Loading...

Table of Content

    01 May 2024, Volume 42 Issue 5 Previous Issue   
    For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
    First Report on the Development of Chinese Adolescents’ Social and Emotional Skills: Based on the Second Round of SSES Data
    Zhenguo Yuan, Zhongjing Huang, Hong Wang, Xiangyu Wang, Jing Zhang
    2024, 42 (5):  1-32.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2024.05.001
    Abstract ( 69 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (4355KB) ( 42 )   Save

    This report analyzes data from the Survey on Social and Emotional Skills for the 10- and 15-year-old groups of students in Jinan City, China, and finds that students in the 10-year-old group scored higher than students in the 15-year-old group in all 16 social and emotional skills. In the 10-year-old group, boys scored higher than girls in all social and emotional skills except responsibility and achievement motivation, where the top three skills with the greatest differences were curiosity, creativity, and emotional control. In the 15-year-old group, girls scored higher than boys on responsibility, empathy, and tolerance, with empathy being the top one with the largest difference. Boys scored higher than girls in all other social and emotional skills, with the top three skills with the greatest differences being stress resistance, emotional control, and curiosity. The social and emotional skills of the advantaged students were higher than those of the disadvantaged group. There is no significant difference in social and emotional skills between general secondary school students and vocational secondary school students. In the 15-year-old group, private school students were slightly higher than public school students in engaging with the others and open-mindedness, while the results were reversed in other skills. Optimism was by far the skill most closely related to health behaviors, body image, life satisfaction, satisfaction with relationships, and current psychological well-being. Emotional control and stress resistance were most closely related to students’ test and class anxiety. Task performance, especially achievement motivation and perseverance, as well as curiosity were strongly associated with better student performance in Chinese, Math, and Arts. Notably, 15-year-old girls benefited more than boys from social and emotional skills, while 10-year-old boys benefited more than girls from social and emotional skills. The relationships between body image, health behaviors, satisfaction with relationships, current psychological well-being, and most of the skills were stronger for advantaged than that for disadvantaged students. Advantaged students tended to participate in more career development activities than disadvantaged students. Students with higher social and emotional skills, especially those with higher levels of creativity and curiosity, engaged in more career development activities. Girls and advantaged pupils tend to be more ambitious about their future education and careers than boys and disadvantaged pupils. Students with high levels of open-mindedness and task performance have higher future educational aspirations and career ambitions.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Student Social and Emotional Competence: International Comparison and Chinese Performance
    Zhongjing Huang, Yipeng Tang, Juan Wang
    2024, 42 (5):  33-57.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2024.05.002
    Abstract ( 67 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (2428KB) ( 35 )   Save

    The OECD recently released the results of its second round of global assessments of social and emotional competence, and Jinan's performance is noteworthy. Based on the student data of SSES2023, this paper analyzes China's performance in social and emotional competence and its international status from the perspective of international comparison. The main findings of the study based on the mean competency analysis of global cities are as follows: (1) Asian students excel in social and emotional abilities. (2) The 10-year-olds in Jinan ranked first in the world in the dimension of task performance ability, and the 15-year-olds ranked first, but the score of achievement motivation was slightly lower. (3) The 10-year-olds in Jinan ranked first in the world in the dimension of emotion regulation, while the 15-year-olds’ abilities were lower than the international average; (4) The 10-year-old group of Jinan students ranked first in the world in terms of cooperation ability, and the 15-year-old group ranked first. (5) The task performance of students aged 10 in Jinan ranks the top in the world in the dimension of openness ability, while that of students aged 15 is lower than the international average. (6) Students aged 10 in Jinan ranked first in the world in terms of social communication ability, while some abilities of students aged 15 were lower than the international average. Based on the analysis of influencing factors of social and emotional ability, the main findings are as follows: (1) Jinan students are better than the international average in most influencing factors, especially in the classmate relationship. (2) The key positive factors affecting the dimensions of task ability of Jinan students are growth mindset, teacher-student relationship, school belonging and community activities, among which the influence of school belonging ranks first in the world. (3) The key factors affecting the emotional regulation ability of Jinan students are growth mindset, school belonging and community activities, among which the influence of school belonging ranks first in the world. (4) The key factors affecting the cooperation ability of Jinan students are growth mindset, classmate relationship, school belonging and community activities, among which the impact of growth thinking ranks first in the world. (5) The key factors affecting Jinan students’ openness ability are growth mindset, school belonging, community activities and teacher feedback. The effect of school belonging of the 10-year-old group on some openness ability ranks first in the world, while the effect of growth mindset on some openness ability of the 15-year-old group is relatively low. (6) The key factors affecting students’ communication ability in Jinan are growth mindset, school belonging and community activities, among which the influence of school belonging is at the forefront in all cities. The main findings based on the analysis of students’ development based on social and emotional ability are as follows: (1) The life satisfaction of students in Jinan ranks first in the world, and their psychological happiness is low. (2) Optimism, trust, achievement motivation and stress resistance are the important social and emotional abilities that affect the life satisfaction of Jinan students. (3) Optimism, trust and emotional control are the important social and emotional abilities that affect the psychological well-being of Jinan students. (4) Optimism and energy are the important social and emotional abilities that affect the health behavior of Jinan students. (5) Emotional control, stress resistance and energy are the important social and emotional abilities that affect academic anxiety of Jinan students. (6) Optimism, trust and achievement motivation are the important social and emotional abilities that affect the relationship satisfaction of Jinan students. (7) Optimism, stress resistance and assertiveness are important social and emotional abilities that affect the body image of Jinan students.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The Technical Report on the 2nd Round OECD Survey of Social and Emotional Skills of Chinese Adolescence
    Zhifang Shao, Yipeng Tang, Jing Zhang
    2024, 42 (5):  58-71.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2024.05.003
    Abstract ( 20 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (1413KB) ( 16 )   Save

    Based on data from the 2023 Survey on Social and Emotional Skills (SSES) in Jinan, China, this technical report analyzes the psychometric characteristics of the second round of assessment tools under Chinese culture. The report presents a brief introduction of the development and implementation process of the student questionnaire, the subscales of the social and emotional skills, the main components of the questionnaire, the main content of the data set, and the analysis of data quality. The results showed that the students in Jinan had a positive attitude towards the Survey, with high participation rate and valid response rate. However, the frequency distributions of younger cohort showed a tall right tail. The coefficients ω’s and α’s represented that most of the subscales had good reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the validity (fitness) of each subscale of social and emotional skills were satisfactory. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed that the cross-gender measure invariance of these subscales was better than that of cross-cohorts, so the data of these subscales should be used with caution when examining the age-differences among adolescence.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    How School Education Contributes to the Social and Emotional Development of Students: A Study Based on Cluster Analysis
    Jing Zhang, Jie Zheng, Haili Cui, Lijun Zhang
    2024, 42 (5):  72-82.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2024.05.004
    Abstract ( 79 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (853KB) ( 31 )   Save

    This study focuses on five key school influencing factors perceived by students: student-classmate relationship, student-teacher relationship, teacher feedback, extra-curricular activities, and sense of belonging at school, and investigates how they collectively impact the social and emotional skills development of students. Utilizing data from the OECD's SSES2023 China survey, which includes a total of 7,648 students aged 10 and 15, we conducted a cluster analysis with the aforementioned five influencing factors as variables. By employing variance analysis and post-hoc tests, we uncovered differences in social and emotional competencies among student groups categorized by these factors. The study identifies five student clusters based on the perceived five school variables: School Satisfaction Group (students scoring high on all five school influencing factors), Social Advantage Group (students scoring high on student-classmate relationship, student-teacher relationship, and student-classmate relationship, student-teacher relationship), Diverse Interest Group (students scoring highest on extra-curricular activities), Feedback Proficient Group (students scoring high on teacher feedback), and School Support Group (students scoring lowest on all five school influencing factors). Among these, students in the School Satisfaction Group demonstrate the most outstanding performance in social and emotional skills, while the School Support Group exhibits the weakest performance. Furthermore, the Social Advantage Group, Diverse Interest Group, and Feedback Proficient Group show variations across different age groups and skill levels. This study not only provides robust data support for schools to conduct social and emotional skills but also offers empirical evidence for understanding the comprehensive influence of school factors on students' social and emotional skills development. It is of significant importance for guiding schools to formulate targeted teaching strategies and intervention measures, thus promoting students’ comprehensive and healthy development.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The Impact of Family Socioeconomic Status on Students’ Social and Emotional Skills: The Serial Mediation Role of Growth Mindset and Test and Class Anxiety
    Zhi Liu, Jia Li, Chenxi Liang
    2024, 42 (5):  83-98.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2024.05.005
    Abstract ( 57 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (1097KB) ( 32 )   Save

    Based on the data from the OECD Survey on Social and Emotional Skills conducted in Jinan in 2023, this study focuses on the impact of family socioeconomic status on students’ social and emotional skills. It explores the mediating mechanisms through which growth mindset and test and class anxiety influence this relationship. The findings indicate that: (1) both family socioeconomic status and growth mindset have a significant positive effect on students’ social and emotional skills, while test and class anxiety has a significant negative effect; (2) growth mindset plays a significant positive mediating role, meaning that family socioeconomic status positively promotes students’ social and emotional skills through the mediation of growth mindset; (3) test and class anxiety, as a mediator, shows a significant negative mediating effect, suggesting that family socioeconomic status can adversely affect students’ social and emotional skills through the mediation of test and class anxiety; (4) the study further reveals a significant positive serial mediation effect between growth mindset and test and class anxiety, indicating that family socioeconomic status affects students’ growth mindset, which in turn regulates their level of test and class anxiety, ultimately exerting a comprehensive impact on their social and emotional skills. Based on empirical discussions, this study proposes three suggestions for enhancing the development of student’s social and emotional skills. Firstly, schools should provide more resources and platforms to support students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Secondly, establish a path mechanism for cultivating growth mindset with schools as the main battlefield system. Thirdly, promote collaboration between home and school to address the issue of test and class anxiety among adolescents jointly.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    How Social and Emotional Skills Influence Students’ Public Engagement: Based on the Second Round of SSES
    Hanwei Tang, Hong Zhang, Xingyuan Gao
    2024, 42 (5):  99-111.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2024.05.006
    Abstract ( 14 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (886KB) ( 15 )   Save

    Active and effective public engagement is crucial in cultivating students to become “New Era Individuals”. This study leverages data from the Survey on Social and Emotional Skills (SSES 2023) conducted in Jinan, China, examining the current status of public engagement among students aged 10 and 15, and exploring the impact and mechanisms of social and emotional competencies on public engagement. The findings reveal that: (1) more than half of the surveyed students have never participated in public activities related to environmental protection or voluntary services, with the number of participants decreasing as the frequency of participation increases, and the public engagement frequency of 10-year-old students being significantly higher than that of 15-year-olds. (2) Assertiveness, creativity, and achievement motivation are key skills influencing students’ public engagement, with their importance surpassing other social and emotional skills. (3) Social and emotional skills not only directly influence students’ public engagement but also indirectly affect it through mediating pathways such as student-classmate relationship, sense of belonging at school, and the chained mediation of both. The study highlights the significant role of social and emotional skills in civic education, suggesting that leveraging these skills can enhance students’ level of public engagement through various measures.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The Systemization of “Educational Legal Subject” in the Context of the Education Code
    Haitao Ren, Zhongyuan Kong
    2024, 42 (5):  112-126.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2024.05.007
    Abstract ( 12 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1144KB) ( 4 )   Save

    The systematization pursued by the Educational Code should be composed of an external system that reflects the normative order and an internal system that practices the value concept. The existing subject system of educational law adopts a list structure, which has the defects of lack of logical coherence, difficulty in covering the whole, difficulty in highlighting the principles and values of the code, and easy to make the subject positioning unclear, failing to meet the requirements of the Educational Code systematization. The subject system of educational law should adopt a hierarchical structure instead of a list structure, and typological and conceptual thinking can be used as the methodology for establishing a hierarchical structure system. The preliminary concept of the hierarchical subject system of educational law is: with educatees, participants in educational work, organizations that carry out educational activities, and educational administrative organs as the abstract subject hierarchy, respectively commanding the specific subject hierarchy including students, other educatees, parents or other guardians of minor educatees, teachers, other educators, schools, extracurricular educational training institutions, educational intermediary organizations, and public cultural service institutions.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics