Table of Content

    20 April 2017, Volume 35 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Could Government-run Public Education Guarantee Educational Equity: An Observation and Analysis Based on a Club Model
    WU Hua
    2017, 35 (2):  1-11+114.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.001
    Abstract ( 211 )   HTML ( 39 )   PDF (692KB) ( 1224 )   Save
    Inequity in education is a universal phenomenon, yet previous studies have paid too much attention to the superficial phenomenon, but failed to come up with a shared framework to analyze the mechanism where educational inequity is generated. This article attempts to construct a Club Model based on the observation of the real-world club, so as to clarify the source of people's rights. To discuss equity or educational equity, it's necessary to compare different subjects based on their equal rights, which means that clubs tend to divide people into different groups of subjects with given rights. Only in the same club is it possible to discuss whether its members share the equal rights. This makes it easy to understand that rights and justice are all public goods provided by clubs, and it's possible to discuss educational equity or educational inequity under a framework and offer some suggestions about policy-making to improve educational equity.#br#Using the Club Model, this article discusses three propositions. First, justice could be achieved on the premise of people's acquisition of rights, only when justice is based on legal rights can it be deemed as guaranteed justice. Second, to achieve justice, the amount of public resources should be taken into consideration, as no rights of equity could be realized without enough public resources. Third, there are two kinds of justice, competitive justice and shared justice. Last, there are three strategies which can help reduce or eliminate inequity, and this article suggests a more logical alternative to achieve the goal other than the universal way of realizing educational equity.#br#The analysis shows that inequity throughout K-12 tends to be the byproduct of government-run public education. There exists an inner relationship between government-run public education and educational inequity. Public education forms the institutional premise of how educational inequity is generated. The development and the realistic logic of government-run public education have become an effective mechanism to minimize or eliminate educational equality. #br#Furthermore, this article explores two public education systems deemed as almost-equitable. One is the Finish small class, small school Model. The other is Education Vouchers Model. In the case of China, it might be a better choice to take the advantages of both models. #br#In conclusion, the article provides an institutional design based on the Club Model. It's suggested that a voucher system should be in place for all children to attend the compulsory education. This system could be established through the joint fiscal appropriation by the central provincial and local governments. Meanwhile, it is expected that such a system could provide an unparalleled advantage for increasing the chance of educational equity, educational efficiency and giving more freedom to parents and children in selecting their dream schools.
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    Managing School Bullying: A Cross-disciplinary Dialogue
    Center of Collaborative Innovation on Youth Legal Education by MOE (ECNU)
    2017, 35 (2):  12-23+115.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.002
    Abstract ( 243 )   HTML ( 115 )   PDF (706KB) ( 868 )   Save
    From a multidisciplinary perspective, we can have a better understanding of school bullying, which will help prevent and control the phenomenon. #br#From the perspective of moral philosophy, bullying has the nature of moral value judgment, which includes the malicious and hurt of the bully, the moral indifference of the spectator and the hurt and insult of the bully. From the perspective of political science, the problem of bullying on school is closely related to social development. School bullying is a kind of social conflict. Solving the problem should rely on the rule of law which is an externalized approach.#br#From the sociological point of view are the social environment, the internal governance situation of the school, the bully, the victim and the bystander the formation conditions of the school bullying. The governance plan needs to be continuously improving and optimizing aspects as the educational content and the school management. From the physical point of view, the school violence is interpersonal violence, The school should cultivate students' psychological ability and other useful methods in order to deal with the school violence, instead of teaching them how to avoid it. The reason for bullying is that they are keen to seek a sense of achievement in the struggle against violence. Therefore, to solve this problem, firstly, we need to understand them and treat them with care and respect. Secondly, searching solutions from law. From the psychological point of view, the school should strengthen the cultivation of students' psychological quality and reduce the psychological health damage to both the victims and the bully. From the perspective of law, but also have different ideas, the first perspective can be attributed to the cause of school bullying spread of consciousness and lack of rational values, lack of civic education, institutional construction lag, the solution focuses on the purification of social environment, Education and the establishment of disciplinary mechanisms. From the second point of view, it is necessary to set up a special legal document, at the same time, revise and improve the existing laws and documents, also increase the content of the prevention and treatment of bullying. The third point of view is that we should set up the special legal system from the following four aspects: establish a clear legal mechanism of rights and responsibilities, develop a multi-level regulations, implement the existing laws and regulations, create a new prevention and control measures. From the fourth point of view, we should analyze the application of the criminal law of the minor crime from the following three aspects: the legal interest infringement, the condemnation, the personal danger. The fifth point of view holds that China should learn from the experience that the United states has. Especially from aspects like such as clear concept and establish the legal prevention mechanism, the reporting mechanism, the handling mechanism and so on.
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    Equity Transition of Educational Purpose
    XIANG Xianming
    2017, 35 (2):  24-32+116.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.003
    Abstract ( 207 )   HTML ( 106 )   PDF (557KB) ( 859 )   Save
    Equity and educational equity are historical concepts, with different connotations in the historical contexts. Educational equity, closely related to social equity, is an educational and public policy issue. Educational equity can be explored from the perspectives of politics, sociology, ethics and pedagogy. Studies can also be conducted at the level of implementation, social structure and core values. Freedom being priority among equity principles, human's free development has its priority over educational equity. On the one hand, educational quality is hard to measure; on the other hand, educational equity is hardly guaranteed by school-choice and equalization, where the key is human's freedom to choose in education."Freedom" here refers to its authenticity but not unconditional indulgence. If we draw a John Rowel's"Veil of Ignorance" for all school-choosing people, and no one knows how his/her choice influences future development. Then, educational choice reflects the authenticity of freedom and everyone can choose from their interests and expectation for their future development. However, there is an alienated relationship between human being and their education in modern society. Human being is considered as a tool. Educational purpose has changed from human's development to upward social mobility,which has deprived humans of their freedom in education choice. This is the fundamental cause to impair educational equity. The solution to educational alienation is to make human as educational purpose, which is essential in socialist and communist education. Freedom is a fundamental principle for educational equity.#br#Educational equity won't happen if one's freedom is limited by a state's compulsory power. Human's free development is a fundamental principle. Educational equity recognizes natural equality and that free development for all is educational purpose. The inclusive and diversified education helps all develop their interest and potential. Performance of education shouldn't be evaluated by upward social mobility. Communist society is expected to diminish human's self-alienation and in socialist society, educational purpose should be human's free development as its key connotation.
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    The Rural-urban Differences in Resources Allocation of Basic Education and Its Social Consequence: Base on the Analysis of China's Education Statistics
    WEN Jun, GU Chudan
    2017, 35 (2):  33-42+117.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.004
    Abstract ( 633 )   HTML ( 81 )   PDF (795KB) ( 3184 )   Save
    Based on the national education statistics of 2003 and 2013, this paper aims to make comparison between China's urban and rural areas in basic education resource allocation, its development and the urban-rural differences. The comparison shows that the rural basic education resources lag behind in faculty, books, and computers. Moreover, the urban-rural gap in pre-school education and high school education is broadening, which has probably become the most hazardous issue in China's basic education. Therefore, only emphasizing on the urban-rural balance in compulsory education won't help address the situation of unequal educational opportunities for rural children.#br#This paper focuses on the potential social consequences caused by such disparity. The"education chain" refers to the complete sequence of education nodes ranging from basic education to higher education and it contributes to the understanding of possible education path choices at individual and family level. In summary, the urban-rural differences in allocating basic education resources can cause at least three consequences as follows:#br#A. Influence on rural students. Compared with urban students, rural students' academic performance is poor and the completion rate of"education chain" is much lower, affected by disproportionate distribution of educational resources.#br#B. Influence on educational equity. The rural-urban disparity in basic education resources centers on the period of high school, which is regarded as the last"opportunity" to transfer from basic education into higher education in the"education chain". Therefore, it is biased to attribute the inferior position of rural students' access to higher education to the inequitable urban-rural higher education. The key factor is the inequitable urban-rural enrolling opportunity in secondary education. The urban-rural inequality of access to senior secondary education from junior secondary school continues to expand, resulting in the decline of opportunities for rural students' admission to college. Its root cause lies in the disparity between rural and urban basic education resources allocation. #br#C. Influence on rural education. Due to the huge urban-rural difference in education resources, individuals and families have to come to realize that the sooner they choose urban education, the more likely they will finish the whole"education chain". As a consequence, they tend to use all sorts of capital reasonably to achieve children's fulfillment of"education chain" in the city, which directly lead to the loss of rural student pool.#br#Although great achievements have been made in China's rural basic education in the past 30 years, the urban-rural difference and its negative effects remain to be the bottleneck of basic education and block the progress of social development. The distribution of urban and rural basic education resources reflects the imbalance between urban and rural interest structure in China's society, and eliminating such negative effects depends on breaking the dual social structure in urban and rural areas.
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    The Definition of School Bullying and its Legal Liability
    REN Haitao
    2017, 35 (2):  43-50+118.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.005
    Abstract ( 974 )   HTML ( 166 )   PDF (584KB) ( 3602 )   Save
    In April, 2016, the Education Supervision Committee under the State Council, People's Republic of China issued the Circular on Handling School Bullying, aiming to tackle the deliberate or violate insulation and injuries caused by physical, verbal and cyber means among primary and second students nationwide in China. Then in Sep.11th, 2016, China Ministry of Education and other nine departments issued the Guidance of Anti-School Bullying and Violence to prevent the occurrence of school bullying and school violence through educational preventions, legal punishments and the comprehensive resolutions and regulations. #br#At present, school bullying has become a great social and governmental concern. However, there is no shared definition of school bullying and violence though it is highly discussed in the academic community. The difference between school bullying and violence is important for further prevention and discussion. An explicit concept of school bullying is the prerequisite of efficient ways of curbing school bullying and school violence. The concept of school bullying is not the same as that of school violence.#br#In this article, the author argues that the concept of school bullying should be defined narrowly and such bullying phenomenon as out-of-school invasion, teachers as the victims should not be included. The narrow meaning of school bullying is an aggressively, constantly physical or psychological behavior among students or teachers that involves a really mental torture in kindergartens, primary and secondary schools and some other places. The characteristic of the narrow meaning of school bullying involve three aspects.#br#First, it occurs in kindergartens, primary and secondly schools and some other reasonable places. Second, the bullies should be related to the victims. As for the kindergarten, primary and secondly school students, the closer one are their teachers and peer buddies. Third, teachers as the victims are not included. Fourth, school bullying has a constant and permanent influence. Fifth, the victims have to suffer from it unwillingly. Sixth, school bullying does harm to the students. Seventh, school bullying includes different actions such as making threats, stealing, spreading rumors, attacking someone physically or verbally, and excluding someone from a group on purposes, etc.. #br#Besides, the article discusses the legal liabilities caused by school bullying (the student, the teacher and the administrator as the bully), which include civil liabilities, administrative liabilities and criminal liabilities. In conclusion, the author argues that only by improving the related laws and regulations and defining the liabilities can we prevent and reduce school bullying by law.
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    The Psychological Factors and Treatment of School Bullying
    SUN Shijin, SHI Zeyi
    2017, 35 (2):  51-56+119.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.006
    Abstract ( 473 )   HTML ( 1301 )   PDF (532KB) ( 5666 )   Save
    School bullying occurs both in China and other countries. The pernicious influence of school bullying is gaining more public concern these years. In fact, it is a global phenomenon. After reviewing literature from China and abroad, we discuss the psychological characteristics of bullies and victims as well as the influence of social environment. Treatment methods are presented in the last section. First, the concept of school bullying is defined. School bullying is the kind of intentional, repetitive aggressive behavior that occurs at schools among students who own power differentials. School bullying includes physical, verbal, relational, cyber attack behavior which always influences victims' mental and physical health. Victims and bullies are the main participants of school bullying. As far as bullies are concerned, their aggressive behaviors are related to physiological factors such as age and gender as well as social factors such as their craving for high social status. Bullies should not be regarded blindly as evil because they are actually victims of their family or social environment. Also, their aggressive behaviors may have historical background and causes. Only after ruminating on their aggressive behaviors can we cope with the problem. In addition, the risk factors of victims such as being out of the ordinary, being solitary and being rejected are stated. However, the bullies are attracted to the psychological weakness implicitly presented by the victims. Only after the self-esteem of victim is enhanced can the occurrence of bullying be restrained. Moreover, according to Society Ecosystems Theory, environment such as family, school and society play important role in school bullying and have mutual effect. This article suggests that it is necessary to create a liberal, equal, supportive, and intimate environment. Finally, the paper discusses treatment methods of school bullying. The growing public awareness of school bullying does not necessarily mean the decreasing incidence of it. And school bullying intervention should be problem-based adopting interdisciplinary approaches. For example, legal researchers should set a bottom line of attacking behavior in order to prevent extreme malignance and produce warning effects. Educational researchers should refer to school intervention approaches from China and abroad, such as creating a positive school climate at the school level, carrying out anti-bullying program at the classroom level or providing counseling at the individual level. A fair, liberal, harmonious, supportive and safe environment is mentioned. Furthermore, we suggest that a good intervention program in place will make bullies unwilling to, unable to, and not daring to bully. Setting bottom line of the law makes bullies unable to do so. Behavioral control at schools prevents bullies from daring to do so. Psychological counseling or other psychological methods make bullies unwilling to do so by improving themselves inherently. Lastly, we point out that the connotation and extension of school bullying should be strictly defined and school bullying should not be intervened unlimitedly because conflicts can improve one's interpersonal skills in some way.
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    Some Ideas about Constructing Educational Hominology
    FENG Jianjun
    2017, 35 (2):  57-67+120.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.007
    Abstract ( 215 )   HTML ( 114 )   PDF (535KB) ( 947 )   Save
    It's generally accepted that philosophy is the essence of the spirit of the era, and educational hominology is the educational philosophy in the new era of student-oriented development. Educational hominology, an interdisciplinary subject integrating humanology and pedagogy, is the application of humanology in education as well as a humanistic reflection on education. It involves research on whole person in education, discussing the relationship between whole person and education and his/her development. While hominology is a philosophy concerning the study of whole person, its nature, existence, and fundamental issue of development, educational hominology is a contemporary educational philosophy, which focuses on educational philosophy involving many different subjects. In terms of hominology, educational hominology is an applied subject; in terms of education, educational hominology is a basic subject of methodology.#br#The study of educational hominology and its orientation determine the nature of educational hominology, including the nature of philosophy, being comprehensive, contemporary, and fundamental. In other words, in educational hominology, research is focused on whole person and his/her education, exploring the historical, philosophical, and realistic development of educational hominology, plus its theory of ontology, value and practice. In educational hominology, research is designed to understand human's life by exploring the meaning of life, rather than treating humans as research objects. The research method of educational hominology aims to know people, understand people, and care for people in the context of education. Therefore, in nature, educational hominology is a normative research, guided by practical materialism, using dialectical thoughts and comprehensive methods, offering a picture of whole person in education.
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    Key Competency and Comprehensive Quality: What Kind of Person We Want to Cultivate?
    LIU Xilang
    2017, 35 (2):  68-75+121.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.008
    Abstract ( 256 )   HTML ( 33 )   PDF (579KB) ( 1376 )   Save
    From different perspectives and methodologies, both key competency and comprehensive quality seek to answer the fundamental question of"What kind of person do we want to cultivate?" On the one hand, it's believed that key competency emphasizes on the key elements out of the numerous, following a simplified paradigm of scientific analysis used in the western academic community. On the other hand, comprehensive quality is closely related to the systematic, relational and generative thinking and value orientations, which emphasizes more on the balance and harmony of human development, including the relationships between body and mind, knowing and doing, humanity and science. Further research on comprehensive quality needs to examine not only what the constituent qualities are, but also what relationships there are between them that have defined the implications of the conception, as it is such relationships that have constituted the"hard core" of the conception.#br#The term quality in the Chinese context is not limited to the inborn traits from the perspective of physiological anatomy, but the harmony of body and mind, the combination of nature and nurture, as well as their interdependence. It also means the unity of knowing and doing, as the true knowing is the authentic experience from doing, while effective doing involves prospective and reflective thinking. Besides, it is the accommodation of humanity and science, which allows wise decisions and actions to happen in certain circumstance based on the comprehensive consideration of appropriate information.#br#Future is beyond our imagination. Compared with key competency, which stresses the"key" and"few", the conception of comprehensive quality, which is rooted in the Chinese culture and stresses more on the extensive adaptability, has its own advantages, and thus could be an effective strategy responding to the ever-changing future. There is no denying that key competency describes the key elements of comprehensive quality, which helps deepen our understanding of comprehensive quality, especially the relationships between different layers and aspects. In other words, the relationship between key competency and comprehensive quality is complementary, rather than substituted.
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    The 30 Years of China Postdoctoral Funding System and its Reconstruction of Top-level Design
    YAO Yun, CAO Zhaole
    2017, 35 (2):  76-82+122.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.009
    Abstract ( 147 )   HTML ( 26 )   PDF (1419KB) ( 653 )   Save
    The core of postdoctoral system development is postdoctoral funding system, which directly influences the scale of postdoctoral admission, the training methods and quality. Presently in China, the postdoctoral funding system is characterized by the substantial increase in funding, having experienced six funding policy reforms from 1986 to 2015. However, the separate funding institutions have led to decentralized funding. Postdoctoral researchers have to apply for funding separately, including daily fund, China Postdoctoral Science Foundation, housing fund and postdoctoral stations and supervisors' fund.#br#The research shows that in the past the decentralized funding did promote postdoctoral development through collective efforts. However, drawbacks of the financial funding system have become significant with the substantial increase in the funding of science and education which breaks the fragmented Tiao-kuai system. For example, the unfair funding has disturbed the system development; diversified funding subjects have made it hard to handle academic achievement attribution; the unreasonable timing of funding application has affected valuable projects application; conventional thought of planned economy has also increased the difficulty of postdoctoral management.#br#In China, the postdoctoral system is a national talent strategy, involving the interests of both central and provincial governments, 3,011 postdoctoral mobile stations and 2,755 postdoctoral work stations. Therefore, it's important that the reform of China's postdoctoral funding system should start with a top-level design in a systematic way, adopting a fully-funded approach. It's suggested in this article that the new funding system should integrate different funding categories, consisting of professor funding, government funding and postdoctoral station funding. Also, the timing of funding application should be improved. For example, the process of submitting and evaluating postdoctoral funding could be adjusted from before and after entering the station to before entering the station.
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    Research on Measurement of Secondary School Students' Learning Happiness
    SUN Xiaohong, TAN Dingliang
    2017, 35 (2):  83-91+123.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.010
    Abstract ( 186 )   HTML ( 27 )   PDF (1837KB) ( 1152 )   Save
    Following the theories and extensive studies on the learning happiness of secondary school students both in China and other countries, and based on the survey among teachers and students through interviews and descriptive questionnaire, this study first defined the learning happiness of secondary school students as a passion and immersion experienced by students in fulfilling their learning tasks in schools, a sense of pride while learning and a sense of expectation as well as multi-level pleasure generated in the process. It then suggested two models of learning happiness of secondary school students: M1 (a second order model consisting of eight first order factors and three second order dimensions), and M2 (a second order model consisting of eight first order factors and four second order dimensions). Based on the theoretical framework, the study designed a learning happiness scale containing 87 items and conducted a preliminary measurement on 7,818 secondary school students. The two models were tested and compared through an exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The result showed that M2 was more desirable. It is confirmed that learning happiness of secondary school students involves pleasure consisting of interest and efficacy, hope consisting of stronger learning capacity, optimism and inquisitiveness, rapport consisting of positive relationships and immersion from a sense of freshness and fluency. After revising the learning happiness scale and deleting some items, the authors developed the final version of the 2015 scale of secondary school students' learning happiness, which consists of 58 items in four sub-scales to measure pleasure, hope, rapport and immersion. Further test of the psychometric properties showed the split-half reliability was 0.893; internal consistency was 0.929; the root mean square residual was 0.070 and the main fit indexes all reached 0.97. The overall psychometric test results showed considerable reliability and validity. The psychological measurement indicators showed that the scale was of good performance.
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    Modernization of Chinese Education: Perspective of the Chain of Transmitted Variants of a Tradition
    HU Jinmu, LI Hongwu
    2017, 35 (2):  92-98+124.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.02.011
    Abstract ( 189 )   HTML ( 27 )   PDF (628KB) ( 604 )   Save
    Connecting the past and the present, tradition is a stable and continuous culture heritage, handed down from generation to generation. Educational tradition is a kind of education concept generated constantly, representing the extension from the past to the future. Unfortunately, educational tradition tends to be regarded as the opposite of modern education in the process of Chinese education modernization. And in the past educational heritage was criticized by enlightener as something nasty to be abandoned. In fact, tradition is not fixed but fluid in the chain of transmitted variants. Education development is a process of constant reconstruction of educational traditions. Education modernization is not completely deviated from tradition but the optimization of tradition and the unity of inheritance and innovation. However, impacted by the external force, the superior consciousness among Chinese intellectuals is gradually replaced by inferiority and self-doubt. They believe that their own educational tradition is good for nothing rather than good for anything. In this article, we argue that only when educational tradition is respected can people realize educational enlightenment. And in the modernization of Chinese education, it's important to handle the relationship between the traditional and the modern. That's to say, we can neither defend stubbornly tradition nor abandon educational tradition. Therefore, it's necessary that we reconstruct educational tradition and realize educational enlightenment in the chain of transmitted variants of a tradition. Chinese education has its own particular tradition. People can't transplant blindly from others regardless of educational tradition. Also, it's not advisable to adhere to educational tradition, or spurn the modern, or ignore tradition and transplant blindly. When introducing western programs of education modernization, attention should be paid to the Chinese context and the education tradition.
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