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    Research Report on Employment Trends of Chinese College Graduates: Based on 2003—2021 Survey Data
    Changjun Yue, Qinxue Feng, Xiaojia Xin, Wenqi Qiu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (9): 138-154.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.09.010
    Abstract4627)   HTML350)    PDF (853KB)(1894)      

    Based on ten national survey data sets on Chinese college graduates’ employment status from 2003 to 2021, this paper conducts empirical analysis on employment characteristics and trend of Chinese college graduates. The main conclusions are as follows. First, from the perspective of graduation destination, the proportion of formal employment has reached a new low level, while the proportion of further education continues to rise. The placement rate has declined, and the unemployment rate has rebounded. The placement rates of graduates with different educational levels tends to converge. Second, from the perspective of employment quality, the higher the graduates’ education level, the higher the starting salary and the faster the salary grows. There is a L-shaped downward trend in relative starting salary. Nearly 50% of graduates have lower starting salaries than expected. Employment satisfaction is on a fluctuating upward trend. Third, from the perspective of employment structure, the employment proportion in large and medium-sized cities exceeds 80%. The employment proportion of private enterprises has jumped to first place. The employment proportion of enterprises increases at the beginning and then decreases, which exceeds 50%. Career types shift from homogenization towards diversification, then back to homogenization. The education industry has become the preferred choice for graduates. Fourth, from the perspective of employment matching, the proportion of education-job match first decreases and then increases, exceeding 70%. The proportion of major-job mismatch is about 40%. Fifth, from the perspective of job-searching status, schools are the main source of job-searching information. The number of job applications has not gradually increased over time, and some graduates have obtained job opportunities but do not accept. Expenses on human relationship, transportation and clothing are the three major job-searching expenses. Ability is the most important factor that affects employment outcomes. Graduates have stable career intentions, attaching importance to prospects and income.

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    The Connotation and Influencing Factors of Employment Ability of College Students in China:Based on the Comparison Between Applied Universities and Research Universities
    Qiuheng Shi, Kexin Ren
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (8): 1-12.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.08.001
    Abstract962)   HTML113)    PDF (1194KB)(737)      

    The structural contradiction between employment difficulty and recruitment difficulty highlights the disharmony between the structure of higher education and the demand for talents of economic and social development. This paper explores the current situation and influencing factors of the employability of college students in research universities and applied universities by constructing a structural model of the employability of college students. It is found that the employability model of college students, which is composed of personality traits, general ability and professional knowledge and skills, is well supported by the data. The employability of Chinese college students is mainly based on comprehensive literacy and ability, and the applied talents have obvious advantages in vocational technical skills. The first classroom is the main front to improve the employability of college students, while the second classroom is of great value to college students with high employability. The quality of practical training in application-oriented colleges and universities needs to be improved. Therefore, colleges and universities should give full play to the different values of the first classroom and the second classroom to realize individualized teaching. Application-oriented colleges and universities should take engineering talents as the goal of talent training, improve students’ comprehensive quality in an all-round and multi-channel way, increase the construction of practice and training so as to realize the combination of characteristics and high quality.

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    What is Artificial Intelligence (AI) Competency: Essence, Composition and Evaluation Systems
    Baichang Zhong, Xiaofan Liu, Minghuan Yang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2024, 42 (1): 71-84.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2024.01.005
    Abstract952)   HTML50)    PDF (845KB)(721)      

    The ChatGPT has both positive and negative effects on education. The field of education should consider not only how to empower students to meet the challenges posed by AI, but also how to develop students’ competency to adapt to AI. In this paper, we refer to this competency as AI competency, i.e., the core competency of students with both domain specificity and domain generality cultivated through AI education. AI competency is a new competency arising from the development of AI technology. Technology ontology, philosophical epistemology and educational psychology are interconnected to understand the essence and composition of AI competency. From the perspective of technology ontology, this paper analyzes the essence of AI competency-the technicalization of human beings. From the perspective of philosophical epistemology and educational psychology, this paper analyzes the composition of AI competency. Key competency development is essentially a dynamic transformation process of “knowledge and thinking”. Affectivity, as a knowledge-derived emotional experience, not only nourishes the process of knowledge construction and thinking development, but also serves as the foundation and source for acquiring moral conceptions. Thus, the interplay of knowledge, affectivity and thinking underpins the logic of students’ AI competency. In this vein, this paper constructs an evaluation system of AI competency based on three dimensions: AI knowledge, AI affectivity, and AI thinking.

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    Theoretical Foundations and Practical Strategies of Developing Creative Talent
    David Yun Dai
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2024, 42 (1): 1-23.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2024.01.001
    Abstract810)   HTML64)    PDF (917KB)(641)      

    The nurturing of creative talent is a significant and urgent matter. However, what constitutes creative talent, and how to identify and educate them-these issues still await good theoretical answers and practical guidance. This article is intended to address human creative potential in terms of how it develops and leads to creative accomplishments, and how educational and social interventions can be designed accordingly to identify, nurture, and culturally support the development of creative productivity. For the nature of creative talent, the article identifies five types of innovations and three types of creative talent. For identification, it is proposed that identification should be more dynamic and developmentally responsive. For nurturing creativity, a three-phase developmental and domain-specific approach is proposed. For cultural support, several issues are brought up as to what constitutes a creativity-friendly culture. Finally, the article proposes a set of five strategic considerations for implementing such a practical agenda, and for guiding policy, the article suggests four principles to follow, as well as precaution for conceptual traps that might hinder this line of work.

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    Education in Metaverse: The Status Quo and Innovation
    Lin Wang, Hongzhou Chen, Wei Cai
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (11): 38-51.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.11.004
    Abstract632)   HTML33)    PDF (3660KB)(285)      

    This article examines the educational practice and cutting-edge ideas of different actors under the concept of metaverse. We bring forward three levels of observation of education in Metaverse, namely, the changing structure empowered by decentralized technology, the altered knowledge and experience of education in metaverse, and the development of human-computer Interaction. We believe that, first, Web 3 Education will update the traditional educational model and highlight the publicity of education from the dimensions of DAO, Defi and DID. Second, video games have significant advantages in forging educational cognitive chains, expanding digital classroom narratives, and building ubiquitous learning mechanisms, and are important auxiliary educational resources in Metaverse. Finally, the new form of human-computer interaction broadens the boundaries of disciplines, and the university metaverse that takes place in the digital education community creates new connection possibilities for education and learning.

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    Can “Double Reduction” Policy Eliminate the Demand for Academic Private Tutoring: An Empirical Study from the Perspective of Bounded Rationality
    Junyan Liu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (9): 71-84.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.09.005
    Abstract562)   HTML55)    PDF (1111KB)(677)      

    In July2021, Chinese government issued the “Double Reduction” policy and started to regulate private tutoring very strictly, seeking significant reduction in its scale. Based on a nationwide parents questionnaire survey, this paper reported that parents welcomed most regulative measures but some of them still demanded academic tutoring. From semi-structured interview, it was found that some types of demand like the one for after-school care would be reduced since schools offered after-school program, but others might not be easily cut down. The new policy had few substantial impacts on students’ educational growth path. Therefore, parents chose to continue their demand for tutoring out of bounded rationality as a strategy to assist their children’s education career. Some demands had turned to underground market because of limited supply under regulations, whose price went up but quality might be unsatisfactory. Finally, the paper concluded with implications for regulating private tutoring effectively with a focus on demand side.

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    The Generation Mechanism of the Primary and Secondary School Teachers’ Workload in China
    Huan Song, Jianjian Wu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (9): 16-37.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.09.002
    Abstract545)   HTML47)    PDF (1332KB)(621)      

    The problem of the overload of primary and secondary school teachers is undermining the development of Chinese basic education. However, existing studies on teacher workload in China have limited discussions on how teachers perceive and cope with workload, as well as lack insight into the generation process of teachers’ workload. Through grounded theory methodology, this study aimed to explore teachers perceptions and responses to workload, and how Chinese teachers’ workload generate. Drawn on qualitative data from 49 Chinese primary and secondary school teachers, head of grassroots administrative department, the results showed that there were three types of workload of primary and secondary school teachers in China: teaching related workload, which teachers were willing to do even if they were tired, special-role workload, which let teachers feel torn on their responsibilities, and additional irrelevant workload, which teachers hated most. The complex sources of teachers’ workload in China were intertwined and layered, rooted in the absence of modern governance and modern school systems, but also shaped by a combination of digital technology, the educationalization of society. Schools as organisational intermediaries may ‘add’ or ‘subtract’ from teachers’ workload. The impact of teacher identity on teachers’ perceptions of and responses to workload, the mechanisms of teacher workload generation, and the differences in the process of teacher workload generation were discussed.

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    Expectation and Reality: An Analysis of Pay Level and Pay Mix of University Staff in China
    Yongmei Hu, Ping Zhao, Jing Yuan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2024, 42 (1): 24-40.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2024.01.002
    Abstract522)   HTML38)    PDF (921KB)(450)      

    In order to find out the problems and then provide empirical basis for the reform of pay system of Chinese university staff, the current study analyzes the actual and expected pay level and pay mix of Chinese university staff by using administrative data and large-scale micro survey data, and draws the following conclusions. The pay level of Chinese university staffs is relatively competitive in China, but it is not internationally competitive enough. The annual pay and its components of most staff are lower than the average, and the pay expectation of the vast majority of staffs is higher than the actual pay. The proportion of the base pay of university staff in the monthly pay is low, and it is lower than their expectation. The proportion of faculties in the “Double First-Class” universities and staff in the eastern regions expecting salary increases is significantly higher than that of other staff. Based on the above research findings, the study proposes three suggestions on raising pay level and optimizing pay mix to facilitate the reform of pay system of Chinese university faculty.

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    A Study on the Current Situation and Influencing Factors of Students’Labor Literacy in Primary Schools in China
    Xiaojie Wang, Naiqing Song
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2024, 42 (2): 78-91.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2024.02.006
    Abstract500)   HTML32)    PDF (879KB)(261)      

    Through the analysis of the data of 156,050 students in primary schools and 100,039 parents in 24 provinces in China, we found that student’s labor literacy is generally good, but there is still room for improvement,in particular,the “unity of knowledge and practice” of students’ labor, students’ concept of labor honor and disgrace, students’ willingness to housework, students’ labor creativity, students’ labor time, students’ labor initiative, students’ refined labor capacity need to be improved. The labor concept of urban pupils is significantly better than that of rural pupils; the labor capacity of pupils in the west is significantly higher than that of pupils in the central and east China; the labor participation of girls is significantly better than that of boys, and the labor capacity of third graders is significantly lower than that of fourth, fifth and sixth graders. Also,the number and types of labor courses and activities in school, special places and teachers of labor education, parents’ labor education concept, attitudes and participation have a positive impact on students’ labor literacy, among them, the types of school labor education courses and activities, and parents’ attitudes towards labor education have a greater impact. Being only child family, having a nanny care has a negative impact on students’ labor literacy, but the impact is relatively small. Accordingly, we put forward countermeasures and suggestions from the aspects of changing educational ideas, improving course content, optimizing teaching methods, paying attention to characteristic development, perfecting the coordination mechanism, and strengthening the condition guarantee.

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    The Theoretical Implications of Labor Education
    Xianming Xiang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (8): 44-52.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.08.005
    Abstract473)   HTML21)    PDF (635KB)(296)      

    Labor education is a very important and special aspect of the theory of “five educations” in Marxist pedagogy. It forms an organic whole closely linked with moral, intellectual, physical and aesthetic aspects in human development. Whether as an educational activity, an educational content, a moral education, or as a special curriculum in schools, labor education should be comprehensive, free, independent and creative. Otherwise, it cannot promote people’s free and all-round development. In the process of alienated labor education, people lose their subjectivity and are simply trained as labor tools. Labor education itself often degenerates into a punitive activity. In terms of its essential characteristics, labor education can establish a meaningful connection between students’ book knowledge and their social practice, so as to fundamentally solve the problem of “Reading in a pedantic way”, and thus has important value in overcoming educational alienation. The free and all-round development of human beings, in the final analysis, depends on the development of labor itself. Therefore, free, independent and comprehensive labor education is the fundamental way to ultimately bring up people with all-round development.

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    The Vitality of Teachers and Positive Teacher-student Relationships: A Study on the Emotional Transmission Effect
    Wei Yan, Zhongying Shi, Kaiping Peng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2024, 42 (3): 78-86.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2024.03.007
    Abstract462)   HTML22)    PDF (742KB)(328)      

    In recent years, the emotional interactions between teachers and students in the classroom have garnered increasing attention. Drawing from the vitality theory, this study posited that the vitality of teachers might enhance students’ vitality and foster positive teacher-student relationship via emotional transmission effect, specifically through students’ perception of teacher enthusiasm. This hypothesis was empirically examined with a sample of 2,386 Chinese middle school students and 76 headteachers. Data on student and teacher vitality, students’ perception of teacher enthusiasm, and positive teacher-student relationship were collected using questionnaires. A chain mediation model was established and evaluated. Results showed that teacher vitality directly predicts positive teacher-student relationship. The relationship is underpinned by the mediators of students’ perception of teacher enthusiasm and student vitality, and by the chain mediating effect of the two. In essence, when teachers demonstrate energy, enthusiasm, and vitality in their teaching, they are more likely to transmit this passion to their students. This, in turn, fosters more positive teacher-student relationships. These findings have significant implications for bolstering educational vitality, enhancing the mental health of teachers and students, and cultivating positive teacher-student relationships.

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    The Practical Characteristics, Difficulties and Cooperative Ways of Teacher Subjects in Children’s Transition from Kindergarten to Primary School: An Empirical Investigation of Kindergarten and Primary School Teachers from 11 Provinces and Cities
    Jin Huang, Fang Tian, Hui Qiao, Meng Zhang, Chang Yu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (11): 1-12.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.11.001
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    The transition from kindergarten to primary school is a critical period for children to adapt to society and future education. Kindergarten teachers and primary school teachers are important participants to ensure effective two-way coordination and support the smooth transition. Based on the perspective of multi subjects’ collaborative participation in the transition practices, this study investigates the transition beliefs and practice of kindergarten and primary school teachers. Participants were 9,872 kindergarten teachers and 7,411 primary school teachers from 11 provinces and cities. The findings revealed that there were conflicts in the belief and understanding of transition to school between kindergarten and primary school teachers, and there was inconsistency in the organization and implementation of curriculum and teaching. They faced such practical difficulties as weak belief in cooperation, low implementation rate of cooperation, limited external support, and insufficient internal understanding. These findings highlight that it should promote the coordination of kindergarten and primary school teachers to support the smooth transition of children in such aspects as establishing a consensus on two-way coordination based on children’s position, realizing the continuity of curriculum and teaching, building an interactive platform and forming a supportive guarantee system.

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    A Time Sociological Analysis on Teachers’ Workload
    Huan Song
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (9): 1-15.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.09.001
    Abstract436)   HTML48)    PDF (905KB)(535)      

    As a topic closely related to time, teachers’ workload needs to be analyzed from the three dimensions of the sociology of time: the commercial value, the political structure, and the moral norm. The scale effect of social time and its induced performance management lead to teachers’ high workload, stress and burnout. The hierarchical nesting structure and power structure of social time, as well as the time dilemma of public governance, make teachers’ self-time scarce, out of control and overdrawn. The moral tightness requirements and moral traps of social time devour teachers’ subject meaning and lead to teachers’ time poverty. The high-speed society strengthens the domination of the time norm over the subject and causes a series of morbid changes in teachers’ work. Therefore, it is necessary to fundamentally solve the problem of teachers’ workload through a series of methods such as value reconstruction, active deceleration, and technological innovation.

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    Deep Learning in the Age of Digital Intelligence: From Shallow Memory Towards Deep Understanding
    Mingxuan Chen, Liang Zhou
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (8): 53-62.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.08.006
    Abstract387)   HTML31)    PDF (838KB)(688)      

    In the complex, changing and challenging real world, shallow learning based on repetitive memory is no longer able to meet the challenges of the times, so deep learning has received great attention. But what is deep learning? How to achieve deep learning? There are different understandings and different approaches in the academic community. The essence of learning is comprehension, and comprehension is the form of representation of deep learning, and the depth of learning is the degree of comprehension. The strategies to promote deep understanding in the era of digital intelligence include “learning transformation to promote deep understanding”, “technology empowerment to promote deep understanding” and “teaching design to promote deep understanding”. The three aspects provides a new theoretical perspective for interpreting deep learning, and lays a theoretical foundation for an in-depth study of the occurrence mechanism of deep learning and the role of technology on learning in the era of digital intelligence.

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    Metaverse in Education: Position Every Child Real Experience in the New World
    Xiaoqing Gu, Ping Wan, Gong Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (11): 13-26.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.11.002
    Abstract385)   HTML33)    PDF (735KB)(365)      

    Metaverse attracted attention in the field of education, but there is still a lack of rational understanding. Therefore, it is necessary to rethink about the real meaning of metaverse and its educational value. Metaverse is the existence that connects the real world you are currently in with other different time and space, through which you can enter the real situation of any time and space, and this is also the way for students to learn knowledge in the future. The Metaverse in education enriches the existence of knowledge, the depth of the learner’s learning experience and the scope of the true-life world, allowing students to directly experience the process of knowledge dissemination, knowledge construction, knowledge application, knowledge production and creation. At the same time, the process of interaction between learners and the situation affects the formation and development of human social knowledge, and the influence is fed back to the real-life world to promote the real occurrence of knowledge learning. On this basis, this research further explores the possible application scenarios of metaverse in education and analyzes the key technologies and potential educational value and risks.

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    An Empirical Study on the Role of Education in Promoting Urbanization
    Boshen Wan, Weifang Min
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (10): 40-52.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.10.004
    Abstract375)   HTML16)    PDF (836KB)(272)      

    Urbanization is not only a way that a country must go through for modernization, but also an important driving force for economic growth and common prosperity. It could promote new rural construction and develop modern agriculture, thus raising farmers’ income and allowing them to enter the secondary and tertiary sector of the economy with higher productivity through better education. Based on the provincial-level panel data of China from 2005 to 2020, by using a two-way fixed effects model, this study finds that: first, education investment could accelerate urbanization; second, economic growth and technological advances could also promote urbanization process; finally, regional development could moderate the educational effect on urbanization.

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    Justifying “Migration”: The Meaning and Effect of Proactive-education Migrating
    Sheng Cui, Qiuxiang Wu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (11): 108-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.11.009
    Abstract333)   HTML33)    PDF (1126KB)(256)      

    Education is an increasingly important factor in population migration, and there are groups migrated due to education. However, the impact of migration on students’ academic ability is not consistent. On the basis of clarifying migrant children, left-behind children, immigrant children, and immigrant children of rural migrant workers, this paper divided the groups of proactive-education migrating and passive-education migrating according to whether the main purpose of the migration involved education or not. And then, it explored the effect and mechanism of proactive-education migrating on academic ability. Based on the tracking data of China Education Panel Survey (CEPS), this paper found that proactive-education migrating could significantly improve students’ academic ability. Compared with different control groups, the positive effect of proactive-education migrating on the academic ability ranged from 0.06 to 0.08 standard scores. It also had a direct or indirect impact on academic ability through parent educational expectation and parent involvement. In addition, proactive-education migrating had a heterogeneous effect across different hukou groups and different inflow places. This paper attempts to separate the positive components of the migration effect to justify migration, and to provide migrating strategies for families with different backgrounds.

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    Construction of Indicators of “How Teachers Support ” in Project-Based Learning(PBL)
    Xuemei Xia
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (8): 90-102.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.08.009
    Abstract322)   HTML27)    PDF (767KB)(476)      

    In the new teaching reform, whether teachers should provide support, to what extent, at what time and what types of support are the key issues in the transformation of learning and teaching from the perspective of competencies. Taking project-based learning as a typical method, based on the latest development of constructivism, effective failure, intervention research of project-based learning implementation, learning scaffolding and other theories, this paper forms the theoretical framework based on three key questions about how much support, when to support, and how to support. Based on the framework and the coding of teachers’ interview, the final indicators of how teachers support students in PBL were constructed and confirmed.

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    How School Education Contributes to the Social and Emotional Development of Students: A Study Based on Cluster Analysis
    Jing Zhang, Jie Zheng, Haili Cui, Lijun Zhang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2024, 42 (5): 72-82.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2024.05.004
    Abstract322)   HTML24)    PDF (853KB)(153)      

    This study focuses on five key school influencing factors perceived by students: student-classmate relationship, student-teacher relationship, teacher feedback, extra-curricular activities, and sense of belonging at school, and investigates how they collectively impact the social and emotional skills development of students. Utilizing data from the OECD's SSES2023 China survey, which includes a total of 7,648 students aged 10 and 15, we conducted a cluster analysis with the aforementioned five influencing factors as variables. By employing variance analysis and post-hoc tests, we uncovered differences in social and emotional competencies among student groups categorized by these factors. The study identifies five student clusters based on the perceived five school variables: School Satisfaction Group (students scoring high on all five school influencing factors), Social Advantage Group (students scoring high on student-classmate relationship, student-teacher relationship, and student-classmate relationship, student-teacher relationship), Diverse Interest Group (students scoring highest on extra-curricular activities), Feedback Proficient Group (students scoring high on teacher feedback), and School Support Group (students scoring lowest on all five school influencing factors). Among these, students in the School Satisfaction Group demonstrate the most outstanding performance in social and emotional skills, while the School Support Group exhibits the weakest performance. Furthermore, the Social Advantage Group, Diverse Interest Group, and Feedback Proficient Group show variations across different age groups and skill levels. This study not only provides robust data support for schools to conduct social and emotional skills but also offers empirical evidence for understanding the comprehensive influence of school factors on students' social and emotional skills development. It is of significant importance for guiding schools to formulate targeted teaching strategies and intervention measures, thus promoting students’ comprehensive and healthy development.

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    A Visual Analysis of Neuromyths in Education and Educational Inspiration
    Jiaxian Zhou, Zhicong Zhang, Dan Chen, Jie Shen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (8): 63-78.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.08.007
    Abstract318)   HTML25)    PDF (2300KB)(330)      

    The wealth of educational neuroscientific results has contributed to deeper development and reform in education. In the process, however, misunderstandings and misinterpretations of neuroscience results have created an obstacle that has to be addressed - “neuromyth”. The current situation of the prevalence of neuromyth in the education system has seriously affected the teaching efficiency of teachers and the development of students. The current research in this area has not attracted sufficient attention from domestic scholars. Therefore, this study summarizes and compares the literature on neuromyths published from 2012-2022 and conducts a visual analysis to point out the current status and influencing factors of neuromyths and interventions. It concludes with some educational insights and recommendations.

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