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    20 June 2017, Volume 35 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Empirical Research: Towards Scientific Pedagogy
    YUAN Zhenguo
    2017, 35 (3):  4-17+168.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.002
    Abstract ( 318 )   HTML ( 113 )   PDF (842KB) ( 1866 )   Save
    This paper,based on a systematic analysis of the history of empirical research, its meaning and constructs, discusses the leading role empirical researchplays in the process of pedagogy towards scientific pedagogy. Meanwhile, for the first time, the paper points out that empirical research is above all a spirit,and that it's a research rule, a system of methods, and an integration of the three. Then the paper analyzes the universal applicability of empirical research in both natural sciences and social sciences like education science, while stressing the importance of quantitative research in empirical research, and clarifying some misunderstanding of empirical research in educational research field. In discussing the paradigm of educational research, this paper explores the future development of pedagogy. It is mainly written for the researchers, but it has challenged the educational research policy, the evaluation of educational achievement standards, and the quality of educational journals and educational researchers.
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    Accumulation and Progress of Educational Scientific Knowledge: Movement of Evidence-based Educational Research in America
    KE Zheng
    2017, 35 (3):  37-46+168.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.004
    Abstract ( 152 )   HTML ( 26 )   PDF (751KB) ( 1112 )   Save
    Compared with other scientific disciplines, there has been slower progress and less accumulation in educational scientific knowledge. For education research to be a scientific discipline with rapidly accumulated knowledge and progress, it's necessary to vigorously strengthen the scientific empirical research. In this area, the United States took the lead in making strategic planning. After entering the new century, the United States launched a strategy of evidence-based educational empirical research, through a large-scale transformation and upgrading of the existing educational research paradigm. This strategy has produced initial results but was questioned and rejected by many educational researchers, who believe that it is unnecessary and unlikely to implement such an external reform strategy. However, all the rejection has not formed a substantive challenge to the significance and value of empirical research on education.
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    Approach to Empirical Educational Research: A Case Study of Teachers' Emotional Labor
    YIN Hongbiao
    2017, 35 (3):  47-56+168+169.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.005
    Abstract ( 297 )   HTML ( 215 )   PDF (711KB) ( 1571 )   Save
    Unlike the evidence-based educational research which emphasizes the positivist epistemology and experimental methods, empirical research featuring evidence-based and diverse methods seems particularly important for contemporary educational research in China. Empirical educational researchers advocate that all claims about specific objects are based on the evidence obtained from rigorous quantitative or qualitative inquiry, which can be well examined by human logic. The investigation on teachers' emotional labor in mainland China presents an approach to empirical educational research, that is, the 3R journey consisting of re-view, re-search, and re-conceptualization. It's argued in this article that the empirical educational researchers should pay attention to the dialectical relationship between theory and practice, and ensure the smooth transfer between the ideas and the experiences in order to enrich our understanding and increase human knowledge.
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    Quantitative Research Driven by Rural Education Problems
    LIU Shanhuai
    2017, 35 (3):  57-63+169.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.006
    Abstract ( 148 )   HTML ( 23 )   PDF (520KB) ( 827 )   Save
    Quantitative research on rural education, having undergone three stages of development, is now moving towards scientific and standardized. Its research paradigm is characterized by problem-driven, evidence-based and multidisciplinary. Moreover, three basic types of research have emerged. The first is the large-scale investigation to find out the truth, using the data to answer "What".The second is the interrelationship study for the purpose of interpretation, using statistical model to answer "Why". The third is the constructive research that aims to support policy decision-making, using the value model to answer"How".
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    Research Paradigm Issues and Reflection on Educational Empirical Research Methods
    YAO Jihai
    2017, 35 (3):  64-71+169+170.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.007
    Abstract ( 314 )   HTML ( 29 )   PDF (541KB) ( 1823 )   Save
    That a discipline is called a science lies in its systematic and distinctive educational methodology. In terms of the development of pedagogy's disciplines, research methods determine the scientific property of pedagogy. It will contribute to the improvement of China's educational research by analyzing the employment of basic paradigms of international educational research methods, discussing the problems in our educational empirical research paradigm and exploring its development tendency. Either theoretical paradigm or empirical paradigm enjoy its own methodological status among the educational research methods system. At present, the western system of educational research methods is overwhelmingly characterized by empirical methods. International educational research tends to employ quantitative research, qualitative research and the mixed research by integrating both. However, in China, the problem of simplification remains in the educational research paradigm, and theoretical research is still China's main research method. Empirical research, though, has highlighted, its proportion is much less. Thus, the systematic and normative construction should be reinforced in our educational research methods. We should adopt more empirical research and advocate the diversification of research paradigm. Moreover, it's important to enhance the improved quantitative and qualitative research and explore the mixed research.
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    Limitation of Evidence-Based Educational Research:Perspective of Cultural Existentialism Pedagogy
    JIANG Yong, DAI Nai'en
    2017, 35 (3):  72-79+170.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.008
    Abstract ( 161 )   HTML ( 22 )   PDF (829KB) ( 1125 )   Save
    In the past ten years, evidence-based educational research has been the academic pursuit, and it seems that only "evidence-based" educational research is a good study, a scientific study. All of a sudden, evidence-based education research featuring big data has become a fashion.In this paper, we argue that it's necessary to re-think the "evidence-based" educational research from the perspective of "cultural existentialism pedagogy". First, love is the basic way of human existence. Similarly, education research should also involve the human feelings and emotions of love. However, evidence-based educational research will become a "cold", "indifferent" and "stiff" study, lacking of human feelings and ultimate belief.Only "lively" education research is viable, highlighting life care and humanistic feelings. Therefore, from the perspective of cultural existentialism pedagogy, we advocate that the correlation between the researcher and the participant of study should have the process of encountering. Second, thinking is important to the existence of human. Evidence-based educational research tends to be obsessed with various data mining and accumulation,obsessed with various statistical models of computing and data modeling, analysis and discussion on management for all kinds of data. Therefore, in evidence-based educational research,there is a lack of true thinking, and a lack of studying on educational value rationality, thus leading to a lack of original ideas of "free thinking". Third, faith is the main mission of the existence of people. Not just the use of educational research data and the "evidence" to speak, it is more important to study hard to speak, speak with emotion, with his faith to speak, so faith problem is the problem of a lot of educational research. Without reverence, piety and persistent belief, it is difficult for researchers to truly love educational research, and it is difficult to find the law of education and the direction of development from the ever-changing data.
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    The Formulation and Verification of School Moral Atmosphere Scale
    JU Yucui, LIANG Lei
    2017, 35 (3):  80-93+170+171.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.009
    Abstract ( 178 )   HTML ( 164 )   PDF (960KB) ( 1243 )   Save
    Based on a literature analysis, the research develops the evaluation framework of school moral atmosphere. In addition,drawing on the existing scales, the research seeks to establish the school moral atmosphere scale, in accordance with the current situation of primary and secondary education in China. The research selects 1,000 primary and secondary school students in East China as a sample, and uses confirmatory factor analysis to analyze the scale by AMOS 17.0. Our findings show that school moral atmosphere can be measured by two orientations: justice and caring. Justice can be measured by four measures: fairness, democracy, norms and integrity.Caring can be measured by five measures: respect, help, understanding, tolerance, and belonging.
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    Correlation between Zhongyong Thinking and Views of Science among Primary Science Teachers in China
    QU Mingfeng, ZHANG Hongxia, LU Qi, LÜ Linhai, WAN Dongsheng, YU Bo
    2017, 35 (3):  94-102+171.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.010
    Abstract ( 171 )   HTML ( 22 )   PDF (2222KB) ( 1101 )   Save
    Using structure equation model and other models, this study, based on a national survey of primary school science teachers in China, seeks to explore the complex correlation between teachers' [WTBX]Zhongyong[WTBZ] thinking and their views of science. It introduces a proxy variable of [WTBX]Zhongyong[WTBZ] thinking in Chinese culture into the model, while dividing views of science into the classic one and the modern one. It has been found that: (a) teachers'[WTBX]Zhongyong[WTBZ] thinking does not necessarily constitute an obstacle to the development of teachers' views of science; more than 1/3 of the participants developed their [WTBX]Zhongyong[WTBZ] and science views synchronously with positive correlation co-efficient; (b)[WTBX]Zhongyong[WTBZ] thinking and views of science are both mutually enhanced and offset;(c) about 1/5 post-modernists had higher modern science score than the classic score, which was against the historic process of science; (d) Fourth, there is no positive correlation between [WTBX]Zhongyong[WTBZ] thinking and modern views of science. The article concludes with the suggestion that science teacher training in China should start from the stage of classic science, and give different people with different programs. Also, science education programs should be scheduled in line with the historical process instead of "skip-over development".
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    Empirical Research on the Impact of Satisfaction with Entrepreneurial Education on Entrepreneurial Behavior
    GE Baoshan, NING Depeng
    2017, 35 (3):  103-115+171+172.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.011
    Abstract ( 191 )   HTML ( 21 )   PDF (1428KB) ( 866 )   Save
    The era of entrepreneurship requires colleges and universities to improve their quality of entrepreneurship education.However, few researches focus on the satisfaction with entrepreneurship education. In order to bridge the research gap, this study develops a SEM model and analyzes 30,887 questionnaires collected from hundreds of universities in 26 provinces to investigate the relationships among satisfaction with entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial passion, background factors and entrepreneurial behaviors. Empirical results show that the satisfaction with entrepreneurial courses, practices and teaching methods positively affect entrepreneurial behaviors; entrepreneurial passion positively moderate the impact of the satisfaction with curriculum and teaching staff, teaching methods and teaching objectives on entrepreneurial behaviors, while negatively moderate the impact of the satisfaction with entrepreneurial education practices on entrepreneurial behaviors. Besides, gender, majors, school types, school locations and entrepreneurial activities experience have significant impact on entrepreneurial behaviors. In conclusion, this paper suggests that we should improve the entrepreneurship education systems to stimulate individual entrepreneurial passion, optimize female entrepreneurship resources to spur their entrepreneurial passion, establish a collaborative mechanism between universities and enterprises to enrich individual entrepreneurial experience.
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    Adequacy Index Design and Standard Calculation of Educational Finance Input in China
    WANG Dong, ZHANG Qiongwen, HUANG Bin
    2017, 35 (3):  116-125+172.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.012
    Abstract ( 159 )   HTML ( 22 )   PDF (1119KB) ( 905 )   Save
    The primary goal of financial input in education is to provide sufficient resources in support of the development of education, and strive to meet the funding criteria marching the overall requirements of educational output. Based on the five-year plan for the education development in China in different periods, using the evidence-based and cost function method, the authors made the standard calculation of the financial education funds which can meet the adequacy requirements. The empirical results show that at present China's financial investment in education can basically meet the needs of the development of educational undertakings, but there are problems.For example, the matching degree of the planning objectives and funds investment is not high, and the expansion of education is at a relatively low level. In addition, both the growth slowdown of adequate levels in the post "4" era,and regional or urban-rural imbalance of adequate level are pressing for the establishment and improvement of the long-term mechanism of financial investment in education.
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    Classroom Video Analysis: Theoretical Approaches, Methods and Applications
    ZHENG Tainian, TONG Yuting
    2017, 35 (3):  126-133+172+173.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.013
    Abstract ( 229 )   HTML ( 117 )   PDF (551KB) ( 1865 )   Save
    Classroom video analysis provides a new tool and technique to collect data for the research on teaching and learning processes and their internal and proximal factors, thus contributing to improved empirical research in education. This kind of analysis has been widely applied in various researches on teaching practices and underlying laws, comparative studies of classroom teaching and learning, teaching improvement and learning environment design, construction of instructional theories and improvement of teaching education. Many theoretical approaches have been developed, among which are subject matter content approach, neo-Vygotskyan approach, classroom talk, conversational analysis, micro-ethnographic approach, context analysis and phenomenological analysis and the updated version of some of approaches. The unit of analysis in classroom involves problem focus, instant image or scene, utterance, move or conversation, episode, or the whole period/activity.
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    An Empirical Analysis of Rural Teachers' Intention of Turnover: Based on the Survey in Yunnan Province
    WANG Yanling, LI Huiqin
    2017, 35 (3):  134-141+173.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.014
    Abstract ( 261 )   HTML ( 29 )   PDF (599KB) ( 1536 )   Save
    A survey of 10,356 rural teachers of Yunnan province shows that 79.2 percent of them have the intention of turnover (leaving or moving). Their intention of leaving or moving appears to be a double tendency: "to the city" and "to their own hometown". Young teachers under the age of 30 showed the strongest intention of turnover. On the whole, the higher level their income, the weaker their intention, but the impact of school location cannot be ignored. This paper analyzes the factors which affect the intention of rural teachers' turnover. The survey revealed the factors could be ranked as follows: children's education and family life, welfare and workload, school location and traffic facilities, living conditions, school management and teaching atmosphere, social and working environment. The authors suggest that, in order to retain rural teachers, the government should pay attention to the basic needs of rural teachers, help teachers solve their problems with children's education and couple's separation, raise their income to make teaching jobs more attractive. Furthermore, it's helpful to restart the agenda of "hometown priority" in recruiting and employing rural teachers, to improve rural teachers' living conditions, especially to provide housing welfare to young teachers, and to help rural teachers gain a sense of belonging and achievement.
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    Evidence-Base: A New Tendency in the Empirical Educational Research of the EU
    YU Ke, CHEN Dan, ZHAO Shuai
    2017, 35 (3):  142-149+173+174.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.015
    Abstract ( 153 )   HTML ( 25 )   PDF (610KB) ( 1039 )   Save
    European Union as well as its member countries, has already shifted the research focus to the relationship between policymaking and the educational/pedagogical practice. This Shift is impelled by evidence. Admittedly, it breeds evidence-based education under such a condition and is boosted by International Large Scale Assessment in Education. Then further the particular Education Monitoring System, which consists of three aspects, incorporating external evaluation of schools, internal evaluation of schools as well as student achievement evaluation in each member countries of EU is formulated. However, research project named "Leadership, Improvement for Student Achievement", 2007 initiated by European Union, could provide vividly an example. The greatest benefit from such a project only belongs to win-win in interactions among such three elements.In other words, the goal for win-win is going to be achieved only by the interactions of education research, education policy alongside teaching practice through the Evidence-base. Evidence-base marks undoubtedly a new tendency in the empirical education research of the European Union. Three inspirations are obtained from this tendency. First of all, the evidence sharing, which aim is formulating an evidence sharing mechanism for education research and education practice alongside education administration. Second, institution co-constructing, which is mainly for generating new knowledge, method and ideal of the Evidence-base, and further promoting productivity of education evidence and enforceability of education policy alongside the creativity of teaching practice.Third, win-win in values, whose focus is predominantly on the from the Evidence-base conceived vitality. Whilst such vitality not only demonstrated the win-win in the European valueson the part of EU education, but also in regenerating of the education values from the EU aspect.
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    Empirical Educational Research: Its Past, Present and Future
    CHENG Jiankun, CHEN Jing
    2017, 35 (3):  150-158+174.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.016
    Abstract ( 261 )   HTML ( 27 )   PDF (864KB) ( 1544 )   Save
    Since empirical paradigm was introduced into education research, empirical education research has experienced three stages: the pure empirical quantitative research,empirical quantitative-based study, and the concurrent empirical quantitative and qualitative research. The difference between qualitative and quantitative research paradigm leads to diversified content and process of empirical education research. In this article, the authors propose the meta-model inferences of empirical education research based on the disadvantage of causal interpretation paradigm. Because of empirical quantitative and qualitative research,philosophy researches and empirical researches have their advantages and disadvantages, and there is the long-term debate about the appropriateness of education empirical research. As a result, mixed methods research is put forward to take the advantage of a variety of research paradigms and overcome their disadvantages.
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