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    Starting Line Competition: An Analysis of the First Time for Primary and Secondary School Students to Participate in Extracurricular Tutoring—— An Empirical Study Supporting the Implementation of the “Double Reduction” Policy
    Haiping Xue, Huanhuan Shi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (2): 71-89.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.006
    Abstract1095)   HTML94)    PDF (1060KB)(1167)      

    The effective implementation of the “Double Reducation” policy needs to accurately identify the deep-seated reasons why students choose to participate in extracurricular tutoring. Studying the time when primary and secondary school students participate in extracurricular tutoring for the first time can provide an empirical basis for relieving the extracurricular tutoring needs of parents and students. Based on the data of the 2017 China Institute for Educational Finance Research-Household Survey (CIEFR-HS 2017), this paper uses the method of survival analysis to describe primary and secondary school students’ first-time participation in extracurricular tutoring, and discusses the impact of family socio-economic background on the survival time of students’ first-time participation in extracurricular tutoring. This paper finds that, first, most of the primary and secondary school students in China have participated in extracurricular tutoring, and many of them have participated in extracurricular tutoring relatively early. Second, the time of primary and secondary school students who participate in extracurricular tutoring of subjects for the first time is significantly earlier than that of interest classes, and the difference is more prominent with the increase of grade. Third, there is a significant difference in the first time students from urban and rural and different social classes participate in extracurricular tutoring, but the difference gradually reduces with the increase of school period. Fourth, family socio-economic status has a significant positive impact on the time of students’ first participation in extracurricular tutoring. Students with better family socio-economic backgrounds are more likely to participate in extracurricular tutoring earlier, but this difference decreases with the increase of students’ learning period. In the context of “Double Reduction” policy, it is suggested that the government should continue to improve the quality of elementary education to meet the needs of parents and students for individualized education. Besides, it's important to provide academic counseling for disadvantaged students with poor academic performance, and provide subsidies for the students of vulnerable groups with poor academic performance. Also, it’s important to guide parents to choose extracurricular tutoring rationally, as well as objectively and dialectically examine the impact of extracurricular tutoring on the development of students.

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    Determining Sample Size in Qualitative Research: Saturation, its Conceptualization, Operationalization and Relevant Debates
    Ailei Xie, Jiayi Chen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2021, 39 (12): 15-27.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.12.002
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    Saturation has become an important criterion to judge the quality of qualitative research and explain the rationality of sample size. This paper systematically and critically reviews the literature and introduces three types of saturation: theoretical saturation, thematical saturation and data saturation and points out that researchers should consider their own overall research design to decide which model to adopt. The paper also introduces three ways to record the process of saturation. Among them, the structural coding book is more suitable for recording deductive thematical saturation and data saturation. There are two types of saturation tables which are more suitable for recording a prior thematical saturation. The conceptual depth scale is particularly suitable for recording theoretical saturation. This paper points out that saturation is a process rather than an event. Quality rather than quantity is the key to understand saturation. Saturation itself should be a concrete methodology practice. Researchers should pay attention to the concept of saturation and make a clear statement of the process of achieving saturation, which can help to improve the standardization, transparency, quality and recognition of qualitative research.

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    What are the Changes in the Employment Situation of Chinese College Graduates in the Context of the 2021 Epidemic: An Empirical Study Based on National Survey Data in 2021 and 2020
    Tao Li, Nuan Sun, Zhihui Wu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (2): 100-113.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.008
    Abstract516)   HTML106)    PDF (924KB)(593)      

    The “Comprehensive Investigation of Employment Situation of College Graduates in China During the Epidemic Period” conducted the second round of surveys in 34 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities across the country for two and a half months from June to August 2021. Compared with the first round of survey in 2020, the following findings were found. (a) Nearly 50 percent of graduates signed a monthly salary of 3,001-5,000 yuan after tax. (b) The overall matching rate of job positions and majors increased significantly. (c) Employment satisfaction remained high but declined slightly, and (d) the rate of considering leaving had increased slightly. In 2021, unemployed graduates felt that the impact of epidemic factors on employment had significantly reduced. Their intentions of employment within the government system were obvious. Those who failed in civil service examinations and higher education had strong willing to retake the examinations. Different from the situation of employed graduates, the “salary package” exceeding the “place of work” became a significant employment factor for unemployed graduates. At the same time, the gap between expected salary and actual salary was widening. The ranking of employment expectations for private enterprises had dropped significantly. In the survey sample, employers’ recruitment plans were shrinking, but rates were rising. The salary levels were increasing, as well as the recruitment standards. The satisfaction of college graduates with the employment guidance work of the college remained good, which was the same as in 2020. Through logistic regression analysis, it was found that the variables include gender, household registration, family economic status, school type, school level, subject type, subject level, personal education, academic performance, entrepreneurial willingness etc., had significant differences in the impact of different categories on employment. The same as in 2020, men have a significant employment advantage over women. This employment advantage existed in the comparison of economically non-difficult families with economically difficult families as well. Meanwhile, employment advantage was showed in the comparative between colleges of science and engineering and finance and agriculture and forestry colleges, national "Double Tops" universities and higher vocational college, humanities and social sciences, national double first-class disciplines and ordinary disciplines, master’s degrees and bachelor’s degrees. The graduates from top 20 percent of professional rankings had more advantage than the 20-60 percent and bottom 40 percent graduates. Difference from 2020, the findings show that rural household registration graduates have a higher employment probability than urban household registration graduates, current graduates from medical colleges and normal colleges had a higher employment probability than colleges of science and engineering graduates, the employment probability of undergraduate graduates was lower than that of college graduates, and the employment probability of agricultural medicine was higher than that of humanities.

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    Research on the Construction of High-quality Early Childhood Education Indicators System in China
    Liyan Huo, Qiangqiang Sun, Zhengyu Long
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (1): 1-18.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.001
    Abstract367)   HTML781)    PDF (927KB)(354)      

    This study uses the thinking method of “four beams and eight pillars”, draws on the structural logic of the CIPP evaluation model and follows the five-step research path of sequential evidence-based to analyze the status quo, international comparison, theoretical formulation, empirical construction and policy suggestions of China’s early childhood education indicators system. First, it selected the current Chinese early childhood education texts that have great influence in China to conduct content analysis to structurally describe the status quo of China’s early childhood education indicators system. Then it analyzed the structural problems of China’s current early childhood education indicators system by juxtaposing and comparing the structural framework and specific indicators in both domestic and international early childhood education indicators system. Subsequently, it conceived the structural framework and specific contents of the high-quality early childhood education indicators system including four first-level indicators of background, input, process and outcome, 13 second-level indicators and 55 third-level indicators. Then, based on empirical research, it constructed the “four beams and eight pillars” and key indicators of the new era China’s high-quality early childhood education indicators system, which includes four first-level indicators (value quality, condition quality, process quality, and outcome quality), eight second-level indicators (value orientation, social background, system and mechanism, resource allocation, care and education, management of kindergartens, popularization and universal benefit, safety and high quality) and 57 third-level indicators. Finally, it put forward five policy recommendations for the construction of China’s high-quality early childhood education indicators system. First, actively construct a structural framework to impove overall attention to systemic quality. Second, pay special attention to background factors to ensure priority attention to value quality.Third, pay attention continuously to input factors to ensure long-term attention to condition quality. Fourth, put emphasis strongly on process factors to ensure focus on process quality. Fifth, rationally strengthen the output factors to ensure comprehensive attention to the outcome quality.

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    A Study on Grade 7-12 Students’ Online Learning Performance with their Parental Involvement: Investigation and Research Report I on Online Teaching in Primary and Secondary Schools in Jiangsu Province
    Mei Cao, Xiaoyue Zhu, Shusheng Shen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (4): 16-28.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.04.002
    Abstract317)   HTML210)    PDF (850KB)(342)      

    K-12 students were pushed to the forefront of online learning with their widely-involved parents by the Covid-19 pandemic. There is a public concern about their learning performance, adaptability and parental influences. This study is based on the large-scale online teaching survey authorized by Jiangsu Education Department. Several descriptive or exploratory statistical analysis were carried out on 449,650 valid student questionnaires. It's found that with the parental involvement in online learning, students had satisfying learning involvement and acceptable goal attainment, but their learning psychology was not so good, though there were certain demographic differences. Homework guidance and good learning environment are two important parental factors that affect learning outcomes, also positively predicting learning involvement. Besides, parent-child communication atmosphere and family expectations both influence learning involvement. Learning psychology is positively affected by homework guidance, learning environment, parent-child atmosphere and family expectations. There are five typical online learners through cluster analysis, whose characteristics reflect different family parenting styles. The research suggests that in the post-epidemic era blended learning has to pay attention to several aspects such as home-school collaboration, learning psychological intervention, and online learning interaction.

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    A Conceptual Framework of Higher-order Thinking
    Shufeng Ma, Xiangdong Yang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (11): 58-68.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.11.005
    Abstract297)   HTML35)    PDF (755KB)(310)      

    Higher-order thinking is a key competence for individuals to adapt to external environments and cope with future challenges. The theory of constructivism argues that people do not passively receive information from the environment, but actively construct knowledge to update their mental models. In authentic learning contexts, higher-order thinking manifests as the ability to identify the connection between prior knowledge and external information, transfer background knowledge to a new situation, and solve complex problems that do not have definite answers. Higher-order thinking is not a single thought process, but a complex cognitive process in which multiple mental operations coordinately work together. The conceptual framework of higher-order thinking incorporates the analysis of problem situations, the identification and formation of the relationship between old and new knowledge, the synthesis of information from different dimensions, the creation of new knowledge, and the monitoring, management and adjustment of the thinking process. The conceptual framework explains how the five cognitive components influence each other and synergistically regulate the process of cognitive development. The framework provides a new theoretical perspective for interpreting higher-order thinking, and lays a theoretical foundation for in-depth research on the developmental mechanism of higher-order thinking.

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    Are Your Educational Expectations Rational? Research on Effects of Parent-Child Discrepancies in Educational Expectations on Academic Performance
    Gang Cheng, Sihui Du, Qian Yu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (1): 74-87.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.006
    Abstract286)   HTML57)    PDF (890KB)(321)      

    Educational expectations are the expectations of individuals, parents, or teachers for the future level of education of learners, which have a great impact on academic performance and individual development. Numerous studies have overlooked the prevalence of differences in educational expectations between parents and children, while such differences can easily result in poor behavioral and performance. Based on the large-scale data of the 2014—2015 China Education Panel Survey, we use OLS, PSM and corrected Bootstrap method to explore the effects of parent-child discrepancies in education expectations on the academic performance of adolescents, as well as the differences in the influence mechanisms. The research has found that, firstly, parent-child discrepancies in education expectations have negative and significant effects on the academic performance of adolescents. Secondly, upward-biased parent-child discrepancies in education expectations, typically manifest as holding high hopes for children, are not rational, with a significant and negative effect on academic performance. However, there is no significant relationship between downward-biased parent-child discrepancies in education expectations and academic performance. Thirdly, psychological stress, academic burden and negative emotions play partial mediating roles in the relationship between the upward-biased parent-child discrepancies in education expectations and academic achievement. Finally, compared to that of girls, the academic performance of boys is more susceptible to the negative impact of upward-biased parent-child discrepancies in education expectations. Based on the results of empirical research, we put forward countermeasures such as forming appropriate educational expectations and improving parent-child communication.

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    Research on the Resource Allocation of Compulsory Education in China from 2020 to 2035
    Jinzhong Qiao, Jingxuan Shen, Handong Li, Binglin Zhong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2021, 39 (12): 59-80.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.12.005
    Abstract281)   HTML33)    PDF (1516KB)(190)      

    The development of education should be forward-looking. Under the guidance of China’s Education Modernization 2035 Plan, it is necessary to conduct research on the change of the school-age population and the allocation of educational resources during the period of 2020—2035. The queue element method based on Leslie matrix and interview were adopted to predict the number of students, schools, teachers and the required funds of compulsory education during the period of 2020—2035. The results showed that: compared with 2020, the total number of students in compulsory education will drop by 30 million in 2035. Based on the current school size, 5,000 new primary schools should be built until 2026, with 4,000 new middle schools should be built until 2030. A large number of primary schools in rural areas will lie idle (37.3 thousand); Based on the current teacher-student ratio, the demand for full-time teachers in compulsory education is decreasing, with a surplus of about 1.49 million primary school teachers and 370 thousand junior high school teachers. In 2031, the number of compulsory education students in urban areas will exceed that in townships, and compulsory education will generally enter an era dominated by urban education. The transfer of students from rural areas to townships and urban areas should be fully considered, while it is suggested to plan the distribution of schools scientifically, improve the school-running standards, reduce the student-teacher ratio and the class size, optimize the allocation of teacher resources between preschool, nursery education and compulsory education.

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    Conceptual Framework of Children’s All-round Development through a Multi-disciplinary Approach
    Xudong Zhu, Xiuyun Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (2): 1-16.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.001
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    Conceptual framework of children’s all-around development through a multi-disciplinary approach is based on Marxist “all-around development of humans”. It attempts to construct a conceptual framework for children’s all-around development through a multi-disciplinary perspective, consisting of “five pairs of concepts and twelve categories”. Specifically, it includes the conceptual construction of children’s civic and moral development through the lens of political science and ethics; the conceptual construction of children’s cognitive and emotional development through the lens of psychology and brain science; the conceptual construction of children’s social and personality development through the lens of sociology, psychology, social psychology; the construction of children’s artistic and aesthetic development through the lens of art studies and aesthetics; the conceptual construction of children’s health and safety development through the lens of human kinematics, nutrition, and safety; the conceptual construction of children’s physical and brain development through the lens of physiology and brain science. The construction of children’s all-around development through a multi-disciplinary approach is to deepen the discussion around the basic theories for children’s development. The conceptual framework provides theoretical reference for a more comprehensive grasp of the goal of education, as well as theoretical basis for constructing a scientific educational evaluation system.

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    Social Responsibility: The Core Characteristic of Top-notch Talents
    Kun Yan, Han Wu, Yuqi Zhang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2021, 39 (12): 28-41.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.12.003
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    This article argues that social responsibility is one of the core characteristics of top-notch talents. At the very beginning, the article clarifies the necessity of cultivating social responsibility for top-notch talents. Then, the article analyzes the profound connotation and important elements of top-notch talents’ social responsibility based on the relative theories and models. Furthermore, the article analyzes the relationship between social responsibility and other characteristics crucial to the top-notch talents’ development. In the end, the article puts forward suggestions and guidance on the cultivation of top-notch talents’ social responsibility so that the programs and services can be enhanced.

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    Factors Influencing Chinese Returnees’ Employment Quality: Empirical Analysis Based on Ordinal Logistic Regression and ISM Model
    Yunyun Liu, Yinghua Ye
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2021, 39 (12): 42-58.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.12.004
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    With the “new generation returnees” of the post-80s and post-90s returning to China for development, their employment quality have attracted widespread attention. The paper takes socio-demographic background, education abroad, job search at home into account and analyzes how their contained factors affect Chinese returnees’ employment quality (objective side and subjective side). 203 Chinese returnees who returned to China within three years participated in this study and filled out a questionnaire. Based on ordinal logistic regression, the study found that return time, form of study abroad, area of study abroad, length of study abroad, degree, job search intensity, number of interviews, area of the working and sector type affect objective employment quality (i.e., average monthly income), while one child or not, degree, return time, form of study abroad, re-entry adaption, the time of getting the first job, number of interviews, number of offers, area of the working, sector type as well as objective employment quality affect subjective employment quality (i.e., job–person fit match, job satisfaction as well as turnover intention). In addition, by forming a multi-level directional relationship with Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM), the paper found that socio-demographic and part of the educational experience abroad play an underlying role in the employment quality model; educational outcome abroad (such as degree and re-entry adaption, etc.) are indirect factor at the middle level; job search at home is directly related to the quality of job employment. The results are analyzed and recommendations to promote high-quality job quality are made.

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    An Exploration on Supervisor–postgraduate Relationship in China
    Jie Ma, Dunrong Bie
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2021, 39 (12): 81-98.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.12.006
    Abstract233)   HTML43)    PDF (988KB)(172)      

    The supervisor-postgraduate relationship plays a role in the quality of postgraduate education. The mode of supervisor-postgraduate relationship is moving from unity to diversity. Existent literature tends to conceptualize the supervisor and postgraduate as particular roles respectively and thus construct their relationship. This study attempts to move beyond the above literature focusing on the role play in constructing supervisor-postgraduate relationship and look at their relationship from an interpersonal perspective. Drawing upon Leary’s interpersonal circle constructed by Influence and Proximity as two axes, the study explores how these two dimensions are evaluated by both supervisors and postgraduates and thereafter types of supervisor-postgraduate relationship generated from the two axes, and the correlations between types of supervisor- postgraduate relationship and supervisors as well as students’ backgrounds, interaction, and the surrounding climate and conditions. Our study surveyed 3,903 supervisors and 865 postgraduates, and found that the supervisor-postgraduate relationship largely fell into the category of “equal and close” one, with “slightly equal but distant” one and “highly authoritative and distant” one co-existing. However, there seem poor correlations between different types of supervisor-postgraduate relationship and supervisors and students’ backgrounds; certain frequency and length of interaction seem to more correlate with “highly equal and close” supervisor-postgraduate relationship; and for postgraduate students, supportive climate and conditions regarding funding and wellbeing appear to more correlate with “equal and close” supervisor-postgraduate relationship.

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    What is the Practical Experience of Impact Evaluation of PK-12 Educational Programs in the United States:Thematic Text Analysis Based on 25 High-Quality Evaluation Research
    Chenchen Shi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (1): 43-59.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.004
    Abstract223)   HTML85)    PDF (883KB)(259)      

    The impact evaluation of PK-12 educational programs in the United States not only started early in practice, with a relatively solid foundation, but also has developed into an important type of educational scientific research and the evidence source for the evidence-based educational reform at present, accumulating a lot of relatively mature practical experience. After thematically analyzing the text of 25 high-quality evaluation research, this research found that its practical experience is as follows. First of all, adequate evaluation funding is the first prerequisite for evaluation. The funding support comes from government and other sources, the raising is a collective action of wisdom, and the allocation runs through the entire evaluation process. Secondly, professional evaluators are the core input of evaluation. The evaluators come from professional organizations such as universities and colleges, and appropriate evaluators will be carefully selected and determined based on many factors, and there are currently three types of evaluator role positioning, namely, internal evaluators, external evaluators, and evaluators who collaborate internally and externally. Thirdly, scientific evaluation conducting is the key process of evaluation. The evaluation planning usually determines the evaluation type and questions. The evaluation design will clarify the theoretical basis, evaluation methods and outcome measures. And the evaluation implementation will attach great importance to sample recruitment, intervention implementation and data collecting. Fourthly, utility fruit is an important output of evaluation. The evaluation findings will be properly analyzed and reasonably explained. The evaluation results will be written by specifications and presented in various ways. And the evaluation products will be vigorously disseminated and used effectively. In addition, while striving to improve its quality, the impact evaluation of PK-12 educational programs in the U.S. has also begun to burst out new practical trends.

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    Artificial Intelligence Promotes the Development of Future Education: Essential Connotation and Proper Direction
    Xiaoqing Gu, Shijin Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (9): 1-9.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.09.001
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    The development of artificial intelligence technology brings both opportunities and challenges to the education system. Based on the major social science project “Research on Artificial Intelligence Promoting the Development of Future Education”, the study found out the key focus points of artificial intelligence to promote the development of future education: artificial intelligence highlights the challenges of innovative talent development; artificial intelligence supports the personalized realization of large-scale education; artificial intelligence reshapes the concept of knowledge and teaching innovation; artificial intelligence empowers future teacher development research; and artificial intelligence promotes the systematic update of the education ecosystem. At the same time, technology empowerment education, technology innovation education, and technology reshaping education are the advanced forms of the “trilogy” of artificial intelligence to promote the development of future education. To explore the core mechanism of artificial intelligence to promote future education development, it is necessary to reveal the interaction law of “technology-education-society” from the perspective of complex systems, explore the essential impact of artificial intelligence on educational development from the perspective of learning science, and predict the development trend of future education from the perspective of “history-culture”. On this basis, it's important to grasp the development strategy of innovative talents driven by the intelligent era, focus on the key elements of education innovation driven by artificial intelligence, reshape the blueprint of future education ecology boosted by artificial intelligence, so as to create a “high-quality and warm” artificial intelligence education new ecology in China.

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    System Review and Legalization of Compulsory Withdrawal from Colleges and Universities
    Hang Zhang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (1): 88-101.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.007
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    The handling of compulsory withdrawal from colleges is the behavior of colleges and universities to forcibly terminate the legal relationship of students in school, including disciplinary withdrawal and academic elimination. The legal nature of compulsory withdrawal is a state administrative act, and in the specific type of administrative act, it belongs to the cancellation or abolition of unformatted administrative acts that grant benefits. In view of the fact that the handling of compulsory withdrawal has excessively restricted or even deprived students of their basic rights such as the right to identity and the right to education, the formal legality of the compulsory withdrawal system must follow the principle of legal reservation, the principle of clear norms, and the principle of due process. In terms of substantive rationality, the above should comply with the principle of proportionality, the principle of prohibition of improper connection and the principle of trust protection. Based on the conclusions of the legality and rationality of the system, the legalization of the system should be carried out from four aspects. Specifically, first, the basis for withdrawal should be partly based on the principle of relative legal reservation to assign authority; second, the reasons for withdrawal should be divided into political standards, disciplinary standards and academic standards to be determined separately; third, the withdrawal procedure should be established as an open procedure, hearing procedures and period procedures; fourth, rights relief should be improved and explored in school appeals, administrative reconsideration, judicial litigation and administrative compensation and other systematic remedies.

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    The Cultural Studies on Labor Education
    Shaoming Xiao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (2): 17-28.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.002
    Abstract217)   HTML504)    PDF (699KB)(173)      

    Labor education is a process of cultural practice in which people transform the external world, realize the cultural value of people’s free and all-round development, and meet people’s material and spiritual cultural needs. The critique of “labor worship”, “labor determinism”, “labor ends” and “human being’s origin in labor” and the debate on labor education in Chinese and foreign education history reveal that culture is the essence of labor and labor education, and their studies require cultural study. “Labor”, “culture” and “education” have common meanings in etymology. Labor education, as cultural practice, is the unity of “civilizing” to transform nature through material and energetic transformation and “education” to transform society through information-language. It contains different levels of culture and its practice synthesis, such as value-norm, behavior-function, language-symbol, knowledge-technology and so on. Labor education has the characteristic of culture materialism. In another word, it has the cultural characteristics of material and broad masses, based on material production and social reality oriented mass culture. The cultural value of labor education lies in that it is the cultural enlightenment to liberate all people, and its knowledge and culture enlightenment to reflect and express the culture of social life. In a word, the cultural essence and practice of labor education fully present the transformation of substance, energy and information, the material transformation and spiritual creation among human, nature and society. It is a historical, realistic and social dialectical relationship and unity between the “education” of labor and the “labor” of education, physical labor education and mental labor education, civilizing and enlightenment, elite and the public, theory and practice.

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    The Elites with Poor and Humble Families:Cultural Reproduction and Resistance in Elite Universities
    Tong Xiao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (3): 57-74.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.03.006
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    School is not only a place for education, but also an important territory for cultural production and social insight. Through the mixed research paradigm, a five-stage stratified random sampling of 1, 013 rural students was conducted. The two-year follow-up survey recorded the resistance strategies of 18 rural students in elite universities and their transition from students to teachers. The research finds that: in the face of the arbitrariness of “General Culture” in elite universities, the sense of justice and value embodied in “study” is constantly impacted. In the interaction of life experience and dominant structure, students carries out more oriented cultural production around the ethical possibility space of rural “Duty Sense”. When students become teachers and assume the function of “relaisecram” of social reproduction, accompanied by the dangerous leap from “morality” to “rationality” of its survival ethics, "Duty Sense" is once again transferred into the ideology of the school through the civilizing power between social succession, and become the symbol of their conversion to the system.

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    A Study on the Inequality of Basic Education Expenditure per Student in China: Based on the Gini Coefficient and Theil Index
    Lele Geng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (1): 60-73.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.005
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    The equity of expenditure per student on basic education affects the equity of educational process and outcome. Based on the data of expenditure per student on basic education and the data of current students from 1995 to 2018, this paper estimates the equity degree of expenditure per student on basic education in China by calculating the Gini coefficient and Theil index. It is found that the equity of expenditure per student on basic education is generally at a “relatively fair” and “relatively reasonable” level and became more equitable from 1995 to 2018. The inter-provincial difference of basic education expenditure per student is greater than the regional difference. The expenditure of basic education per student in eastern China varies greatly among provinces, and the degree of equity is low. The fairness of the average expenditure of senior high school students tends to decrease. According to the research findings, relevant policy recommendations are put forward.

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    Study of Education Law in Perspective of Comparative Law: Orientation and Disciplinary System
    Huimin Qin, Jun Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2021, 39 (12): 1-14.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.12.001
    Abstract206)   HTML360)    PDF (827KB)(186)      

    In civil law countries, the disciplinary system for study of education law takes the application of legal concepts in education field as the logical starting point, education law, education legal phenomena and its regularity as the research objects, the education law regulating educational order and adjusting rights and obligations of educational subjects in legal relations and the doctrinal logic as the analytical framework, the interaction between government-led educational reform and the legal system as the main line of attention, and theoretical difficulties in judicial disputes as guidelines for problems. In common law countries, the disciplinary system heavily depends on how individuals, as holders of rights, use legal concepts and modes of inference to resolve disputes and protect rights through legal techniques. In common law countries, the disciplinary system of educational jurisprudence depends heavily on how individuals, as holders of rights, use legal concepts and modes of inference to resolve disputes and protect rights through legal techniques. The orientation for study of education law requires a priority focus on a functional rather than a disciplinary orientation. The disciplinary system for study of education law is a knowledge and theory paradigm for studying and constructing a complete educational legal system based on the system of rights and obligations and the system of types and structures. Its scientificity requires an in-depth study of the basic theories and fundamental issues of the discipline, and its applicability needs to pay attention to the relevant problems that constantly arise in the reality inside and outside the education field.

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    Causal Inference, Scientific Evidence, and Educational Research: Discussion on the Educational Research of Nobel Laureates in Economics in 2021
    Bin Huang, Bo Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (4): 1-15.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.04.001
    Abstract204)   HTML197)    PDF (987KB)(331)      

    In recent thirty years, causal inference method has become the mainstream method of quantitative research in social science and has been widely used in the field of education. In 2021, the Nobel Economics Prize was awarded to David Card, Joshua D. Angrist, and Guido W. Imbens for their contributions to promoting the development of causal inference methods. Taking the causal inference research of the three economists in the field of education as the starting point, firstly, this paper discusses the dual attributes of educational research, which have both humanistic care and scientific rationality, and expounds the significance of obtaining effective causal evidence in promoting the development of educational science research. Secondly, this paper introduces in detail the important research findings made by the three Nobel Prize winners in the aspects of Return to Education, the effect of Small Class Teaching, and the effect of school investment on the development of students’ cognitive ability. Lastly, this paper discusses the existing problems and future improvement direction of educational causal studies in China.

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