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    20 September 2019, Volume 37 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    From De jure to De facto: An Analysis of Effective University Governance
    Li Liguo
    2019, 37 (5):  1-16.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.001
    Abstract ( 275 )   HTML ( 200 )   PDF (1255KB) ( 655 )   Save
    The equilibrium of university organizations is influenced by external environment and internal forces. Internally, it is both rational bureaucracy and politics, which makes the university governance ambiguous and complex. Higher education institutions are subject to external environment (especially government and market) and internal factors and must maintain a certain degree of autonomy. At the same time, they are subject to internal control and must maintain a certain degree of openness. The "de facto" state is that in the triangular model, there are academic-oriented, market-oriented and government-oriented models. The "de jure" state is the balance between the internal and external forces of the academic, government and market. University governance, under the combined effect of internal and external forces, maintains a relatively independent state of development. From the perspective of internal rational bureaucracy and political organization, university governance should handle the relationship between them. The "de facto" state is either based on bureaucracy, managing universities in accordance with the mode of administrative institutions, or overemphasizing the interests and powers of certain people. The "de jure" state is to play the role of a rational bureaucracy and to improve the ability to govern. Also, it is necessary to consider university governance from the perspective of political organization, to establish a communication and coordination mechanism and to construct a trust-based organizational culture in order to effectively resolve conflicts. The university governance of China should shift from "seeking change" to "seeking governance", from governance reform to governance construction, from governance system to governance ability, from governance objective to governance efficiency. And finally, it can implement a university governance design from the "de jure" state to the "de facto" one.
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    Implication and Limits of Information Technology and Educational Theory
    Li Yunxing, Wang Lianghui, Zhou Yueliang
    2019, 37 (5):  17-25.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.002
    Abstract ( 206 )   HTML ( 275 )   PDF (562KB) ( 388 )   Save
    Technology is not only related to education, but also shapes the production of educational theory. Information technology has changed the form of educational practice, provided a new school education epistemology different from the representation epistemology, and revolutionized the logic of educational knowledge production, thus having a profound implication for educational theory. The disappearance of the intrinsic purpose of technology leads to the limits of educational value in information technology, and the duality of technology inherently embodies educational limits and ethical challenges of information technology. The reconstruction of educational theory toward information technology should establish the value scale of "human life growth" and maintain the openness of education. This can help solve and respond to the limits of information technology and educational theory.
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    Technological Progress and Educational Development: Two Possibilities of Pedagogy in the Age of Artificial Intelligence
    Wu Honglin
    2019, 37 (5):  26-37.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.003
    Abstract ( 293 )   HTML ( 206 )   PDF (678KB) ( 741 )   Save
    Since the second half of the 19th century, technology has been a research focus in philosophy, media, sociology and other disciplines. In contrast, researches on technology in pedagogy theory lag far behind. In fact, the development of pedagogy keeps pace with the technological development in the technological era. Looking back on the development of pedagogy, we can find its inherent technological logic. Technology exists as knowledge (curriculum), skills, value orientation, mode of thinking, evaluation criteria and performance goals; all these make education a technology system and a giant machine. Pedagogy is a knowledge system that provides legitimate and reasonable arguments for this system and its formation process. Technological logic is the fundamental logic for the development of pedagogy. In the era of AI, there are two possibilities for the development of pedagogy. One is the inevitable response of pedagogy to the challenge of AI. It's reflected in the theoretical response to the changes in educational practice, the theoretical reconstruction of the changes in fundamental educational problems, and the reconstruction of discipline system based on changes in scientific standards of disciplines. The other is the possible response of pedagogy. Facing the challenge and potential danger of AI to human survival, the disciplinary mission of pedagogy will change from conformity to liberation, and its core concept will change from plasticity to consciousness.
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    New Concept of Knowledge: Remolding Teaching and Learning in the Age of Intelligence
    Wang Zhuli
    2019, 37 (5):  38-55.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.004
    Abstract ( 289 )   HTML ( 131 )   PDF (2318KB) ( 667 )   Save
    Historically, there existed many definitions of knowledge and various perspectives on knowledge, but most of them regarded knowledge as correct, tested and systematically processed by experts and scholars. Since the birth of the Internet, human experience has been recorded in details, stored in digital media, and spread rapidly through the Internet. A new type of knowledge has emerged or got recognized. This kind of knowledge is called soft knowledge, which is still in its forming process and has not been processed and sorted out systematically, while the traditional knowledge is called hard knowledge, which has been processed and sorted out systematically. The index to distinguish between soft and hard knowledge is the stability of knowledge, including the stability of structure, content and value. The concept of knowledge marked by the division of hard and soft knowledge is called new perspective on knowledge. New concept of knowledge has brought about a series of changes, including new learning concepts, new teaching concepts, and new theories and models of teaching and learning, which will have a profound impact on educational reform and educational informatization in the new era.
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    Pedagogy in the Information Technology Age is an “Entertainment Science”
    Ma Hemin, Wang Desheng, Yin Han
    2019, 37 (5):  56-66.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.005
    Abstract ( 280 )   HTML ( 197 )   PDF (788KB) ( 597 )   Save
    The rapid development of information technology has opened up new possibilities in education and stimulated people's infinite imagination of education in the future. Technology has become a new dimension of understanding education. Information technology has constructed an increasingly powerful educational discourse, which has evolved into a new educational ideology of modernization and modernity:dramatic changes in educational productivity and the resulting powerful momentum of balanced educational resources. However, judging from educational technology development, the application of technology in education and teaching is always full of entertainment, characterized by richness, interaction, novelty, simplicity and so on. Therefore, the educational application of new technology is often questioned and resisted by schools, teachers and parents. An analysis of the proposition that pedagogy in the information technology age is an "entertainment science" is helpful to the exploration of pedagogy of technology, and can support our deeper understanding of the two sides of technology applied in education:entertainment and productivity.
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    A Historical Perspective on the Two Education Initiatives of Alleviating Academic Burden in China Since 1949
    Xiang Xianming
    2019, 37 (5):  67-79.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.006
    Abstract ( 310 )   HTML ( 115 )   PDF (646KB) ( 771 )   Save
    The problem of students' overburdened academic work in primary and secondary schools has become a stumbling block to the reform and development of basic education in China. Examining the education reforms in the past 70 years since the founding of the People's Republic of China, and especially through the analysis of the problem of academic burden, we can find that the pressure caused by the lower degree of matching within different levels of education is the main reason. The cultural heritage of Imperial Examination was playing the role of an amplifier on social and psychological aspects. The unreasonable curriculum of primary and secondary schools, unscientific evaluation mechanism, improper teaching method and lack of learning guidance are the internal causes of overburdened academic work. The anomie of the reformation discourse production, fueled by political performance, is an important interference factor in the formation of the reform dilemma of reducing the burden. In the new era, it's necessary to shift the focus from "running key schools" to "building the characteristics of schools", and guide primary and secondary education to take the diversified development path. Also, the pressure of entrance examination may be reduced by adjusting the matching degree of different kinds of education at all levels. In addition, the negative effects of cultural heritage of Imperial Examination can be eliminated through social reform to adjust the interests of the class. In the new era of education reform, the overburdened academic work as a stumbling block can be successfully kicked off, so as to create sound conditions for educating a large number of outstanding talents in support of national development and revival.
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    A Policy Study on Students' Learning Expectations Viewed from Respect: A Case of Shanghai
    Wu Zunmin, Li Yan
    2019, 37 (5):  80-91.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.007
    Abstract ( 200 )   HTML ( 105 )   PDF (5082KB) ( 681 )   Save
    Currently, besides expectations from parents and teachers, students in secondary schools and colleges all hold certain expectations of learning. Although their expectations differ, they are centered on merit-priority. Given that respect is the unity of subjectivity and objectivity, dominance of merit-priority mentality and lack of understanding and attention to students' intrinsic learning expectations from parents and teachers, plus high cost and risks, usually lead to frequent interference, substitution and deprivation of students' learning expectations. The fact that learning expectations of students are not respected by adults like parents and teachers tends be a huge hindrance to the future development of students. To deal with this problem, it's suggested that merit-priority mentality should be alleviated, understanding of students' learning expectations be enhanced among adult groups, and mutual respect be recognized by giving lectures to parents, exploring a career guidance institution for students, improving the new Gaokao system and establishing multiple social media. In doing so, learning will go back to interest and learning expectations will play positive roles in students' learning.
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    The Historical Approach and Contemporary Mission of Learning Science Development in Chinese Context: An Analysis Based on the Formation of Scientific Paradigm and its Knowledge Graph Evidence
    Zhao Jian, Yang Xiaozhe
    2019, 37 (5):  92-104.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.008
    Abstract ( 225 )   HTML ( 110 )   PDF (3224KB) ( 516 )   Save
    This paper raises the issue of paradigm formation in learning sciences in Chinese context, while analyzing the achievements of Chinese learning research in the past 40 years of reform and opening up. Based on Kuhn's paradigm theory, this paper summarizes the three stages of development of learning science in Chinese context:the pre-scientific stage, the psychological paradigm stage, and the early stage of the scientific paradigm. The process of paradigm shift is then supported by the knowledge graph analysis of related literatures in both Chinese and English. At the same time, through comparison with Western studies, it is proposed that China's discipline of learning sciences is still at an early phase of paradigm formation, with its incomplete mechanism of new knowledge creation and ambiguous Chinese characteristics. The contemporary mission of Chinese learning science development is discussed as well.
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    Discourse Change in Traditional Chinese Classrooms for Higher Order Thinking and Social Development
    Xia Xuemei
    2019, 37 (5):  105-114.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.009
    Abstract ( 209 )   HTML ( 108 )   PDF (601KB) ( 532 )   Save
    Classroom discourse is the core of classroom reform. One of the characteristics of traditional classrooms is teachers' control of dialogues in the classroom, which is manifested in IRE. What classroom discourse is needed to promote students' higher order thinking and social development? This paper explores the profound changes in the structure, content and function of the classroom discourse in the last 20 years. It then describes the breakthroughs in this field, which allow students to engage in academic discussions and dialogues, and make discourse a social norm rather than just passing on knowledge. Based on these findings, this paper takes the course of discourse design in reading classroom as an example to explore the possibility of discourse reform in traditional classrooms.
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    Gender Difference in Science Learning and Curriculum Response: the Data Analysis of Four Provinces in China Based on PISA 2015
    Wu Yuanyue, Guo Yuanxiang
    2019, 37 (5):  115-127.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.010
    Abstract ( 278 )   HTML ( 195 )   PDF (555KB) ( 776 )   Save
    In the assessment of science literacy of PISA 2015, the performance of Chinese students are different in several dimensions:the overall science performance, scientific competencies, scientific knowledge and science content. In general, boys have better performance than girls. At the same time, in the science-related background surveys, boys' performance are better than girls' in the scales of enjoyment of science, science interest and science activities. Based on the gender difference in the domain of both cognition and non-cognition in science learning of Chinese students, this paper makes some suggestions to reduce or eliminate gender difference. In curriculum development, it's necessary to address the impartiality of science knowledge selection; in school curriculum construction, the adaptability of school curriculum should be highlighted to promote gender adaption; and in curriculum implementation, students' difference should be respected to ensure gender sensitivity.
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    Field Conversion and Habitus Reconstruction of University Teachers' Career Development
    Ruan Chengwu
    2019, 37 (5):  128-135.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.011
    Abstract ( 193 )   HTML ( 258 )   PDF (705KB) ( 539 )   Save
    As a relatively responsive and interactive relationship with students, university teachers are social actors who shape a certain habitus in a specific field of education. The age angle formed between students and their different career stages leads to the conflict between the existing habitus and the field of continuous conversion. Based on the narrative study of several cases in A university, this paper investigates the career process of university teachers with the explanation framework of the contradictory movement between field conversion and existing habitus. It is suggested that university teachers should adopt active action strategies rooted in the initial disposition and inclination system, and should constantly reconstruct their habitus with the change of field, so as to achieve their career development.
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    The Construction and Development of Rule of Law in China's Colleges and Universities Since the Reform and Opening-up
    Wang Hua, Sun Xiaobing
    2019, 37 (5):  136-143.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.012
    Abstract ( 162 )   HTML ( 93 )   PDF (477KB) ( 436 )   Save
    Since the reform and opening up, the construction of the rule of law in colleges and universities in China has made remarkable achievements. The goal of the rule of law has been specified and pursued; the status and rights of legal persons in colleges and universities have been established; and the internal and external governance structures of colleges and universities have been constantly improved. In the new era, with the rapid development of society and profound changes in higher education, the construction of first-class universities and the deepening reform of decentralization have brought new challenges to the legal governance of institutions of higher learning. Effective measures should be taken to improve the system of laws, regulations and rules of higher education, further implement the autonomy of running a university, strengthen the administration of universities according to law, attach importance to the protection of the rights and interests of teachers and students, and promote the legal administration of universities to a new stage.
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    Construction of Universities Inspection and Supervision System for Modernization of Educational Governance: A Case of Shanghai
    SI Yang
    2019, 37 (5):  144-152.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.013
    Abstract ( 184 )   HTML ( 94 )   PDF (1670KB) ( 371 )   Save
    This paper argues that effective measures should be taken to solve the problem of "weakening, impracticability and marginalization" of the party building in universities. These measures involve exploring effective ways of university inspection and supervision, continuously deepening political inspection and strengthening the standardization of universities inspection and supervision system. It's believed that these measures will help promote the project of strengthening party self-discipline in all aspects and modernize educational governance. In addition, it's important to establish a leadership system of upper-and-lower linkage supervision and a working mechanism for university inspection, as well as a supervision system of implementation. Besides, the paper suggests it's necessary to strengthen the application of the linkage supervision achievements, so as to give full play to the role of the universities linkage supervision system of detecting problems, deterring violations, promoting development and deepening reform, and to provide a strong support for the "double-first-class" construction.
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    Rethinking of Xueji: A Perspective of Overall Educational History
    Sun Jie
    2019, 37 (5):  153-160.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.014
    Abstract ( 295 )   HTML ( 119 )   PDF (677KB) ( 527 )   Save
    Learning to teach is the general feature of the notes of Xueji in the era of Confucian classics. "From learning to the origin" is the overall understanding and grasp of Xueji by Chinese ancient scholars. In the transition from the Confucian classics to the academic age, some scholars express the cultural identity of the modern academic in a new way. The Speculation of Xueji is the self-response by the Chinese people to the modern pedagogy. In translating and introducing Herbart's works, the Chinese people have started the construction of Chinese pedagogy. Drawing on Herbart's paradigm, the Notes of Xueji is an attempt to interpret educational system of Xueji from its educational purpose, methodology and psychology. The works like Modern Translation of Xueji, Annotation of Xueji, can be seen as a historical epitome of the construction of Chinese pedagogy since the founding of the People's Republic of China. As the synchronic and diachronic relations in human socialization becomes the major concern of the education history, it's essential to rethink the research paradigm of academic Xueji. In doing so, it's expected to achieve a logic analysis of Xueji as well as the integration of the history of education and the education history.
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