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    20 August 2017, Volume 35 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Causal Inference in Education Research: Principles and Applications of Related Methods
    HUANG Bin, FANG Chao, WANG Dong
    2017, 35 (4):  1-14+134.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.001
    Abstract ( 346 )   HTML ( 42 )   PDF (916KB) ( 2722 )   Save
    In the past twenty years, causal inference has developed rapidly and gradually dominated the field of micrometrics. The paper first introduces the context of the emerging causal inference methods. Next, we discuss three preconditions to reach a causal conclusion, point out the major problems with making causal inference in the experimental and non experimental studies, and analyze the main causes and components of heterogeneous residual that commonly exist in the observation studies. Then, using cases of impact evaluation of small class teaching and new mechanism reform, the paper illustrates the basic principles and analyzes procedures of some quasi experimental methods, including regression discontinuity, instrumental variable, propensity score method and double difference. Finally, in response to the doubts about the internal validity of quasi experimental studies, we emphasize the importance of robustness and sensitivity test of the implicit hypothesis that hide behind quasi experimental methods.
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    Building the STEAM Education System in Primary and Secondary Schools
    HU Weiping, SHOU Xin, CHEN Yonggang
    2017, 35 (4):  31-39+134.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.003
    Abstract ( 380 )   HTML ( 140 )   PDF (670KB) ( 2770 )   Save
    STEAM education has become a hot issue in today' international education researches and reforms. Effective implementation of STEAM education is a systematic process, which involves developing education policies, strengthening the integration of STEAM courses, implementing effective STEAM classroom teaching, promoting STEAM teacher professional development, offering STEAM activity courses, and carrying out relevant evaluation. Only in this way can we construct a STEAM education system with Chinese characteristics.
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    STEAM Education in America: Framework, Characteristic and Implication
    WEI Xiaodong, YU Bing, YU Haibo
    2017, 35 (4):  40-46+134+135.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.004
    Abstract ( 558 )   HTML ( 651 )   PDF (1159KB) ( 3836 )   Save
    In recent years, to promote basic education reform, the United States has given high priority to its STEAM education, which has become a national strategy. It's widely accepted that STEAM education helps students to understand the world in an integrated way, to use interdisciplinary thinking to solve practical problems, develop their logical thinking and problem solving skills, and cultivate high quality STEAM talents. With the worldwide spread of STEAM education, it will certainly bring about major changes in basic education. This article looks at the background of STEAM education, analyzes its framework and summarize the characteristics of STEAM education, so as to offer some lessons for the reform of basic education in China.
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    Integration of Maker Education and STEAM Education: An Interdisciplinary Perspective of Innovation
    GAO Yunfeng, SHI Baoguo
    2017, 35 (4):  47-53+135.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.005
    Abstract ( 320 )   HTML ( 214 )   PDF (1924KB) ( 2334 )   Save
    From the inter disciplinary perspective of innovation, maker education and STEAM education have a lot in common and are mutually complementary. The present paper analyzes the current development and the characteristics of the two kinds of education activities respectively, and suggests that maker education is an effective approach to STEAM education, while STEAM education is an indispensable complement for maker education. The integration of both can have positive effects on educating talents. Then, based on the experience of maker education in some primary and secondary schools in recent years, we discuss ways of integrating maker education and STEAM education, including developing standardized courses, offering a series of maker courses and undertaking large live action projects. In conclusion, the integration of maker education and STEAM education will surely provide strong support for the current educational and teaching reform.
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    An Analysis of STEAM Project Based Learning: A Perspective of Key Competencies
    CUI Hong, ZHU Jiahua, ZHANG Xiuhong
    2017, 35 (4):  54-61+135+136.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.006
    Abstract ( 400 )   HTML ( 36 )   PDF (680KB) ( 2337 )   Save
    STEAM is an educational mode which engages students in learning through active participation, project design and problem solving. Quite similar to project based learning, STEAM is interdisciplinary and situational. Therefore, STEAM project based learning is based on specific outcomes and fuzzy tasks, which is an inquiry process involving interdisciplinary learning. In this paper, the authors argue that STEAM project based learning helps to enhance the cultivation of humanities, sense of responsibility and rational thinking, stimulate active learning, and improve individual consciousness and problem solving skills. What's more, it is consistent with the philosophy of the development of student's key competencies. From the perspective of key competencies, the authors also discuss the state quo and challenges in STEAM regarding how to assess the science courses in basic education, how to connect informal and formal education, and how to combine maker education with other cutting edge ideas.
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    The Concept of Critical Pedagogy
    Michael WINKLER
    2017, 35 (4):  62-73+136.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.007
    Abstract ( 289 )   HTML ( 25 )   PDF (672KB) ( 1205 )   Save
    Critical pedagogy is a movement, bound together in a concern about the impact of modern society on the conditions of growing up. Its methodological principles are those of the hermeneutics, the dialectics and the critique of ideologies. The author argues that relations between society and education can be discussed in three ways, i. e, critical pedagogy looks at education by discourse in terms of three paradigms. The first paradigm looks at education from a social standpoint only. The second paradigm focuses on the idea that education should be seen as an autonomous system. The third paradigm relates to the Bildung tradition and is renewed in the German reform pedagogy. Then, the author discusses its ten traditional origins, of which the author pays homage to Klaus Mollenhauer, who introduced empirical approaches to education research developed in the USA. Inspired by the late writings of Mollenhauer's, the author points out that the dynamics of social and cultural changes have accelerated in a way that does not suit the accelerating time an individual is given by nature. Meanwhile, critical pedagogy will have to meet the challenges posed by education in global society and create a safe environment for the sake of the children's development.
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    Inquiry into Michael Winkler's Social Pedagogy
    Frank LIANG
    2017, 35 (4):  74-88+136+137.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.008
    Abstract ( 223 )   HTML ( 24 )   PDF (598KB) ( 676 )   Save
    Adopting educational hermeneutics, this article attempts to investigate Michael Winkler's social pedagogy, which is influenced by Kant's critical pedagogy, Humboldt's cultivation theory, Hegel's dialectic pedagogy, Schleiermacher's educational theory, Nohl's social pedagogy, Mollenhauer's social pedagogy and Korczak's respect pedagogy. The main contents of Winkler's social pedagogy include discussion about the possibility of social pedagogy, perspective of the construction of social pedagogy, analysis of the problems of social pedagogy, explanation of the action of social pedagogy, and the missions of social pedagogy in the future. Winkler's social pedagogy has the following advantages:first, it confirms the possibility of theoretical construction in social pedagogy; second, it guides the direction of theoretical construction in social pedagogy; third, it discusses the problems in the field of social pedagogy; fourth, it helps builds theory of educational aids; fifth, it points out the missions of social pedagogy in the future. However, the social pedagogy has the following problems:it falls into the crisis of improper application of education strategies; it fails to give a clear definition of subject concepts; and it needs more explanation about the structure of educational activities. Despite its problems, it can serve as a reference for the construction of social pedagogy, which helps scholars to understand the problems in social pedagogy and to point out the developmental missions in the future. Winkler's perspectives help to build the theory of social education and to improve the practice of social education.
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    An Analysis of Ancient Education Figures in the 57 Textbooks of the History of Chinese Education and Discussion on the Group Formation of Ancient Chinese Educators
    DU Chengxian, LI Defei, ZHANG Yuejia
    2017, 35 (4):  89-98+137.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.009
    Abstract ( 215 )   HTML ( 24 )   PDF (779KB) ( 1439 )   Save
    During the period of 1979 2015, 57 textbooks of the history of Chinese educational figures were published in mainland China, and 91 people were selected as ancient educational figures in the textbooks, who can be grouped into low frequency figures (60 people), intermediate frequency figures (14 people), middle and high frequency figures (5 people) and high frequency figures (12 people) according to the selecting frequency. The importance of the selected educational figures basically corresponds to the selecting frequency and Confucius is only one that was selected into all textbooks. The selected figures and selecting frequency show that textbook compilers pay more attention to educational contribution, like the contribution of educational thought rather than educational practice. The core group of Chinese ancient educators (about 10 people) has preliminarily taken shape in the textbooks compiled by Shen Guanqun and Meng Xiancheng in the 1950s and 1960s and was further improved in the textbooks published in 1979 by Mao Lirui and others, who put forward a basic group of educational figures (about 30 people). The absolute majority of Confucian characters in the core figure group show that the educational value is lack of inclusiveness and diversity. The selection of figures in Chinese educational history textbooks should follow the principle of representativeness, professionalism and balance.
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    Historicizing: Thomas Popkewitz's History of Education Research Methodology
    LI Xianjun
    2017, 35 (4):  99-106+137+138.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.010
    Abstract ( 168 )   HTML ( 25 )   PDF (501KB) ( 859 )   Save
    From the perspective of sociology of knowledge, Thomas Popkewitz, the famous American educator deconstructs historicism and positivism and blind faith to the archive in history of education. He puts forward his thought of historicizing in history of education research methodology. According to Thomas Popkewitz, while the present and history can't be separated, researchers should understand the present from cultural history and tradition. The researchers in history of education must do research into the practical problems of the present, and use methodology of the history of present. The process of history is interwoven with the influence of relationship between knowledge and power, so that the researcher should be a critical actor. The development of history is discontinuous, so historians must do research on the disruption of the historical change.
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    The Effects of Motivation on Creativity: Present Situation and Prospect
    HAO Ning, TANG Mengying
    2017, 35 (4):  107-114+138.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.011
    Abstract ( 288 )   HTML ( 31 )   PDF (486KB) ( 1333 )   Save
    Different motivations influence creativity in different ways. Intrinsic motivation enhances creativity by helping people focus on creative process itself. Previous studies used to investigate the impacts of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations on creativity separately, while now the focus is transferring to integrate both of them. Further research should explore how intrinsic and extrinsic motivations influence creative problem solving interactively, considering types of creativity tasks. The self determination theory (SDT) provides a desirable explanation for disagreements on the impacts of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations on creativity. Approach motivation promotes creativity with flexibility, so does avoidance motivation with persistence. Recent researches began to testify the effects of social motivations on creativity. The studies revealed that prosocial motivation affects creativity combined with intrinsic motivation. All in all, future research should address two scientific issues. First, how do various motivations influence creativity in integrated or interactive ways? Second, what are the general mechanisms underlying the effects of motivations on creativity?
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    Speech Category Learning: Models, Methods and Researches
    XING Qiang, LIU Kai
    2017, 35 (4):  115-121+138+139.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.012
    Abstract ( 204 )   HTML ( 116 )   PDF (622KB) ( 750 )   Save
    Speech category learning is one of the most important cognitive mechanisms in human beings. At present, the main theoretical model of speech category learning is the dual system model, which includes explicit hypothesis testing reflective system and implicit procedure based reflexive system. Researches in speech category learning mainly aim at the artificial auditory stimuli and natural Mandarin Chinese. They should dissociate the reflective system and reflexive system to verify the existence of dual system model. In the current study, delayed feedback and immediate feedback, full feedback and minimal feedback, blocked talkers and mixed talkers are all used to explore the characteristic of reflective system, so do reflexive system. Despite the achievements in speech category learning, it is important to note that the research findings in perceptual category learning should be initroduced in speech category learning carefully in the future research. The cognitive mechanism and learning ability of the elderly, children, bilinguals can also be further studied.
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    International Dialogue on the Role of Museum Education in STEM and STEAM Education
    David ANDERSON, JI Jiao
    2017, 35 (4):  122-129+139.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.04.013
    Abstract ( 272 )   HTML ( 127 )   PDF (509KB) ( 2276 )   Save
    This dialogue was based on David Anderson's research and educational experience. Adopting the sociocultural theoretical approach, Professor David and I discussed the following five topics:a) the rationale and development of STEM education, b) the barriers encountered by STEM education, c) the unique roles of museums in STEM education, d) the compatibility of museum education and local sociocultural context, and e) the contribution of university researchers to the integration of museum education and STEM education.
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