, and the low-level professional commitment behavior is essentially a strategy for non-staff teachers to adapt to and respond to inequality and identity crises in their daily work. Non-staff teachers have a professional identity crisis through the self-categorization of their identities and the “non-recognition” of their identities by others, and they tend to make low professional commitment such as escape, compromise, and daily resistance. The low professional commitment performance of non-staff teachers is mainly affected by two mechanisms: cost-benefit analysis and pay-return imbalance.

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    Pre-compensation or Post-incentive: Research on the Breach of Contract by Rural-oriented Normal Students under the Rural Revitalization Strategy
    Yuanyuan Zhang, Fangfang Xue
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (6): 44-56.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.06.004
    Abstract395)   HTML44)    PDF (926KB)(209)      

    Rural-oriented normal students are an important source of rural teachers. In recent years, with the expansion of the oriented normal student training scale, the problem of normal students’ breach of contract has emerged, disrupting the supplementary plan of rural teachers and affecting the policy effectiveness. Based on the policy texts of rural-oriented normal students in 25 provinces and field survey data in three provinces (cities), it is found that the current policy forms a contractual relationship in the form of “pre-compensation + constraint”, emphasizing the responsibilities and obligations of normal students, but lacking continuous incentives for pre-service and in-service normal students, which may easily lead to normal students’ breach of contract. In order to reduce the default rate, based on the principle of incentive compatibility, the design of “post-incentive + constraint” should be strengthened to bridge the gap between individual expectations and policy objectives, and to avoid insufficient policy “post-incentives”.

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    Research on the Calculation Standard of Authorized Number of Preschool Teachers under the Rural Revitalization Strategy
    Tiantian Qin, Shanhuai Liu, Meina Yin, Xue Zhang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (6): 57-81.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.06.005
    Abstract213)   HTML24)    PDF (2367KB)(207)      

    Improving the quality of education plays a crucial role in the development of preschool education, while the keystone of education quality lies in the construction of the team of teachers. At present, the teachers of public kindergartens in our country are mainly temporary staff, but this can’t thoroughly guarantee the quantity, quality and team stability of teachers. In addition, using the single-dimensional index of teacher-to-child ratio or teacher-to-class ratio to compute the number of teachers can’t realize a balance between the supply and the demand of staffing. In order to popularize high-quality preschool education, “how to allocate teachers of public kindergartens” has become a major problem that needs to be solved urgently. The experience of preschool teacher allocation in nine countries including the United States, France and Japan shows that granting preschool teachers the status of public officials is beneficial for the education department to scientifically allocate the number of teachers, strictly control the qualifications of teachers and uniformly regulate the professional behavior of teachers. It can also better protect teachers’ welfare benefits, promotion and other rights and interests. The contract employee system can promptly dismiss surplus teachers according to the changing trends of preschool children. However, its promotion has higher requirements on the construction of contract legal system and the level of economic development. At present, the economic development of China is unbalanced and insufficient, and there are still many weaknesses in the contract management system of public institution. Therefore, comprehensively promoting the contract employee system has a high risk coefficient. We should insist on authorized strength as the basic way of arranging teachers for public kindergartens, take the kindergarten as the accounting unit, and regard grade distribution, child-care and teaching activities, and teachers’ working hours as basic parameters. We have built a calculation model that takes into account nursery needs, teachers’ reasonable workload and utilization efficiency of human resource. Additionally, it is supposed to simultaneously push forward supporting reforms such as financial allocation, preschool teacher staffing management, normal education and treatment system. In this way, the local government can approve authorized size of teachers on demand and replenish sufficient teachers according to authorized size.

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    Research on the Influence Mechanism of the Turnover Intention of Rural Preschool Teachers under the Background of Rural Revitalization: Analysis of a Moderated Mediation Model
    Tao Wang, Mengzhuo Li, Shanhuai Liu, Xue Zhang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (6): 82-96.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.06.006
    Abstract241)   HTML32)    PDF (2143KB)(263)      

    Stabilizing the teachers team is the key to the development of rural preschool education in the context of rural revitalization strategy. By using the work stress scale, work apathy scale and the turnover intention scale, this study investigated 3 790 rural preschool teachers in 22 counties(cities) of 10 provinces and analyzed the influence mechanism of work stress and work apathy on turnover intention. The results show that work stress can significantly predict teachers’ turnover intention. Work apathy plays an intermediary role between work stress and turnover intention, and the indirect effect is larger than the direct effect. The authorized staff status can regulate the mediating effect of work stress on turnover intention and work apathy. A combination of measures should be taken to alleviate the turnover intention of preschool teachers in rural areas, including keeping the workload at a reasonable level, improving the comprehensive treatment of preschool teachers in rural areas, creating a friendly organizational climate and increasing the supply of preschool teachers who have authorized staff status in rural areas.

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    How to Transform Labour into a Kind of Education: On the Conception of Labour and Labour Education
    Chuanbao Tan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (6): 97-104.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.06.007
    Abstract268)   HTML44)    PDF (646KB)(238)      

    Recognizing the phenomenon that “there is labour without education” necessitates the theoretical-philosophical reconsideration, in particular, of the conception of labour education and of the relationship between labour and education. In comparison with moral education, intellectual education, physical education as well as aesthetic education, labour education is a compound of these educational concepts and meanwhile a link between general education and the real-life labour world. To transform ‘labour’ into ‘labour education’, or say to think of ‘labour’ from the education perspective, it is to develop conscious, natural, and organic connection between labour practice in general sense and the cultivation of educational competencies embodied in morals, intelligence, physical health and aesthetics. The practice of labour education is fundamentally associated with the daily educational life. Emphasizing the educational conception of labour not only helps rectify the current distorted situation in which ‘there is labour without education’, but also has other significant implications. That is, it also helps implementing an all-round labour education, building a proper relationship between labour education and students’ daily lives, preventing ‘anti-labour education’, and respecting the educational principles that are inherent in different stages of schooling and in various educational institutions.

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    The Modelling of Laborers’ Image in Textbooks: Exploration of Integrating Labor Education into Curriculum of Schools
    Yue Hu, Yule Jin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (6): 105-115.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.06.008
    Abstract255)   HTML25)    PDF (775KB)(230)      

    Full excavations of educational values of laborers’ image in textbooks can be said as one important measure to integrate labor education policy into schools’ curriculum. By taking the unified textbooks in primary and secondary schools as research objects, this paper defined the connotation of laborers’ image in textbooks, as well as established totally seven analytical dimensions for creations of laborers’ image. In addition, it also explored the orientation of laborers’ image in unified textbooks of ideology and political education in character selection, character shaping and teaching suggestions respectively. From overall structure, this paper presented distinctive discipline characteristics, masculine tendencies, as well as related features dominated by mixed graphics and texts. It suggested that in future all the textbooks improve overall labor-education quality in the knowledge world by recreating connotation of laborers’ image and adjust corresponding structure.

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    The Genetic Mechanism and Transformation Logic of Educational Inequality
    Dandan Guo
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (6): 116-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.06.009
    Abstract188)   HTML33)    PDF (713KB)(277)      

    The education inequality in reality and the constant pursuit of equality of education, which are both sides of the same problem, are subtler and deeper with the development of education. Genetics provides us with a suitable research incision. To sort out and explore the action mechanism of the existing inequality in the field of education, we need to go back to the occurrence of practice and trace the logical path of the development of the fact of inequality; go back to the occurrence of cognition, and summarize the theoretical condensation in the pursuit of equality. On the basis of the occurrence of practice and cognition, the function and operation of the generating mechanism of educational inequality are concluded, and the whole process of the generating mechanism of educational inequality is divided into four stages: dynamic mechanism, intermediary mechanism, process mechanism and integration mechanism.

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    Cultural Capital of Colleges and Universities: Connotation, Types and Characteristics
    Qinxiao Hu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (7): 1-26.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.07.001
    Abstract245)   HTML28)    PDF (1083KB)(220)      

    Capital is the basis for the competition and development of individuals and organizations. There are many types of university capital, among which cultural capital is the endogenous driving force for the competition and development of colleges and universities, and it is also a rich inventory for coping with survival crises. Based on the academic history of cultural capital research, combined with the characteristics of university organizational culture, it can be concluded that university cultural capital is the sum of resources. It is governed by the mind dispositions with knowledge moral character as its core in a specific time and space and is expressed through the organic dispositions, objective objects and formal systems. After long-term accumulation and exchange (or conversion), it is lasting, needs to be treated differently, and can bring value proliferation to the development of universities. University cultural capital is divided into spiritual cultural capital, organic cultural capital, objective cultural capital and institutional cultural capital. Whether there is a break between the four kinds of cultural capital is an important way to measure the amount of cultural capital in colleges and universities, and the quality of knowledge is the core yardstick for measurement. The cultural capital of colleges and universities has the characteristics of value proliferation, historical time and space, dynamic plasticity, collective inheritance and internal dependence.

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    The Reflection on the Symmetry of Teaching
    Zijian Li, Defeng Qiu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (7): 27-37.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.07.002
    Abstract208)   HTML35)    PDF (1030KB)(215)      

    Teaching can be regarded as an interactive behavior, and interaction contains rich symmetry principle. The symmetry of reflective teaching is of great significance to redefine the role of teachers and students, promote student-centered learning, establish equal and mutually beneficial relationship between teachers and students, and promote the balance of students' cognition, emotion and sociality. This study attempts to explore the symmetric / asymmetric relationship in teaching from four aspects, including the perspectives of different disciplines, teaching design (especially the scaffolding and zone of proximal development (ZPD)), the orientation of teaching interaction and communication, and different contexts and scenes. The symmetry of reflective teaching enlightens us that we should avoid the inequality caused by the asymmetry of value, right, knowledge, experience, resources and consciousness in the teaching process, strengthen the elements of communication, care and reciprocity, and pay attention to the role and interaction between teachers and students in different teaching strategies (such as ZPD) and situations. Teachers should strengthen teaching reflection, have an insight into the relationship between symmetry and asymmetry in teaching, achieve the best state and improve the quality of learners (students and teachers) through the common responsibility and efforts of both teachers and students.

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    The Solution to Before-school Service in Compulsory Education:An Analysis Based on the Systematic Theory
    Danyi Wang, Yunhuo Cui
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (7): 38-47.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.07.003
    Abstract172)   HTML29)    PDF (1053KB)(134)      

    The before-school service in compulsory education in China has become a problem puzzling the government, schools and families. This article uses the arrival time of students at school and before-school activities as the analytical reference of the length and content of before-school service. From the perspective of systematic theory, we construct a before-school service system model consisting of family and school, to analyze the before-school service system in the compulsory education. The survey shows that Chinese students arrive too early, before the time for their parents to go to work; the duration of Chinese before-school activities is too long, and the content of the activities is difficult to prepare for the first lesson. The early arrival time causes part of the family’s care function to be transferred to the school; too long and complicated before-school activities threaten the preparation function of before-school activities in schools, which endangers the current before-school service system in China. Therefore, it is suggested that the earliest time for school students to arrive at school should be set and the care functions of the family should be clarified. Also, regulations on the length and content of before-class activities should be introduced in order to restore the necessary preparation functions of before-class activities. In addition, paid before-class care service should be provided; the functional boundaries between parents and the school should be divided; before-class service policies and regulations should be promulgated; a supporting before-class service supervision mechanism should be established. In this way, the three-dimensional before-class service system can be established from four aspects of time, content, guarantee and supervision, thus the structural and functional misalignment of the family and school in the before-school service system is restored to ensure the smooth operation of the before-school service system.

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    Cultivating “Teacher-Scholar”: Revisiting William C. Bagley’s Philosophy of Teacher Education
    Zhankui Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (7): 48-57.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.07.004
    Abstract233)   HTML36)    PDF (793KB)(217)      

    Bagley’s essentialism, as one of the four schools of educational philosophy, has long been well known by international educators. However, this label of “the founder of essentialism” also greatly diluted and even obscured his theoretical contribution to improving American teacher education before he worked for the Normal College of Columbia University under the background of the transformation and upgrading from “normal school” to “teacher college” (normal college) in the 1930s and 1940s. In fact, he established a set of knowledge system about teacher education with the goal of cultivating “teacher scholar” in the process of controversy about “academic”, “professional” or “social” teacher training, which laid the theoretical foundation and career blueprint for the subsequent development of international teacher education. Although China has gradually completed the upgrading and transformation of normal universities around the end of the 20th century, the dilemma of “specialty” or “discipline” of teacher training has been bothering the development of teacher education in China. In recent years, in the process of teacher education and teacher training in normal universities, there has even been a significant tendency of “de-professionalization” of “defining specialty by discipline” or “replacing teacher specialty by discipline”. It not only greatly “narrows” and “misleads” the majority of teachers’ professional understanding of their own work, Moreover, in practice, it further “solidifies” and “intensifies” the image of the majority of teachers as “teachers”. Reviewing Bagley’s philosophy of teacher education will not only help to clarify many puzzles and misunderstandings about teachers’ professional attributes, but also provide important theoretical enlightenment for improving China’s teacher education program and reshaping the professional connotation and professional image of teachers’ work.

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    The Symbiotic Logic of the Development of Rural Vocational Education: Structure and Form
    Chengchen Zhu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (7): 58-68.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.07.005
    Abstract176)   HTML34)    PDF (742KB)(159)      

    Rural vocational education is a type of cross-border coordinated and integrated education. The “self-system” of education must cross the “other system” of rural society, and merge into a “super system”, so as to truly form the integrated and modernization development pattern of vocational education and rural society. The development of “super system” of rural vocational education ought to follow the symbiotic logic and systematic thinking paradigm (value thinking, structural thinking and relational thinking) of “self-system” and “other system”. It is interdependent and symbiotic development in cross-border coordination and integration governance, which is exactly the logical path and value essence of the development of rural vocational education. The theoretical logic of the development of rural vocational education is to take system symbiosis as the development premise, systematic thinking as the methodological paradigm, the structural elements of symbiosis theory as the analytical framework, and the “super system” realm as the position, and build a symbiotic logic system composed of symbiotic unit, symbiotic mode, symbiotic environment and symbiotic interface. Based on the symbiotic logic system, the logical structure of the symbiotic system of rural vocational education includes three structural forms: starting point logic, value logic and action logic. The starting point logic focuses on “rationality” and “spirit”; the value logic is embodied in the “principle of benefit maximization”; and the logic of action is embodied in “integration and co-governance”.

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    “Safety Net” or “Diversion”? An Empirical Study of the Impact of Vocational Education on Social Mobility: Evidence Based on CFPS
    Yijun Wang, Huiqi Hu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (7): 69-84.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.07.006
    Abstract242)   HTML46)    PDF (828KB)(245)      

    Vocational education has two mutually exclusive functions in social mobility: “safety net” and “diversion”. Based on the China Family Panel Studies, the impacts of vocational education on social status and social mobility are analyzed by using some indicators such as economic income, socioeconomic index, and mobility of status on both intergenerational and intragenerational perspectives. The results show that vocational education group can achieve better economic income and socioeconomic status than average level, and significantly superior to their parents. Compared with the junior high school group, vocational education group has remarkable advantage in terms of social status, which indicates that vocational education can provide individuals with a solid “safety net” and promote upward social mobility. However, compared with higher education group, vocational education is inferior in terms of economic income and socioeconomic index, and the “diversion” effect is significant. In addition, vocational education plays a more significant role in promoting the social mobility of the western rural region in China. In general, as an effective mechanism to promote social mobility, vocational education should be paid high attention to further develop its “safety net” function whiling limiting “diversion” effect.

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    Research on the Impact of Incentive Mechanism on SSCI Research Output of University Teachers under the Background of Project System: Based on Panel Data Analysis of 36 “Double First-class” Universities from 2014 to 2018
    Yan Cao, Shanshan Tang, Yuan Xun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (7): 85-99.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.07.007
    Abstract142)   HTML41)    PDF (958KB)(135)      

    The salaries of faculties in the “double first-class” universities are funded by the government. During the 21st century, “basic expenditure plus project funding” is the principal means of allocating resources for “double first-class” universities, while faculties’ basic incentives are mainly constituted by the basic expenditure and their project-oriented incentives are mainly constituted by project funding in the form of contracts penetrated layers by layers. This article collected the panel data by selecting 2014—2018 fiscal expenditure data of 36 double first-class universities, combining SSCI research publications of those universities the year after one to three years, focusing on the short-term and long-term impacts of university incentives and their coordinating and interacting under the project system on the quantity and quality of faculty scientific research output. The results show that, in the short term, increasing the basic incentive has a significant partial effect on the quantity and quality of teachers’ SSCI output and a slightly positive synergy effect along with project-based incentive mechanism. However, increasing project incentive has a weak positive effect on the number of teachers’ SSCI research output, only relying on the synergy effect with basic incentive mechanism and a negative extrusion effect on the quality of teachers’ SSCI research output. However, from the perspective of med-and-long term development, the positive effect of increasing basic incentives on teachers’ scientific research output is difficult to maintain, and there is a significant negative crowding effect; Increasing project incentive also has a weak effect on teachers’ scientific research output, and has a negative extrusion effect on the quality of their scientific research output.

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    Study on the Measurement of Higher Education High-quality Development Level in China
    Rong Huang, Xiaochang Ding
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (7): 100-113.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.07.008
    Abstract267)   HTML49)    PDF (1169KB)(232)      

    In the fourteenth Five Year Plan period of China, building a high-quality education system is one policy guidance and key requirement. As a result, research on the measurement of provincial higher education development level and high-quality development paths is necessary. This paper takes Amartya Sen’s feasible ability theory as the theoretical framework, regards higher education as an organization with independent behavior ability and the key factor endowment in promoting regional social and economic development, and constructs a measurement system of higher education high-quality development. The system is based on three-dimensional framework from factors to capabilities and functions, covering 11 aspects which are quantity and scale, quality level, financial investment, teacher Investment, infrastructure, knowledge production, personnel training, enrollment opportunities, research and development conditions, human capital and innovation achievements and involving 43 indicators at provincial level. Based on the interface data of China’s 31 provinces in 2019, this paper uses four different measurement methods: factor analysis, partial least squares, technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution and grey relation analysis. According to the sub scores of provincial higher education in terms of factors, capabilities and functions through cluster analysis and comprehensive level ranking, 31 provinces are divided into three types of higher education: outstanding type, medium type and starting type, which provides the basis for the comprehensive collaborative improvement of provincial higher education and regional development.

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    What is the True Meaning about Educational Objectives Taxonomy: Discussing with Professor Li Yi and Other Scholars
    Hui-yang Zhuang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (7): 114-125.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.07.009
    Abstract192)   HTML47)    PDF (861KB)(191)      

    This paper uses literature analysis method to oppugn the views of articles published by Professor Li Yi and other scholars. Meanwhile, it discusses the true meaning about educational objectives taxonomy. First of all, it quotes three organizational principles called “pedagogical principle, logical principle and psychological principle”, and emphasizes the precise reason for the weakness of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives (ver.1956) is that the psychological principle can not play a sufficient role in the pedagogical issue. This paper also points out that physiological principle is a missing principle of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives (ver.1956) because a rigorous educational objectives classification doctrine must follow physiological principle, logical principle and psychological principle. Secondly, it analyzes the reasons why levels and categories are missing from subject-oriented education objectives description model. Finally, it disproves the viewpoints of “Criticism on Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives”, and calls for a rigorous academic attitude.

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    The Origin and Current Situation of Contemporary Chinese General Education: Also on the Significance of General Education Evaluation-adjustment Mechanism
    Xilin You
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (8): 1-8.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.08.001
    Abstract227)   HTML46)    PDF (692KB)(195)      

    The profound transformation of modern universities led by general education in return makes its development in a constant state of new challenges. Therefore, general education not only needs the guidance of advanced ideas, but also requires regular evaluation and adjustment. The emergence of contemporary Chinese general education in 2015 has evolved into a stage where new problems should be realized and solved. Due to the fact that it is not spontaneously formed locally, tracing back its origin becomes necessary when we hope to accurately evaluate contemporary Chinese general education to fit the inevitable changes of time and society. Three background contexts are to be mentioned: the urgent demand for innovative talents during the transformation of China’s economic growth model, the innovation on knowledge production and education mode in the era of knowledge economy and artificial intelligence, and the humanistic reflection on modernization. At present, the main problems and requirements are as follows: it is necessary to identify the specific objectives of general education with the efforts to separate it from various types of well-used educational patterns, to reasonably adapt the popular method of classic reading while properly approaching the idea of cultural conservatism within it, and to distinguish general education from academic education in order to avoid the rigid requirement of class hour in undergraduate study and the excess amounts of compulsory courses set without clear learning goals in major study. Most importantly in the long run is to build a regular evaluation-adjustment mechanism to promote the interaction between educational theory and social practice.

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    Governance Based on Community Criterion: Theoretical Origins and Practical Directions of Engineering Education Accreditation
    Weifeng Qiao, Yujia Wang, Sunyu Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (8): 9-18.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.08.002
    Abstract127)   HTML43)    PDF (772KB)(133)      

    Accreditation of engineering education is one of the most important ways of quality assurance of engineering education in the world. As a criterion-referenced peer evaluation system, multiple tensions among stakeholders, including government, universities, and industry, are always implied in the engineering education accreditation system. Based on community criterion, the process of balancing and coordinating these tensions is also the process of governance of engineering education. This paper reviews the century-long development of engineering education accreditation from four aspects: theoretical origins, methodological shift, criterion-referenced logic, and institutional evolution, and makes an outlook on the future development trend of engineering education accreditation in the light of the revision of the international benchmark framework of Graduation Attributes and Professional Competencies (GAPC) of the International Engineering Alliance (IEA).

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    Critical Discourse Analysis Based on Self-introduction Corpus from Engineering Departments of Research Universities in China and USA
    Kaifu Zeng, Sunyu Wang, Liping Chen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (8): 19-30.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.08.003
    Abstract145)   HTML41)    PDF (741KB)(111)      

    This paper researches what research universities’ engineering departments in USA and China frequently talk about in their self-introduction texts which are built as a corpus. Critical discourse analysis is used to find the hot words, word clusters and so on. The research finds that, first, the discourse mode of engineering education in the two countries is highly similar because of the title system, degree system and reward system. Second, in terms of educational concept, there are similarities and differences between the two countries in understanding the core concepts of engineering, research and engineer. Finally,the word “engineer” is not a hot word in the engineering education of both countries where engineers are educated.

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    Exploring The Cultivation Mode of Top-notch Innovative Talents in Undergraduate Education in The New Era:A Qualitative Study Based on TheTsien Excellence in Engineering Program’s 12 Years of Pilot in Tsinghua University
    Manli Li, Jinyu Wang, Quanshui Zheng, luping Xu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (8): 31-43.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.08.004
    Abstract337)   HTML52)    PDF (1708KB)(195)      

    The direction of undergraduate education reform in research universities is one of the difficult problems in the reform and exploration of higher education in the past 20 years. This paper takes Tsien Excellence in Engineering Program (TEEP) in Tsinghua university, one of the pilot samples of China’s “Everest Plan”, as the research object, focusing on the pilot course and experience of undergraduate education in research universities in China. Based on a large number of static data such as official documents and meeting records across the past ten years of TEEP reform process, and dynamic data collected by researchers during the past two years including participatory observation, depth interview; etc, this paper comprehensively used the methods of archival research and case study. The study found that: compared with the traditional undergraduate education organization, TEEP has explored the “dual-axis driven” cultivation mode of “intensive course learning + advanced scientific research training” after more than a decade’s pilot practice. This paper reinterprets the core elements and operating mechanism of the “dual-axis driven” cultivation mode from its connotation and four dimensions: “systematic integration of knowledge and experience, logic of students’ time and space, interpersonal interaction between teachers and students, and self-construction of students”. The conclusion of this paper can provide theoretical framework and practical reference from different perspectives and value orientation for further promoting undergraduate education reform in research universities in the new era.

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    Research on the Development of High-quality Students-in-School in China
    Ruijun Wu, Xingxing Yin, Wenyao Yin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (8): 44-56.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.08.005
    Abstract149)   HTML42)    PDF (1007KB)(99)      

    From the perspective of educational demography, high-quality student-in-school pattern is an important part of the high-quality development of education. Under the requirements of high-quality development of education, high-quality student-in-school pattern should have the characteristics of “five highs”: high attendance among school age population, high equity among groups, high balance among regions, high efficiency at all levels of school, high expected years of schooling. The data from the four national censuses from 1990 to 2020 show that the evolution of our country’s student-in-school pattern has the following characteristics and shortcomings. (1) The basic education age group has basically achieved “high attendance among school age population”, and insufficient school attendance is mainly manifested in the tertiary education age group. (2) The inter-group differences represented by gender differences have gradually become fair, and the trend that men’s inter-group differences will be lower than women’s in the future should deserve attention. (3) The pattern of regional imbalance in student-in-school pattern has not changed, and there is a large gap between urban and rural areas in the age group of high school and above. (4) At present, all levels of student-in-school pattern have entered a stage of development towards “high efficiency”, but overage school attendance is still prominent. (5) The expected years of schooling is still nearly one education level away from developed countries, the main nodes restricting “high expected years of schooling” in our country are the consolidation of student-in-school rate in high school and the improvement of the graduate enrollment rate. The research suggests that it is urgent to make up for the shortcomings of students-in-school pattern in the basic education, focus on promoting the development of tertiary education, to promote our country’s student-in-school pattern to the second and third high-quality progressive upgrades with the goal of entering the forefront of innovative countries in 2035.

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    The Impact of Family Cultural Capital on Students’ Reading Literacy: An Empirical Study Based on Multilevel Logistic Model
    Xiaohong Li, shan Wang, Chen Chen, Jie Yang, Xiangli Tang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (8): 57-66.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.08.006
    Abstract214)   HTML54)    PDF (745KB)(232)      

    Based on the PISA2018 B-J-S-Z data, this study uses a multi-layer logistic model to analyze the impact of institutionalized family cultural capital, specific family cultural capital and objective family cultural capital on students’ reading literacy, and explores the urban-rural and gender differences of the impact on students’ reading literacy further. The results show that the increase of three kinds of family cultural capital will have a positive predictive effect on students’ reading literacy, but there are significant urban-rural and gender differences in the impact of different types on students’ reading literacy. The differences between urban and rural areas are as follows: institutionalized family cultural capital only has a significant impact on urban students’ reading literacy; in the objective family cultural capital, family educational resources have a significant impact on rural students’ reading literacy, and family cultural resources have a significant impact on urban students’ reading literacy. Gender differences are as follows: the family cultural resources of objectifying family cultural capital have a significant impact on girls’ reading literacy, but there is no significant impact on boys’ reading literacy.

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    How Boarding Schools Affect Student Mental Health?
    Po Yang, Zhiyi Yan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (8): 67-82.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.08.007
    Abstract302)   HTML78)    PDF (926KB)(226)      

    In the past decades, with the roll-out of “school merging”, China has established an extensive boarding school system. Academia has different views on the relationship between boarding and children’s development, and the influencing mechanisms have yet to be discovered. Based on two waves of China Education Panel Survey (CEPS) data, this paper explores the impact of boarding school on students’ mental health. This paper finds that boarding school has a negative impact. The heterogeneity analysis shows that the negative impacts are larger for girls, rural students, students with parents living at home, and students from affluent families. To understand how boarding impacts mental health, this paper reports that boarding school affects students’ mental health by reducing parent-child interaction and increasing school bullying. Also, in boarding schools, peers’ negative emotions were also more contagious. Moreover, in schools with longer hours of studying and having more strict management, the negative impact tends to intensify. This study concludes that joint efforts from the school management, parent participation and social involvement are needed, in order to improve the education quality and management of boarding schools.

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    Where there is a Will, there is a Way: Heterogeneous Effects of Students’ Willpower on Cognitive Abilities
    Lei Zheng, Yu Sun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (8): 83-95.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.08.008
    Abstract183)   HTML49)    PDF (970KB)(180)      

    According to the measurement framework of social and emotional skills proposed by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, willpower is an essential task performance skill. Willpower has comprehensive and lasting effects on individual’s development. Based on the China Education Panel Survey data, using OLS and GPSM model, this study finds that students’ willpower has significant positive effects on cognitive abilities. Quantile regression and interacting model further show the positive effects of willpower on cognition are heterogeneous at both individual and group levels. For students with lower cognitive abilities, or students in a class with lower average family socioeconomic status or academic abilities, improving willpower can develop cognitive abilities better. These findings provide schools with empirical evidence about strengthening cultivation of willpower and other task performance skills. They promote the value of willpower from the perspective of educational equity and have enlightening significance for current student evaluation reform.

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    Transport Infrastructure and Family Education Expectation: Empirical Analysis Based on “China Family Panel Studies”
    Qingfeng Cai, Guanchen Wu, Wuyuan Chen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (8): 96-114.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.08.009
    Abstract114)   HTML51)    PDF (883KB)(123)      

    Based on the China Statistical Yearbook and the China Family Tracking Survey (CFPS), this paper investigates the impact of regional transportation infrastructure development levels on family education expectations. The study shows that transportation infrastructure is significantly and positively related to household educational expectations, and that improved transportation infrastructure can increase household willingness to participate in higher education. The mechanism study shows that transportation infrastructure affects family educational expectation through two channels: increasing family income, changing fertility concept and educational philosophy. Furthermore, the impact of transportation infrastructure development on family educational expectation is heterogeneous: in rural areas with less developed transportation infrastructure, areas with low average parental education, slow information flow, and families with lower social class, the relationship between transportation infrastructure and family educational expectations was particularly significant. In urban areas with higher average parental education, faster information flow, and in households with higher social class, the positive relationship is not significant. These research findings provide new ideas for the state and government to better promote education poverty alleviation and rural revitalization in poor areas.

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    Social Game and Public Rationality: The Governance Logic and Approach of Synchronous Enrollment Policy Between Public Compulsory Education Schools and Private Compulsory Education Schools
    Yi Li, Jiyang Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (8): 115-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.08.010
    Abstract207)   HTML55)    PDF (763KB)(136)      

    Synchronous enrollment policy between public compulsory education schools and private compulsory education schools aims to solve the chaos of compulsory education enrollment and pursue the basic values of fairness, balance and inclusiveness of compulsory education. But at the same time, it also triggered disputes on multiple values such as fairness and efficiency, government and market, education and society. This social dispute reflects the game involving multiple stakeholders behind the enrollment policy. However, the uncertainty of policy implementation will bring many risks at the level of cognition, implementation and standardization. This study analyzes the interest adjustment and impact of policy implementation from the interest game between public and private schools, government and education functional departments, parents and students, education related industries and other different groups. By examining the governance logic of compulsory education policy, we construct a pluralistic and mutually beneficial public rationality of education governance. Based on the public welfare of compulsory education and respecting the market mechanism, the government intervenes moderately to prevent the potential risks of policy. In order to maximize the utility of compulsory education enrollment governance and maximize the internal value bearing of the policy, we can explore and improve the governance approach of compulsory education enrollment policy.

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    Artificial Intelligence Promotes the Development of Future Education: Essential Connotation and Proper Direction
    Xiaoqing Gu, Shijin Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (9): 1-9.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.09.001
    Abstract412)   HTML302)    PDF (724KB)(408)      

    The development of artificial intelligence technology brings both opportunities and challenges to the education system. Based on the major social science project “Research on Artificial Intelligence Promoting the Development of Future Education”, the study found out the key focus points of artificial intelligence to promote the development of future education: artificial intelligence highlights the challenges of innovative talent development; artificial intelligence supports the personalized realization of large-scale education; artificial intelligence reshapes the concept of knowledge and teaching innovation; artificial intelligence empowers future teacher development research; and artificial intelligence promotes the systematic update of the education ecosystem. At the same time, technology empowerment education, technology innovation education, and technology reshaping education are the advanced forms of the “trilogy” of artificial intelligence to promote the development of future education. To explore the core mechanism of artificial intelligence to promote future education development, it is necessary to reveal the interaction law of “technology-education-society” from the perspective of complex systems, explore the essential impact of artificial intelligence on educational development from the perspective of learning science, and predict the development trend of future education from the perspective of “history-culture”. On this basis, it's important to grasp the development strategy of innovative talents driven by the intelligent era, focus on the key elements of education innovation driven by artificial intelligence, reshape the blueprint of future education ecology boosted by artificial intelligence, so as to create a “high-quality and warm” artificial intelligence education new ecology in China.

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    Study on the Relationship Between New Demands of Human Capital and Educational Reform in Intelligent Era
    Sifeng Jing, Xiwei Liu, Xiaoyan Gong, Hongxia Zhao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (9): 10-18.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.09.002
    Abstract221)   HTML252)    PDF (884KB)(266)      

    In intelligent era, the demand for talents has changed. First, human’s working and living space is extended to cyber-physical-social systems, which are characterized by human-computer collaboration and integration, and the complementarity of human intelligence and machine intelligence. This requires people to have new basic competences for intelligence era. Second, competition among countries is intensifying, and intelligent industries are rapidly developing with the deep and intensive application of the artificial intelligence (AI), and compound talents with the background of cross-border, cross-field and multidisciplinary integration are demanded. Third, the rapidly developing AI has also brought a lot of confusion and anxiety to society due to issues such as ethical governance, security and trust, and the development of humanities and social science should be gained more attention than ever. As a result, the demand for talents has brought many challenges to the existing education system, such as teaching and learning models, curriculum systems, teacher team building, and evaluation systems, and it is imperative to implement educational reforms, and it is demonstrated that the two-way empowerment between technology and education is the only way to promote educational reform.

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    How Natural Language Processing Technology Empowers the AIED: The Perspective of AI Scientist
    Bo Zhang, Ruihai Dong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (9): 19-31.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.09.003
    Abstract430)   HTML271)    PDF (1287KB)(555)      

    Natural language processing (NLP) is one of the most important research branches of artificial intelligence (AI). With the boosting of computer performance and the construction of large-scale corpora in the last decade, NLP technology has made great progress and has been widely applied in various areas, especially in the field of education. Specifically, in this paper, we investigate the present research and the trends of NLP technology, and how NLP promotes the development of artificial intelligence in education (AIED) through studying and analyzing publications, reports, and speeches, etc. from eminent domestic and international AI specialists. We are aiming to explore the direction and trend of AIED in the future.

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    Research on Learning Affective Computing in Online Education: From the Perspective of Multi-source Data Fusion
    Xuesong Zhai, Jiaqi Xu, Yonggu Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (9): 32-44.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.09.004
    Abstract352)   HTML102)    PDF (2774KB)(536)      

    Learning affection is an essential factor affecting learning performance, perception, and higher-order thinking ability. Existing research on learning affective computing is mainly based on a small sample analysis of heavyweight physiological feedback technology. There is a lack of learning affective computing research in online courses. In the online course environment, the data sources for learning affective computing are relatively limited, mainly based on a single facial expression data. On the other hand, learners are often under insufficient supervision in online learning scenarios. The body posture is more random, so it is very likely to affect the extraction of facial features. However, this study believes that the pose of online learners also has affective characteristics and is also a key source of affective information. Therefore, we try to fuse the learner’s posture data into the facial expression data, build a multi-source data fusion deep learning affective calculation model, and make up for the facial recognition defects caused by the learner’s posture change. Also, we perform collaborative analysis multi-source affective data to realize data cross verification and mutual compensation. The research concludes that it is an effective method for online learning affective calculation to build a dataset containing 7,878 facial expressions and posture images of online learners constructed through training, and use the convolutional neural networks and decision fusion methods to integrate learner posture data into facial expression data.The accuracy of affections recognition increases 3%, compared with a single facial expression recognition. In theory, this research provides a model basis for the effectiveness of multi-source data fusion in learners’ affective computing. In practice, it provides an effective technical path to learning affective computing in an online education environment.

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    How to Build Future School: Prospective Analysis and Practical Enlightenment of Application Scenarios of AI in Education
    Huiying Cai, Haixia Dong, Xu Chen, Xiaoqing Gu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (9): 45-54.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.09.005
    Abstract225)   HTML73)    PDF (677KB)(248)      

    From the perspective of time change, the development of learning technology has an impact on the state, operation mechanism and cultural atmosphere of schools in different social and historical periods. Therefore, in the case of artificial intelligence as the main driving force of future social development, what kind of future schools will appear and how we should effectively build future schools are important topics of current education field. In order to respond to this problem, using the basic ideas of future research method, the application scenarios of future school education governance driven by artificial intelligence are prospectively analyzed. This paper analyzes the characteristics of core elements, including structure and context of future school driven by artificial intelligence. On this basis, the construction path of future schools is proposed. First, under the innovative idea of learning-drive logic, we should pay attention to the practical problems in different educational scenes. Second, based on the design-based research methods, continuous improvement method is used to promote the integration artificial intelligence in education. Third, under the interdisciplinary and institutional cooperation, sustainable development mechanisms should be explored to help the construction of future schools.

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    Governance of Artificial Intelligence Education: Logical Mechanism and Practical Approach
    Shijin Li, Chenglong Wang, Xiaoqing Gu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (9): 55-66.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.09.006
    Abstract184)   HTML69)    PDF (1135KB)(207)      

    As an endogenous force leading educational innovation, artificial intelligence not only empowers education, but also generates a series of practical challenges that cannot be ignored. Therefore, in the process of deep integration of artificial intelligence and education, scientific governance is particularly critical, and clarifying Its logical mechanism is a solid foundation for effective governance. In order to find a forward-looking and effective governance logic, it is necessary to fully consider innovative governance actions in multiple contexts. The study used international observation and case study methods, compared 12 strategic actions of artificial intelligence governance around the world, expanded the global thinking of artificial intelligence governance, and took the New Zealand artificial intelligence collaborative supervision practice project as an example to clarify the practical process and educational inspiration of artificial intelligence governance. The study found that the logical mechanism of intelligence education governance was expressed as follows. The open and inclusive system context is the prerequisite; the collaborative edification of the advocacy coalition is the backbone, and the scientific and complete supervision mechanism is the motivation guarantee. In view of this, the practical approach for artificial intelligence education governance in China are proposed. Create open and inclusive governance scenarios to promote the systematization of artificial intelligence education governance; shape diverse and synergistic governance mechanisms to enhance the effectiveness of artificial intelligence education governance; apply dynamic forecasting governance methods to ensure the foresight of artificial intelligence education governance.

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    Artificial Intelligence for Knowledge Understanding: An Empirical Study Aimed at Conceptual Change
    Hua Du, Xiaoqing Gu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (9): 67-77.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.09.007
    Abstract175)   HTML69)    PDF (1056KB)(237)      

    Understanding is widely regarded as an important value pursuit in education. “Teaching for understanding and learning for understanding” has become a consensus. Knowledge understanding is the basis of concept transformation, the premise of knowledge application and innovation, the key to the development of learners’ higher-order thinking, and the aim of deep learning. At present, when human education is transforming to intelligent education, artificial intelligence can enhance personalized learning, enrich the presentation form of knowledge, support man-machine collaborative learning, and create real learning situations, which brings many possibilities for promoting learners’ knowledge understanding. Based on this background, the authors conduct an empirical study which aims to explore the influence of artificial intelligence learning environment on learners’ conceptual change. The results show that the intelligent learning environment has a positive promoting effect on learners’ conceptual change.

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    The Game and Integration between AI and Human in Knowledge Production and its Enlightenment to Education
    Xiangjun Hao, Xue He
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (9): 78-89.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.09.008
    Abstract227)   HTML80)    PDF (774KB)(337)      

    Since making stone tools, humans have been committed to using tools to liberate themselves. As an artificial technology tool, artificial intelligence has entered many fields of society and participated in human knowledge production activities. It is gradually sharing the physical and even mental labor of human and showing strong characteristics of autonomy. Therefore, humans and artificial intelligence are bound to engage in a “game” to maintain their own subjectivity. This paper analyzes the current situation of artificial intelligence participating in knowledge production activities from three aspects: the change of the subject of knowledge production, the change of the methods of knowledge production and the change of the form of knowledge presentation, and analyzes the characteristics and differences between artificial intelligence and human intelligence based on this. It is believed that the game between artificial intelligence and human intelligence will move towards the “handshake and reconciliation” between human and machine under the trend of high division of labor, turning “zero-sum” into “win-win”, and reaching a new stage of development through external man-machine cooperation and internal man-machine intelligence integration. Finally, artificial intelligence reconstructs the knowledge production process, which changes the society’s demand for talents, and also causes the thinking on education. The study summarizes three points of inspiration to discuss the focus of future education.

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    Could Intelligent Essay Feedback Improve the Effect of Writing Teaching in Middle School?
    Shujun Liu, Yan Li, Yuewei He, Jingjing Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (9): 90-104.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.09.009
    Abstract160)   HTML77)    PDF (936KB)(135)      

    The development of Chinese Intelligent Essay Evaluation System is expected to change the practice and research of traditional writing teaching. However, the way of its integration into daily writing teaching and its teaching effect are highly concerned by Chinese teachers and writing teaching researchers. This study took 28 middle school students who participated in the writing extension course in B school as samples, and carried out a 10-week quasi-experimental study with the method of pre- and post-test in a single group, to verify the effect of integrating Intelligent Essay Feedback into writing teaching in middle school from multiple dimensions. Students took part in three writing activities after receiving argumentative writing guidance. Each time, they needed to conduct intelligent evaluation of the first draft and then revised the essay according to the intelligent feedback. The research focuses on analyzing the characteristics of writing revision and the improvement of writing quality, exploring the development of students’ writing motivation and revision belief, and investigating students’ perception of Intelligent Essay Feedback. The findings are as follows. Firstly, the most commonly used revision behaviors of students were adding and replacing, followed by deleting and rearrange; the ratio of lower order revision was higher than that of higher order revision; students attached great importance to self-directed revision, the success rate of which was lower than that based on intelligent feedback. Secondly, students’ writing performance improved significantly, the length of essays increased significantly, and students made significant progress in the use of stylistic elements such as arguments, explanations and conclusions. Thirdly, students’ writing motivation significantly improved in the dimensions of persistence and passion, and their writing revision belief significantly improved in the lower and higher order dimensions. Fourthly, most students believe that Intelligent Essay Feedback can promote writing practice, and the quality of feedback is the key factor affecting students’ perception. Therefore, Intelligent Essay Feedback can effectively support students’ writing revision process and improve the quality of writing revision. The continuous exploration of multiple integration paths of Intelligent Essay Feedback, teacher feedback, peer feedback and curriculum structure would be beneficial to the promotion of human-computer collaborative writing teaching practice.

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    The Multi-sensory Experience in Smart Learning and its “Enabling” Enlightenment
    Guolong Quan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (9): 105-117.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.09.010
    Abstract193)   HTML81)    PDF (831KB)(193)      

    The teaching and learning application of artificial intelligence technology has become a hot spot in educational research and educational practice. The expected effect of intelligent teaching and learning with subject empowerment and educational empowerment as the value destination should be explored from the perspective of the subject in practice. In the learning application of smart technology, the smart learning experience can be examined and analyzed from the perspective of students to improve the functional design of smart technology, to adjust its application methods and to optimize its application process. Comparing the subject’s multi-sensory experience in the context of smart learning, and analyzing the subject’s feelings about the conditions, process and results of smart learning based on multi-dimensional data statistics can provide insight into the enlightenment of the subject in smart learning. The research found that the difference in the smart learning situation makes the subject’s multi-sensory experience different. The significant influence of dynamic and tactile experience has revealed the tendency and demand for the three-dimensional and substantive smart learning experience; and the application of smart technology is the main influencing element of the learning outcome experience, as well as the main source of the multi-sensory experience of smart learning, which can cause chain interactions in curriculum learning and enhancement of the subject’s experience. It is believed that the design of smart learning experience needs to require “thinking on the spot” within a rational framework that clearly defines the characteristics of intelligence to ensure its effectiveness, so as to promote the empowerment of the subject in the interactive communication of smart technology participation. The research has guiding value for the construction of smart teaching environment, the design and implementation of smart teaching and the analysis and recommendation of smart learning. It also has positive significance to effectively promote the development of educational application of smart technology.

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    Research on the Co-evolution Model of AI Education Ecosystem: The Perspective of Complex System
    Yiling Hu, Zihong Zhao, Fang Wen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (9): 118-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.09.011
    Abstract200)   HTML76)    PDF (1105KB)(161)      

    As the core technology that triggered the fourth technological revolution, artificial intelligence (AI) has brought about subversive changes and reshaping of various industries in the human social system, and the resulting industrial structure and human capital structure have undergone major changes. The education system is the main position for talent training and human capital output. In the face of the integration of AI technology and the transformation of social talent needs, the education system urgently needs to change its original development goals and structural forms to deal with the impact of AI technology on the education system shocks and challenges. Therefore, this research uses complex system science as the theoretical basis to construct a co-evolution model of the education ecosystem, and analyzes the subjects contained in the education system at different levels and the complexity between subjects from the three levels of macro, meso, and micro. Through the deconstruction of the system co-evolution model, the co-evolution dynamic mechanism driven by AI education reform is established, and the overall strategy of “incentive-guarantee-operating mechanism” is proposed to integrate the wisdom and power of multiple subjects in the education ecosystem and jointly promote the co-evolution of the education ecosystem, so as to promote the AI ??education reform of the education system.

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    Adapting, Remixing and Emerging: The Function and Essence of the Second Bachelor’s Degree Education in the New Era
    Xiaodong Lu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (10): 1-16.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.001
    Abstract167)   HTML42)    PDF (872KB)(804)      

    In the higher education structural system, in the “world”, and in the dual time vision of personal and public time, the second bachelor’s degree education is indispensable. The three key words of its function and essence are adapting, remixing and emerging. The important function of the second bachelor’s degree education in the new era is to quickly respond to the demand for talents and human resources from the changes in the market and industrial structure, and to provide learning opportunities for individual/Dasein with emerging learning motivations to enhance their adaptability; to supplement students enrollment to “unpopular” majors; cultivating top-notch creative talents based on remixing to increase the probability of “emerging” and enhance the country’s momentum for innovation and development. At the same time, the second bachelor’s degree education also provides a repair for the current teaching reforms that are still lagging behind in some colleges and universities. The classifications of remixing provide framework guidelines for the curriculum construction, enrollment qualifications and teaching of the second bachelor’s degree major. In the dual time vision of personal time and public time, the individual/Dasein recognizes himself, locates himself, projects himself with understanding of the world and the earth, and new learning motivation emerges unpredictably and unplannedly in the field within the worldliness and worlding of the world. The second bachelor’s degree education and other learning opportunities together promote the emerging and sheltering of diversity, richness and innovation.

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    Does Reflection Improve Teachers’ Classroom Behavior Continuously: Based on a Longitudinal Study of Teachers with Different Teaching Philosophy
    Fan Yang, Yuxuan He, Zhichen Xia
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (10): 17-28.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.002
    Abstract208)   HTML44)    PDF (883KB)(217)      

    Reflection is an important way to promote the professional development of primary and secondary school teachers. This study conducted a multi-level linear growth model analysis based on three waves of a longitudinal study of 301 primary and secondary school teachers over one year. In this study, the developmental trend of teachers' classroom behaviour, and the influence of reflection on the developmental trend of teachers’ classroom behaviour were described, then the classroom behavior effects with different teaching philosophies through conducting reflection were discussed. The results show that teachers’ classroom behaviour will be significantly and continuously improved with the implementation of reflection. Reflection has different continuous effects on teachers with different teaching philosophies. Teachers who hold a teaching philosophy of student-centeredness are more likely to obtain positive effects of classroom behaviour in the process of reflection. Because of the positive and continuous influence of reflection on teachers’ classroom behaviour, teachers should be guided to form a “student-centeredness” teaching philosophy and should improve classroom behaviour through conducting reflection in the future.

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    How Cultures and Contexts Influence Teacher Learning: Taking Empirical Studies on Chinese Teacher Learning Communities as Examples
    Xin Zheng, Yuan Liu, Hongbiao Yin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (10): 29-41.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.003
    Abstract285)   HTML62)    PDF (914KB)(251)      

    In the past decades, the situative and socio-cultural perspective has deeply influenced the research on teacher learning, and teacher learning occurs in multiple and complex communities or systems. As a result of the high performance in international programs such as PISA, Chinese version of professional learning community (PLC) has gained much attention. This paper introduced a series of empirical studies that focused on teacher learning in multiple learning communities within Chinese cultures and contexts. These studies attempted to respond to three questions: how to build strong PLCs in Chinese context? is Chinese version of PLCs beneficial for teachers? how can the research on teacher learning in Chinese contexts contribute to the international knowledge community? The findings showed that teachers learning was influenced by Chinese cultures and contexts, which was different from the Western counterparts. However, the “others” perspective can help us to understand our own problems, to reflect and improve the educational practice. The unique contexts of teacher learning in China could also make knowledge contributions to the academic community through appropriate conversations.

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    Competitive Government: An Explanation for the Expansion of China’s Higher Education
    Hui Liu, Junfeng Ma
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (10): 42-53.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.004
    Abstract156)   HTML26)    PDF (903KB)(221)      

    The Chinese-style fiscal decentralization makes competitive governments the game process of “growth for competition”. The result has intensified the trend of higher education localization and expanded the scale of China’s higher education. Using the panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2004 to 2018, the paper explores the impact of fiscal decentralization and competitive government on the expansion of China’s higher education scale. The research found that fiscal decentralization has an inhibitory effect on the scale of local higher education, but competitive government has a significant improvement, and has a moderating effect on the adverse effects of fiscal decentralization on the scale of local higher education. After lagging the variable of competitive government, the estimated coefficient has dropped significantly, indicating that the expansion of higher education scale is likely to be the result of the immediate competition policy of the local government, and it is heterogeneous between the eastern and inland areas. It is necessary for the central government to correctly guide local governments to compete and transform the concept of competition.

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    What is University Teachers’ Scholarship Ability of Teaching and Learning: Connotation and Development Path
    Zhe Liu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (10): 54-64.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.005
    Abstract272)   HTML30)    PDF (853KB)(120)      

    Scholarship ability of teaching and learning is a kind of practical expertise structure that teachers can use appropriate methods to study teaching and learning problems, apply the research results to teaching activities, and public sharing for community evaluation and construction, in order to promote students’ deep learning and discipline literacy development. It not only has specialized scholarship knowledge and ability, but also includes pedagogical content ability transformed by the combination of content knowledge and pedagogics among which the ability of curriculum development and teaching design is the core. Scholarship ability of teaching and learning highlights distinctive practical, integrative and developmental. It is related to and different from discipline scholarship ability, educational research ability and scholarly teaching ability. The ways to improve university teachers’ scholarship ability of teaching and learning include constructing the development model, attaching importance to reflective practice, and promoting action research.

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    Supply of Public Education in the New Population Situation
    Xi Zhang, Ming Lu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (10): 65-76.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.006
    Abstract133)   HTML24)    PDF (1021KB)(162)      

    Both challenges from population aging and low fertility rate and opportunities from labor relocation and human capital accumulation have been revealed by the seventh National Census. Improving public education are inherent requirements of the new population situation. The crux of education supply in China is not only insufficient quantity, but also inefficient distribution that misses changing education demands derived from population migration. Accordingly, education supply must be adjusted based on a deep understanding about China’s spatial economy evolution. On the one hand, because of continuous population agglomeration, education resources in big cities urgently need to be expanded, especially senior high school education supply. On the other hand, while population is contracting to central urban districts in population outflowing regions, the quality of local education supply needs to be enhanced by centralization. From an institutional perspective, the top-level design should focus on reforming local governance and adjusting fiscal arrangements, and thus mobilizes multiple subjects in improving education supply.

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    Disaster Prevention Education: An Educational Attempt to Inherit Memory of Catastrophe
    Jiaqi Yu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (10): 77-90.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.007
    Abstract89)   HTML21)    PDF (945KB)(139)      

    Natural disasters and social disasters can be understood as the phenomena that lead to the destructive shaking of people’s life field and social foundation. And the memory of catastrophe is people’s recollection and recognition of the past phenomenon. For people, the memory of catastrophe is the basis that gives people identities, the wake-up call for survivor, the accident that brings the chance, the place of debate for seeking truth. However, the memory, which is essential to the bildung of individuals, has been completely forgotten by modern education, which is rooted in real life and repels uncertainty. The inheritance of memory is gradually replaced by formal commemoration and knowledge-based disaster prevention education. In fact, disaster prevention education that attaches importance to inheriting the memory of catastrophe is not only self-help education that helps students become survivors, but also co-help education that makes students become volunteers. Under the effect of emotional resonance and sincere dialogue, people who recognized the catastrophe together build a connection, in order to face a new catastrophe that may come again in the future.

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    Psychology Trumps Pedagogy: A Review of China’s New EducationExperiment in Action by Zhu Yongxin
    A. Berg Donald
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (10): 91-99.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.008
    Abstract141)   HTML29)    PDF (644KB)(99)      

    Throughout the world the pattern of disengagement established in primary and secondary schools leads to the problem of disengagement in the workplace which, according to Gallup, results in global losses of $7 trillion per year in productivity. In his book China’s New Education Experiment in Action, Professor Zhu Yongxin presents a variety of stories about the success that the innovative schools that follow his principles have achieved. Recent findings in psychological research that are not commonly known in the field of education can help explain the success that Professor Zhu’s principles have facilitated. Through placing their central emphasis on the motivation and engagement of students, the schools that apply the principles of the New Education Experiment produce both academic achievement and “a happy, complete life of education.” Looking to the future, there are challenges that all educational innovations face, no matter where they occur. As a potential means for proactively facing those inevitable challenges to the schools in the New Education Experiment, the value of using scientifically informed measures of the psychological climate in those schools is discussed.

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    Open the Black-box of “Informational Learning Style”: Discussions Based-on Don Ihde’s Phenomenology of Technology
    Wenxin Chen, Jing Zhao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (10): 100-107.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.009
    Abstract120)   HTML23)    PDF (696KB)(200)      

    Recent massive application of information technology has led to a great reform of learning style. Compared with emerging practical models, there is lack of profound theory. As a current philosophical leader in the fields of phenomenology of technology, Don Ihde integrated phenomenology with pragmatism together. On that basis, he opened “Experience turning” up to philosophy of technology firstly. Given his theory, it was clear that informational learning style involved complex kinds of relation between machine and human, such as “embodiment relation”, “hermeneutic relation” and “background relation”. Therefore, to focus on only one “relation” and see it as the essence are not the right choice for exploring informational learning style. In the long run, there are some principles which can benefit informational learning style research, including breaking through limitations of reductionism and dualism, transcending confrontation between engineering paradigm and humanism paradigm, emphasizing on mutual promotion of practice and theory, and developing study research continually in the perspective of complexity theory.

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    Research on Risks and Countermeasures of Running Private Schools by Group
    Jiayong Zhang, Yuhua Zhu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (10): 108-116.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.010
    Abstract255)   HTML22)    PDF (754KB)(197)      

    Private education group is an important form of capital market and education industry combination, which has a profound influence on the healthy development of private education by effectively utilizing capital market. Private education groups engage two different industries (education and business) and its regulation and operation are facing many risks. Private education group supervision responsibility is not clear; the regulatory means are limited, and law enforcement is weak. Irregularities for profit weaken school legal person property rights, underrate public assets as well. Crossover cross-regional wanton expansion and multi-stakeholder bound would trigger a series of operational risk. Penetrating management of groups deprives member schools’ running autonomy. Listed private education groups control member schools to withdraw funds or conduct connected transactions through structured contracts. Equity financing may lead to barbarian acquisition and profit outflow of non-profit schools. Illegal borrowing and misappropriation of member schools’ funds and investment in non-educational industries may lead to capital chain fracture. International capital investment in private education groups and the establishment of a series of international schools may damage national education sovereignty. It is urgent to establish the governance system, prevent and control assets management risks, regulate excessive and illegal affiliate transactions, and take multiple measures simultaneously to ensure a smooth transition of listed private education group.

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    Enlightenment via Pictures and Forging Citizens: An Analysis Focusing on Vulgar Pictorials in Late Qing
    Huimei Zhou
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (10): 117-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.011
    Abstract95)   HTML19)    PDF (1132KB)(78)      

    Reading was considered to be a graceful activity in traditional Chinese value. However, it gradually became an outdated opinion with the popularity of vulgar pictorials in late Qing. The appearance of vulgar pictorials in large amount, which imitated the models established by foreign pictorials as well as continued the Chinese tradition of left picture right historical narrative, and which was low in price but balanced entertainment and aesthetic, provided a knowledge warehouse for the populace (including females and children). Reading became part of the daily life of the populace who had little knowledge. The contents those vulgar pictorials presented, included not only the cultural images and interpretations articulated by the government and elites, but also the processed images and interpretations articulated by publishers and the authors who drew those pictures. The generalization of those vulgar pictorials provided the public opinions and practical experiences for the establishment of modern social education. The influence on the social value brought by those vulgar pictorials echoed to the cultural interaction between elite and populace.

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    Prelude to the Special Issue on Educational Psychology: Celebrating the 5th Anniversary of the Department of Educational Psychology at ECNU
    Zhenguo Yuan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (11): 1-3.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.11.001
    Abstract202)   HTML55)    PDF (496KB)(180)      

    Educational psychology is one of the fundamental disciplines in the field of education. Over the past hundred years, educational psychology has been continuously innovated by generations of educators and researchers. Entering the 21st century, educational psychology is facing a situation in which opportunities and challenges coexist. In this context, ECNU established the Department of Educational Psychology in the Faculty of Education in 2017, focusing on the learning and development of students of all ages and committed to theoretical innovation and realistic problem solving. What should and can educational psychology do, and how should the discipline develop in the future? To reflect on the past, work on the present, and look to the future, this special issue discussed the positioning and development of educational psychology, with the goal of shedding lights on policymaking and educational reform in China.

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    The Crisis of Educational Psychology: Its Challenge and Positioning
    Yun Dai David
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (11): 4-24.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.11.002
    Abstract331)   HTML91)    PDF (915KB)(591)      

    Educational psychology as a branch of psychology has a history of more than one hundred years. However, it is still very young as an independent discipline. Internally, it lacks central concerns of its own, a coherent conceptual system, and a distinct methodology. Externally, it faces new challenges brought up by the increasing division of disciplines. In the context of the 21st century, it is increasingly difficult to view educational psychology as a sub-discipline of psychology and ignore its nature as “design science” and “human science”. Repositioning educational psychology entails distinguishing itself from other psychological sciences by establishing distinct central concerns, especially by re-examining its epistemology and methodology. The traditional logic of mechanical reductionism has to be replaced by an organismic logic of emergence that is based on the plasticity, openness, choice, and growth of human beings. At the same time, educational psychology has to draw inspiration from “design science” in its exploration of possibilities and optimality of learning and growth, while psychological and behavioral evidence provides the viability and constraints for such practices.

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    Psychological Views on Cultivating Students’ Creativity: Goals, Principles, and Strategies
    Weiguo Pang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (11): 25-40.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.11.003
    Abstract249)   HTML41)    PDF (738KB)(339)      

    Creativity is a multifaceted concept which involves creative potentials, creative achievements, creative talents, and many other facets. Basically, creativity can be divided into four types, namely mini-creativity, little creativity, professional creativity, and big creativity. In school context, creativity cultivation should focus on students’ creative potentials, highlight the roles of creative cognition, metacognition, personality, motivation, and domain-specific knowledge. As creativity usually develops from general domains to specific domains, and autonomy and idea generation are the key components of creative processes, school education which aims to cultivate each student’s creativity in everyday classroom activities should encourage students’ autonomy, employ generative tasks, and stimulate creative thinking in specific contexts. To effectively develop students’ creativity, a series of strategies should be employed, which include creating supportive climates, using generative activities, modeling and rewarding creativity, training creative metacognition, setting creativity as separate goals, and providing feedback on creative performance.

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    Competence and Its Model Building: A Theoretical Analysis
    Xiangdong Yang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (11): 41-57.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.11.004
    Abstract198)   HTML44)    PDF (965KB)(307)      

    Competence can be broadly defined as the capacity of a human being interacting with environment, with the aim to maintain and enhance the survival and development of humankind at both individual and population level. Inherently implied in the concept of competence are such characteristics as agency-driven, socially-constructed and culturally-laden. Therefore, a theory of competence should explicate from an ecological perspective the nature of various competences as well as their epigenetic and developmental mechanism within the dynamically bilateral relationship of co-existence and co-ordination between an individual and environment. Competence development is an organic process, a process of continuous becoming and constructing throughout the life-span of an individual, during which various elements and their relationships are involved and integrated across a variety of layers including those of physical-biological, social-cultural as well as psychological-behavioral. In particular, collective practice, individual agency and social transaction constitute a three-dimensional dialectic system for human competence development, within which the culture plays a mediated role in that it can be considered as tools in the most general sense. Under this theoretical perspective, three approaches to competence model building can be described as demand-functional approach, culture-psychological configuration approach and hologram-layer approach, respectively. These approaches are complementary with each other and provide a more comprehensive and systematic understanding of the nature, structure and development of human competences.

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    A Conceptual Framework of Higher-order Thinking
    Shufeng Ma, Xiangdong Yang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (11): 58-68.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.11.005
    Abstract939)   HTML106)    PDF (755KB)(497)      

    Higher-order thinking is a key competence for individuals to adapt to external environments and cope with future challenges. The theory of constructivism argues that people do not passively receive information from the environment, but actively construct knowledge to update their mental models. In authentic learning contexts, higher-order thinking manifests as the ability to identify the connection between prior knowledge and external information, transfer background knowledge to a new situation, and solve complex problems that do not have definite answers. Higher-order thinking is not a single thought process, but a complex cognitive process in which multiple mental operations coordinately work together. The conceptual framework of higher-order thinking incorporates the analysis of problem situations, the identification and formation of the relationship between old and new knowledge, the synthesis of information from different dimensions, the creation of new knowledge, and the monitoring, management and adjustment of the thinking process. The conceptual framework explains how the five cognitive components influence each other and synergistically regulate the process of cognitive development. The framework provides a new theoretical perspective for interpreting higher-order thinking, and lays a theoretical foundation for in-depth research on the developmental mechanism of higher-order thinking.

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    IQ or EQ: Which is More Important for Students’ Learning ?
    Jing Zhang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (11): 69-79.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.11.006
    Abstract266)   HTML59)    PDF (1243KB)(398)      

    This study of a sample of 860 Chinese secondary school students used Raven reasoning test and Big Five personality scale to investigate the longitudinal relationship between intelligence, personality and students’ academic performance in three subjects (Chinese, Math, and English). This is a three-wave longitudinal study covering one school year. The cross-lagged panel model analyses indicated that: (1) students’ previous intelligence level can significantly and positively predicted their academic performance in all three subjects. That is, students with high intelligence level tended to achieve higher academic performance in three subjects; (2) students’ personality traits, especially openness, also significantly and positively predicted their academic performance in all three subjects; (3) in the long-term run, there is a compensatory interaction between students’ intelligence and openness in the prediction of academic performance. In this regard, both intelligence and personality traits are very important for students’ learning. Educators should not only pay attention to the development of students’ potential and intelligence, but also to the cultivation of students’ personality traits.

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    Developmental Trajectory of High School Students’ Academic Motivation and Its Relation with Academic Achievement
    Yi Jiang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (11): 80-91.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.11.007
    Abstract208)   HTML44)    PDF (910KB)(293)      

    As a bridge between compulsory education and higher education, high school education plays a vital role in Chinese education system. Whether students can establish adaptive motivational beliefs in high school significantly influences their future academic development. Using latent cross-lagged modeling, the present study investigated the longitudinal interrelation among self-concept, interest value, and effort cost in students’ academic achievement from grade 11 to 12 for both math and English domains. Results based on a sample of 694 Chinese high school students revealed significant reciprocity between self-concept and effort cost in math. In math, effort cost in the second semester of grade 11 also negatively predicted interest value in the first semester of grade 12. In English, the development of motivational beliefs is relatively independent, only self-concept in the first semester of grade 11 negatively predicted effort cost in the second semester of grade 11. In both math and English, self-concept positively predicted academic achievement, whereas effort cost negatively predicted academic achievement. Latent interaction analysis further revealed that there was significant interaction effect between self-concept and effort cost on achievement in the math domain. Findings of the present study highlight the importance of students’ motivational beliefs in influencing their academic achievement. In the meantime, the developmental trajectories of motivational beliefs are dynamic and demonstrate a clear pattern of domain-specificity.

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    Does the Digital Tools-supported Teaching Have an Impact on Students’ Learning Results:Meta-Analysis Evidence from 137 Experiments and Quasi Experiments
    Hao Lei, Xue Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (11): 92-109.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.11.008
    Abstract218)   HTML51)    PDF (978KB)(330)      

    In order to clarify the impact of digital tools-supported teaching on students’ learning outcomes, this study conducted a meta-analysis based on 137 experiments and quasi-experiments. The results show that compared with traditional teaching, digital tools-supported teaching can enhance learning motivation (g=0.482) and improve academic achievement (g=0.479). In addition, this positive effect was moderated by demographics, knowledge assessments, and study attributes.The specific manifestations were as follows: in terms of demographic, the use of digital tools to support teaching in the context of collectivism culture had a more significant positive impact on learning motivation and academic achievement compared with individualism culture; the predictive effect of digital tools-supported teaching on learning motivation and academic achievement is not affected by the stage; the influence of digital tools-supported teaching on boys’ academic achievement is significantly higher than that of girls. In terms of knowledge assessment, compared with digital tutorials and simulation, intelligent tutoring system and hypermedia are more conducive to improving academic achievement; as opposed to other subjects, the teaching supported by digital tools has a greater impact on language learning motivation, but the teaching supported by digital tools has a significant impact on mathematics and science achievement. In terms of study attributes, the use of digital tools by trained teachers had a better impact on student motivation than did untrained teachers; only when the intervention time of digital teaching is moderate can it give full play to its best effect on academic achievement; the impact of digital tools-supported teaching on academic achievement is strengthened as the intensity of intervention increases; with the change of years, the predictive effect of digital tools- supported teaching on learning motivation will become more and more prominent.

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    What Can Bayesian Network Contribute to Educational Research?
    Xin Gu, Mengqi Mao, Shufeng Ma, Senyu Chen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (11): 110-122.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.11.009
    Abstract191)   HTML38)    PDF (1550KB)(357)      

    This paper proposes to use the Bayesian network method to analyze educational research data in view of the complexity, uncertainty and dynamic characteristics of current educational research problems. In terms of research paradigm, Bayesian network integrates theoretical and data-driven research procedures, determines a prior model based on educational research theories and expert experience, and updates data evidence that can support or oppose the theoretical model by collecting new data. In terms of data analysis, Bayesian network brings the uncertainty of variables or variables’ relations into the model and gives accurate inference and prediction by means of probability. In terms of application, Bayesian network can evaluate students’ knowledge mastery, ability training and competence development in real teaching and learning situations. This offers methods and technical support for dynamic evaluation of teaching and learning process.

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    The Past, Present and Future of Educational Psychology: A Discussion with Professor Eric Anderman
    M. Anderman Eric, Shufeng Ma, Yi Jiang, Xiangdong Yang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (11): 123-134.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.11.010
    Abstract239)   HTML56)    PDF (656KB)(279)      

    Focusing on the topic of “The Past, Present and Future of Educational Psychology”, scholars from the Department of Educational Psychology at East China Normal University and Professor Eric Anderman of The Ohio State University reviewed the current trends in educational psychology and discussed the relationship between educational psychology and brain sciences, learning sciences, and other disciplines in the field of education. On this basis, we further reflected on the challenges and opportunities facing educational psychology in the new era, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We discussed how educational psychology could promote children and adolescents’ learning and development, how theory and practice could support each other, and how to respond to the needs of future development in society. Finally, Professor Anderman emphasized the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration in the field, and provided his suggestions for the development of educational psychology in China.

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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (11): 135-135.  
    Abstract144)   HTML54)    PDF (215KB)(154)      

    Focusing on the topic of “The Past, Present and Future of Educational Psychology”, scholars from the Department of Educational Psychology at East China Normal University and Professor Eric Anderman of The Ohio State University reviewed the current trends in educational psychology and discussed the relationship between educational psychology and brain sciences, learning sciences, and other disciplines in the field of education. On this basis, we further reflected on the challenges and opportunities facing educational psychology in the new era, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We discussed how educational psychology could promote children and adolescents’ learning and development, how theory and practice could support each other, and how to respond to the needs of future development in society. Finally, Professor Anderman emphasized the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration in the field, and provided his suggestions for the development of educational psychology in China.

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    Educational Improvement Science: The Art of the Improving Organization
    Li Jun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (12): 1-13.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.12.001
    Abstract424)   HTML477)    PDF (1176KB)(311)      

    Advocating educational improvement science as an emerging transdisciplinary area, I reflect philosophically on the three major pathways through which the education mission has been realized in human history and discern the misuses and pitfalls of reform. I also examine the terms “reform” and “improve” and their synonyms both etymologically and in East-West cultural and political traditions, which are embodied in educational theorizations and practical implications. Based on these reflections, I propose the concept of neo-improvementalism, define educational improvement science, and systemically elaborate on its philosophical assumptions, disciplinary fundamentals, and theoretical frameworks. I identify and elucidate growability, developability, and improvability as the three key properties of education and construct disciplinary knowledge of educational improvement science through two main categories, namely, subject matter knowledge and profound knowledge. I then highlight three foundational characteristics of educational improvement science – namely, discipline-oriented, systems thinking, and evidence-based – and the building of professional improvement communities promoting institutional improvement capabilities. I conclude that educational improvement science is the art of the improving organization for classes, schools, and more broadly defined educational agencies, and that its birth signifies the respect and recognition of the disciplinary status and specialization of educational improvement. Finally, I call for the recognition of the significance of educational improvement science and research thereon, especially with respect to discipline-building and exploration based on local characteristics in a global vision, and the cultivation of new fronters of educational research and practices, which need to be enhanced through disciplinarization and scientificization.

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    Heavy Burden: The Excessive Spillover of Students’ Roles and its Consequence
    Desheng Gao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (12): 14-25.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.12.002
    Abstract307)   HTML436)    PDF (647KB)(251)      

    The academic burden of primary and secondary school students is a “long-standing and difficult” problem, but the thinking on this problem always stays at the level of matter-of-factly. The human-being is a social existence, and the role is the embodiment of man’s sociality. Students are the social roles assigned by the government and society to school-age children, with “thick” normative requirements. Students are institutionalized roles, and school’s spatial context is the boundary of students’ roles. The role of students with boundaries now spills over to families, communities and society. Even if juveniles are separated from school’s spatial context, they are still students. The excessive spillover and solidification of students’ roles make juveniles unable to get a break from students’ roles and their normative requirements, and lose the opportunity to try other social roles. In particular, the significant role of juveniles at home is still students rather than children, and all ethical norms pinned on children’s roles in traditional culture have lost their role support. For juveniles, the most fundamental burden is the role burden, and the academic burden is only a secondary burden derived from the role burden.

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    The Education Space of Disciplinary Body and its Reconstruction
    Ling Song
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (12): 26-37.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.12.003
    Abstract190)   HTML411)    PDF (1734KB)(131)      

    The connection between body and space is the basis for interaction between people and the world. Different education spaces influence and shape different people. The concept of traditional education space is the product of the industrialization era. Closed, fixed and static are its main characteristics, and it is attached to the education production and its efficiency through the auxiliary education management and the creation of power relations. The schoolyard built with adult perspective and preferences is far from nature and children; the wall fences create barriers and confinements to the body while resisting injuries; school buildings divide the learning space into separate functional activity areas; windows can only transmit light and surveillance in one direction; platform and Box format seat imply the relationship between authority and obedience, and divides the respective powers. While meeting the established educational needs, it also served and gave birth to those negative educational concepts. To transform the educational space, it is necessary to make the educational space open, interactive and equal, and use its scientific and biophilic nature to meet the real needs of current teaching and learning.

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    Who is More Likely to Succeed: A Comparative Study of Competencies-based Education Reform in China, the United States and Finland
    Li Deng, Senyun Zhan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (12): 38-49.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.12.004
    Abstract366)   HTML59)    PDF (830KB)(233)      

    The education reform based on key competencies is a global education policy, promoted by most countries in the world to improve the quality of talent training in respond to social changes and economic competition. The success of its implementation is related to the country’s labour quality and economic prosperity, as well as global competitiveness. In order to find the main influencing factors and the model that would most likely lead to success of the reform’s implementation, this study compares the key competencies-based education reforms of China, the United States, and Finland from the perspectives of political commitment and implementation capacities. It then points out that, in terms of education reform, China has strong political commitment but not strong implementation capacities; the United States has strong reform implementation capacities but not strong political commitment; Finland has both strong political commitment and implementation capacities, which is a more ideal reform model. China could learn from the experience of Finland and the United States from the aspects of evaluation methods, teacher education and training, and innovation in teaching and learning environments to enhance the implementation capacities, meanwhile keep up the political commitment, transform it into execution, bring non-governmental actors into the reform and further promote the successful implementation of the reform.

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    Rural Revitalization Calls for Rural Pedagogy
    Huaiyin Hou, Zuoye Yuan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (12): 50-62.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.12.005
    Abstract143)   HTML36)    PDF (672KB)(114)      

    The discipline construction of rural pedagogy is a necessary requirement for building the supporting system of rural revitalization in the new era, enriching the connotation of rural pedagogy in the new era, promoting the development of theoretical research and practice of rural education, and perfecting the discipline system of Chinese pedagogy. The discipline construction of rural pedagogy urgently needs to solve the problems of concept definition, research object, research category, discipline positioning and nature, construction of “three systems” and research methods. The construction of rural pedagogy in the context of rural revitalization needs to address four aspects: clarifying the basic concept of rural pedagogy discipline construction; clarifying the basic idea of rural pedagogy discipline construction; dealing with the relationship between the research of rural pedagogy and rural education, the rural pedagogy and rural education practice, the rural pedagogy and related disciplines and Chinese rural pedagogy research and the western, and strengthening the external guarantee of discipline construction of rural pedagogy.

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    Return and Response: The Future Trend of China’s Rural Education Construction from the Perspective of Rural Revitalization Strategy
    Xiaojie Quan, Qiyong Cai, Jiyue Xie
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (12): 63-72.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.12.006
    Abstract148)   HTML33)    PDF (766KB)(107)      

    Rural education has its own unique value attribution, spiritual connotation, discourse system and practice methods. To realize the characteristic development of rural education, it is necessary to preserve its unique cultural connotation. However, the development of rural education has lost its culture essence, which is mainly manifested in the value decline of local culture, the division of nature and social attributes, and the dependent development mechanisms. In response to this, it is necessary to consider providing rural teenagers with education that are compatible with their cultural model of “Cultural Responsive Education”. This educational concept highlights the unique connotation of rural culture, and emphasizes “locality” of education concept, curriculum, teaching methods, teacher training and evaluation mode. It promotes the characteristic development of rural education at three levels, including reconstructing confidence of rural education’s cultural identity, unifying rural education’s cultural crack, cultivating rural education’s open cultural mind. Implementing cultural responsive education includes the purpose of education responding to the characteristics of regional culture, the contents of education emphasizing the integration of urban and rural culture, the teaching methods taking advantages of rural areas’ characteristics.Besides, experts conceive the concept of adaptive evaluation system, and teachers strengthen their cultural understanding and reflection consciousness.

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    The Construction of Kindergarten Teacher’s Quality Monitoring System: Based on the Structural Equation Model Analysis for 1,768 Kindergarten Teachers in Shanghai
    Yong Jiang, Huijuan Di, Jin Huang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (12): 73-90.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.12.007
    Abstract192)   HTML38)    PDF (1000KB)(92)      

    In 2015, OECD officially promulgated Start Strong IV: Monitoring in Childhood Education and Care, which clearly proposed kindergarten teacher’s quality monitoring as a part of education quality system. However, there is still a lack of scientific and effective quality monitoring tools for kindergarten teachers in China. Therefore, it is of great significance to develop an effective monitoring tool for kindergarten teachers to provide reference and basis for educational supervision and decision-making. As the theory of cultural existentialism pedagogy (CEP) has its unique vision in the analysis of teacher’s professional development, and pays special attention to the edification of teacher’s humanistic spirit and empowerment, this study takes CEP as the main theoretical framework, regards teachers as “the whole” educators, and develops the “Kindergarten Teacher’s Quality Monitoring Scale”, including five dimensions of healthy condition, practical wisdom, cultural competence, empowerment and autonomy, and commitment and loyalty. In this study, 1,768 teachers from 80 kindergartens in 7 municipal districts of Shanghai with randomly stratified sampling took part in filling the scale. The results are as follows. First, according to the small group analysis, item-total correlation analysis, reliability analysis, and favor loading analysis of classical test theory, the scale has excellent discrimination and reliability. Second, the results of exploratory factor analysis show that kindergarten teacher’s quality consists of 5 dimensions, which are healthy condition, practical wisdom, cultural competence, empowerment and autonomy, and commitment and loyalty. The secondary indicators are composed of 14 items, including physical and mental health, good society, teachers’ moral cultivation, professional knowledge, professional ability, cultural consciousness, cultural cultivation ability, cultural comparative vision, teaching autonomy, professional growth right, participation in decision-making right, educational belief, professional identity and professional mission. Third, the fitness index with confirmatory factor analysis shows that the RMSEA is 0.057, far less than 0.5; X2/df is 3.83, less than 5; CFI, IFI, TLI are all 0.9, GFI, AGFI, NFI are all above 0.85, so the scale has good structure validity.

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    Development of Competency Assessment Tool for “Studying and Supporting Early Childhood Learning ” for Kindergarten Teachers
    Qiangqiang Sun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (12): 91-102.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.12.008
    Abstract154)   HTML38)    PDF (908KB)(85)      

    Studying and supporting early childhood learning is the core competence that kindergarten teachers should possess. The development of an assessment tool will help scientifically diagnose and promote teacher professional development. Based on the COMET work analysis method and behavior integration taxonomy, the study constructs an assessment tool composed of competence dimensions, indicators, and four levels. The surveying attribute test results show that the difficulty, discrimination, and grade division of the evaluation tools are reasonable and have good internal consistency. The confirmatory factor analysis shows that the theoretical model fits well with the observation data and has a high structural effect. It can be seen that the evaluation tools are of high quality and good performance, which can be used as a tool for teacher self-evaluation, and has high application value for kindergarten teachers, kindergarten managers and education administration departments.

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    Transforming Educational Thought into Educational Theory: A Historical Investigation Centered on the Study of XueJi
    Jie Sun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (12): 103-109.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.12.009
    Abstract163)   HTML35)    PDF (632KB)(64)      

    The view that educational ideology is educational theory is inspired by Feng Qi’s thought of “two aspects”. There is an internal connection between educational thought and educational theory, which is a systematic educational thought. XueJibecame a “transit station” for modern Chinese scholars to understand and accept western educational theories, because it has the theoretical potential to be transformed. The process of transforming XueJi into a necessary book of normal education and even a monograph of education is the process in which the educational thoughts of XueJi are brought into the domain of pedagogy. Our reflection on transforming the educational thought of XueJi into educational theory is a double academic consciousness based on the construction of Chinese educational discourse system. It not only requires the educational historian to sincerely review the “Chinese language expressed in the West” to study the educational thought of XueJi with the pedagogical framework, but also requires the educational historian to form the self-consciousness leading the educational discourse system of China. The academic work of the educational thought of XueJi is to realize the docking between ancient educational texts and contemporary contexts, to communicate the ancient and modern educational traditions of China, and to explore an academic path based on the traditional lifeline for Chinese pedagogy.

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    Collaborative Innovation between Schools and Society: Global Trends and Chinese Practices
    Wei Ha, Aiai Fan, Mengze Li, Ye Xiao, Yao Wang, Lu Lin, Siyuan Chen, Yunwei Li, Yulian Cao, Dementyeva Yuliana
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (12): 110-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.12.010
    Abstract130)   HTML36)    PDF (1210KB)(128)      

    In the past fifty years, the outcries of education crisis have never ended. Many pundits attribute the causes of the crisis to the mismatch between what society needs and what schools can offer. This paper draws on the theory of ecology of education and the pedagogy core concept of OECD to analyze ten influential cases of collaborative innovation between schools and society at large both from China and abroad. It puts forward suggestions on building a dynamic, vibrant and sustainable education ecosystem. The major conclusions are as follows. First, there is the interaction between internal and external systems in the education system, which determines that schools and society are not antagonistic, but need to cooperate with each other. Second, schools around the world have developed various forms of cooperation mechanisms with other education institutions in order to expand learning space for learners, promote educational equity and improve educational quality. Third, “human capital investment balance sheet” should be applied to practice, and the beneficiaries of education and their employers have the responsibility to participate more in school education, so as to offset the public education resources they occupy, and realize the “shareholders’ equity” of education investment.

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