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Table of Content

    20 November 2019, Volume 37 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    The Undergraduate Instruction: Theory and Experience, Idea and Evidence
    Yan Guangcai
    2019, 37 (6):  1-15.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.001
    Abstract ( 346 )   HTML ( 165 )   PDF (740KB) ( 338 )   Save
    In view of the current hot topics related to undergraduate teaching, this paper draws the following conclusions based on historical investigation and realistic examination. Although college teaching and learning need theoretical research, it depends more on faculty's independent and intellectual practical exploration, individual experience accumulation. Learner-centered instruction is an initiative stimulated by the situation, rather than a teaching mode or paradigm that breaks with the tradition. Relevant evidence shows that the exploration of effective teaching is still inseparable from the teacher's leading and organization, without which the routine instruction will move toward disorder and inefficiency. Learner-centered instruction tends to be limited by certain objective resource constraints, and thus needs something like community's institutional environment and cultural support.
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    The Performing School and Educational Crisis
    Gao Desheng
    2019, 37 (6):  16-26.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.002
    Abstract ( 281 )   HTML ( 211 )   PDF (655KB) ( 196 )   Save
    The term "performance" is commonly used in the field of education, but without an agreed academic definition, it is an unfamiliar common term in education. Performance occurs among people, that is, people show their character and ability to others in a visible way. Performance is a way of existence of human beings, which not only demonstrates human excellence, but also has many limitations. The birth of schools is actually a "stage" event, which is the beginning of education separated from life and being the object of "being seen". In the history of education, the way to resist the performance of education is mainly reflected in opposing "being seen",but rather in "seeing" society and realistic politics. Through the two stages of "disciplined performance" and "re-evolution" of performance, schools are now dominated by performance. The "performance" of school leads to the loss of educational autonomy, the loss of seeking truth and good, the externalization of education and the loss of enthusiasm. To a certain extent, schools have become a force against education, which has also exacerbated the crisis of education. Only by finding the "antidote" can education get out of the crisis.
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    The Generating Mechanism of Children's Images in Classroom Space: Power or Education?
    Bu Yuhua, Zhong Cheng
    2019, 37 (6):  27-35.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.003
    Abstract ( 236 )   HTML ( 216 )   PDF (1472KB) ( 200 )   Save
    The research deals with whether lifting a restriction on classroom space and empowering students can ensure students' active and autonomous learning. It's conducted through video-clued subjects' interview, fieldwork and action research. The findings indicated that while teachers' power is surplus, students' images of "school desk dwelling", "sunflower" and "hidden resistance" will come out, which makes it imperative to dispel teachers' power. However, when teachers empower their students and change the classroom structure, the students present their images of passive learning, images like "changers of study rules", "mindless parrots of instruction" and "not-good-at-cooperating disbanded soldiers", which means that space structure and power are not the only factors restricting students' selfhood. Finally, when teachers further change classroom space structure, downshift power and apply educational guide, the students' new image of "idea-willingly-sharer" is unfolded. It's suggested that the mission of contemporary classroom teaching reform is not just deconstructing class space structure and empowering students but also placing higher requirements on teachers' value guidance. Only in this way can students' spiritual space be enriched and enhanced.
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    An Assessment Tool for Learner Profile: The Development and Verification of Students' Learning to Learn Questionnaire
    Sun Yanyan, Gu Xiaoqing, Feng Dacheng
    2019, 37 (6):  36-47.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.004
    Abstract ( 331 )   HTML ( 217 )   PDF (662KB) ( 262 )   Save
    As a learning analysis technique, learner profile can comprehensively and deeply depict students' learning effect and learning process through diversified data collected. However, not all types of data can be directly collected through information technology, and learners' ability and accomplishment is just one of them. To solve this problem, this paper designed an assessment tool for learner profile targeting core learning abilities of the primary and middle school students. It summarizes the three dimensions of cognition, emotion and metacognition by analyzing the learning ability assessment tools of major countries and regions, and constructs the learning ability questionnaire for primary and middle school students under these three dimensions. To verify the reliability and validity of the questionnaire, the researchers sent an online questionnaire to students in grades 4-9 in 16 schools in the M District of Shanghai, and 2,879 valid responses were collected. By statistically analyzing the responses, the researchers found that the questionnaire had high reliability and validity. The questionnaire has the following two characteristics:first, the questionnaire is independent of subject knowledge and applicable to students of various ages; second, it is designed for learner profile and from the perspective of academic learning of primary school and middle students.
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    Sequential Analysis of Classroom Argumentation: The Pupils' Scientific Reasoning
    Shao Faxian, Hu Weiping, Zhang Huan, Zhang Yanhong, Shou Xin
    2019, 37 (6):  48-60.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.005
    Abstract ( 261 )   HTML ( 120 )   PDF (1173KB) ( 330 )   Save
    Scientific reasoning is an important part of key competencies in science, and scientific argumentation has become an important way to develop students' scientific reasoning. However, some teachers do not know how to carry out high-quality classroom argumentation. In order to find out how classroom argumentation promotes students' scientific reasoning, and examine how teachers' discourse influences students' scientific reasoning, we conducted a sequential analysis of scientific argumentation conversation in science classes in three primary schools. It is found that teachers' explicit implication is more likely to excite students' corresponding reasoning, while multiple and ambiguous questions are more likely to lead to students' lower level of scientific reasoning. In responding to students' scientific reasoning, teachers offered different feedback. The backtracking of the classroom situation revealed that clear but low-level cognitive problems might generate the pseudo-argumentation, while moderate ill-structured problems could develop students' scientific epistemology and in-depth scientific reasoning. Teachers who emphasize both the structure of scientific reasoning and the process of scientific argumentation, and encourage students to pay attention to the reverse viewpoint and refute it can improve the quality of scientific argumentation.
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    A Study on the Influence of Internet Use on Academic Literacy of Middle School Students
    Zhi Tingjin, Chen Chunjin
    2019, 37 (6):  61-74.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.006
    Abstract ( 321 )   HTML ( 217 )   PDF (2516KB) ( 320 )   Save
    It is of great practical significance to explore the impact of the Internet use on the development of adolescents' literacy. Based on the survey data from Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in the four provinces of Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Guangdong in 2015, this paper used the propensity score matching method to control the sample selection bias, and examined the impact of Internet use on students' academic literacy and the moderating effect of Internet use motivation. This study found that after controlling for students' psychological and behavioral characteristics, school network environment and family background, students who spend more than six hours on Internet outside of school on a typical weekday showed significantly lower mathematical, reading and scientific literacy. The influence of internet use on students' academic literacy is increasing with the increase of online entertainment frequency. The lower literacy caused by Internet addiction mainly exists in rural areas among the disadvantaged groups with lower economic, social, and cultural status, which results in the expansion of educational inequality. Further, the negative effect of Internet addiction on the development of adolescents should be paid attention to by policy makers.
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    The Theory of Higher Education Development: Deconstruction and Reconstruction
    Li Jing, Liu Hui
    2019, 37 (6):  75-82.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.007
    Abstract ( 290 )   HTML ( 206 )   PDF (598KB) ( 439 )   Save
    The theory of higher education development offers a fundamental view of the past, present and future issues of higher education development. After systematization and abstraction, it forms a knowledge system that helps understand and grasp the laws that governing the development of higher education. While the theory of higher education development has mainly dealt with the relationship between the theory and practice of higher education development, there is a lack of in-depth systematic research on the relationship between the theory and the policy of higher education development. Based on the three elements of higher education development-the essence, the value and the way, the authors reconstruct an analysis framework of the theory-value-policy of higher education development, aiming at exploring the impact of educational development theory on higher education policy.
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    Research on the Relationship between University Governance, Financial Management and Value Added
    Yang Rong, Wang Wen, Liu Tingting
    2019, 37 (6):  83-93.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.008
    Abstract ( 169 )   HTML ( 188 )   PDF (1154KB) ( 173 )   Save
    Promoting the construction of first-class universities and disciplines for the sustained development of higher education is the process of continuously improving the value of universities. This article takes the universities directly under the patronage of the Ministry of Education as the research subject. Using university financial management as the starting point, the article examines the intrinsic link between university governance and value added. Also, it constructs a theoretical analysis framework of university governance-financial management-value added, and explores the mechanism of financial management in the process of university governance and its value added. The results show that the more efficient university governance is, the more beneficial it is to university value added. University governance further promotes its value added through financial management. However, it is mainly reflected in the value of scientific research, while the improvement of teaching value is not significant.
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    Can Monetary Incentive Increase Teachers' Inter-school Exchange Intention: A Survey Study of 278 Schools in China
    Huang Bin, Zhang Qiongwen, Yun Ruxian
    2019, 37 (6):  94-108.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.009
    Abstract ( 230 )   HTML ( 254 )   PDF (696KB) ( 238 )   Save
    Based on survey data from 278 schools in seven provinces in China, this paper, using binary logistic regression and generalized ordered logistic regression, investigates the factors influencing the willingness of primary and secondary school teachers to participate in inter-school exchange and their expectation level of subsidy. It also examines the actual effect of subsidy and housing benefits on the willingness of inter-school exchange. It's found that the current inter-school exchange of teachers is dominated by the same-level exchanges of school types and locations, and the coverage of subsidies and housing benefits is relatively low, while the expected amount of subsidy is about 30% of their salary, which means there is still a big gap. Subsidies and housing benefits can, to a certain extent, significantly enhance the teachers' willingness of inter-schools exchange, and there is a substitute relationship between subsidies and housing welfare. Teachers' willingness to participate in ‘hard exchange’ is stronger than that of "soft exchange". Transferring the personnel relationship of the downward-moving teachers to the targeted schools will significantly enhance their willingness of inter-schools move again. Improved school environment and working conditions has a significant positive impact on teachers' inter-schools exchange intention, but negative impact on teachers' expectation of subsidies. Based on the findings, this paper puts forward some policy suggestions on promoting the intra-county balanced development of compulsory education, including promoting the reform of teachers' unified salary standard, establishing a factor-based subsidy system, and deepening the reform of ‘Administration by Bureau, Recruitment by Schools’.
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    Implications of Emotional Labour for Kindergarten Teaching: A Quantitative Study
    Yin Jianqin, Wu Weiying, Zhang Quan, Jia Yun
    2019, 37 (6):  109-122.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.010
    Abstract ( 445 )   HTML ( 189 )   PDF (1569KB) ( 427 )   Save
    Emotional labor is a double-edged sword. In earlier studies, most researchers focus on the negative effects of emotional labor such as work-related stress, burnout and physical and mental health resulting from emotional labor. In more recent studies, researchers have taken notice of the positive effects of emotional labor such as increase in salary and actualization of self-achievement. Utilizing a sample of 1,040 teachers from different types of kindergartens, this study explores emotional labor among kindergarten teachers. The results show:(a) kindergarten teachers "seldom" display surface acting, "sometimes" or "often" display deep acting, and almost "always" display natural acting; (b) surface acting is positively related to teachers' work effort, teaching experience, and family interference; (c) deep acting has a negative effect on emotional exhaustion and low accomplishment while natural acting has a negative effect on low accomplishment and depersonalization. While the results are somewhat inconsistent with those in traditional studies in the area, they well reflect the uniqueness of emotional labor in preschool education and resonate with the international movement of reconstruction of early childhood education. Since the sense of professional achievement and satisfaction is crucial to raising social status of kindergarten teachers, this study also has implications for the development of professional standards for kindergarten teachers.
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    Teachers' Everyday Resistance and Its Responses
    Wang Mingshuai, Zhao Chan
    2019, 37 (6):  123-130.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.011
    Abstract ( 315 )   HTML ( 161 )   PDF (654KB) ( 242 )   Save
    Teachers' resistance is an important research topic of education (curriculum) reform. Based on Scott's theory of everyday resistance, this study adopts the interview method of qualitative research and analyzes the everyday resistance of teachers. Research shows that, teachers carry out everyday resistance, aiming to "reduce or reject requests from the top", and develop various strategies based on the principle of "safety first". Considering the key role that teachers play in education (curriculum) reform, and that everyday resistance can cause lasting harm, this study proposes the following responses:expanding teachers' channels of expressing their demands and safeguarding teachers legitimate interests; recognizing the constructiveness of teachers' everyday resistance; following the logic of teacher change and adopting effective coping strategies.
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    Alief and Implementer: A New Approach to Education Policy Implementation Research
    Zhu Hongyang
    2019, 37 (6):  131-136.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.012
    Abstract ( 243 )   HTML ( 110 )   PDF (519KB) ( 235 )   Save
    Alief has been the frontier research subject in the field of philosophy and cognitive science in recent years. It is a mental state with associatively-linked content that is representational, affective and behavioral. In the existing study of education policy implementation, the study of individual implementer is based on the assumptions of belief-implementation and desire-implementation, but the effectiveness of these studies is questionable when they are used to analyze the behavior of policy implementers in specific situations. The implementation of education policies depends on the implementation of individual implementers in the specific educational situation. The introduction of alief provides a new assumption of alief-implementation for the study of education policy implementation. The preliminary exploration of the R-A-B analysis model based on the alief theory provides a new approach to the study of education policy implementation.
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    Interagency Coordination in Education Reform: An Analysis Framework and its Application
    Pian Maolin
    2019, 37 (6):  137-148.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.013
    Abstract ( 238 )   HTML ( 101 )   PDF (715KB) ( 223 )   Save
    The impact of interagency coordination on education reform is mainly reflected in decision-making of goals, resource allocation and policy innovation. Different from the usual practice of collaboration and cooperation between government departments, interagency coordination in education reform aims to form new policies and rules accepted by participant departments which have the willingness to implement them. This research attempts to use relevant theories and analytical tools regarding government reform, and establish a two-dimensional analysis framework of factor-process applicable to the interagency coordination of education reform in China. The dimension of factors briefly analyzes three factors and their possible forms, i.e. coordination matter, coordination organization and coordination method. Process dimension, based on the task attributes of reform at different stages and their differentiation into politics or technology, discusses the interaction between different factors. By using this framework to conduct an empirical analysis on a comprehensive education reform in a province, it is found that the purposiveness of each participant department is an important indicator to test the effect of interagency coordination. At different stages of reform, the nature and complexity of coordination matters are the reference factors to judge the appropriateness for the timing of the coordination organization's involvement and the suitability for coordination methods.
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    Positive Psychology Applied among Schools in China
    Xi Juzhe, Ye Yang, Zuo Zhihong, Peng Yanan
    2019, 37 (6):  149-159.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.014
    Abstract ( 450 )   HTML ( 131 )   PDF (593KB) ( 987 )   Save
    Since the 21st century, the influence of positive psychology has been growing in western countries, as well as in China. There were not only targeted experiments such as PRP and the Strath Haven Positive Psychology Curriculum, but also structural applied programs such as GGS model in western countries. Positive psychology exerts effects on Chinese school education, but the links between theory and practice could be closer. Based on the fundamental theories of positive psychology, the authors conceived an implementation framework of positive psychology among schools in China. Firstly, the school practice of positive psychology has three points, i.e., to utilize the three pillars of positive psychology, to translate the theories into practice, and to adhere to the concept of people-oriented. Accordingly, four strategies could be put into practice, including improving students' well-being during study, promoting their intrinsic motivation of learning, fully developing positive education, and focusing on the positive development of teachers. Finally, four practical approaches should be followed, i.e., replacing the traditional fixed education with strength-focused education advocated by positive psychology and positive education, attaching more importance to students' social practice and physical exercise, fostering teachers' empathy, and constructing a positive environment of school management. The primary and critical purpose to apply positive psychology in schools is to forster an education ecosystem facilitating positive construction.
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