Advocating educational improvement science as an emerging transdisciplinary area, I reflect philosophically on the three major pathways through which the education mission has been realized in human history and discern the misuses and pitfalls of reform. I also examine the terms “reform” and “improve” and their synonyms both etymologically and in East-West cultural and political traditions, which are embodied in educational theorizations and practical implications. Based on these reflections, I propose the concept of neo-improvementalism, define educational improvement science, and systemically elaborate on its philosophical assumptions, disciplinary fundamentals, and theoretical frameworks. I identify and elucidate growability, developability, and improvability as the three key properties of education and construct disciplinary knowledge of educational improvement science through two main categories, namely, subject matter knowledge and profound knowledge. I then highlight three foundational characteristics of educational improvement science – namely, discipline-oriented, systems thinking, and evidence-based – and the building of professional improvement communities promoting institutional improvement capabilities. I conclude that educational improvement science is the art of the improving organization for classes, schools, and more broadly defined educational agencies, and that its birth signifies the respect and recognition of the disciplinary status and specialization of educational improvement. Finally, I call for the recognition of the significance of educational improvement science and research thereon, especially with respect to discipline-building and exploration based on local characteristics in a global vision, and the cultivation of new fronters of educational research and practices, which need to be enhanced through disciplinarization and scientificization.