Table of Content

    01 June 2022, Volume 40 Issue 6 Previous Issue   
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    Research on the Decision Mechanism of Rural Teachers’ Salary Income under the Rural Revitalization Strategy
    Shanhuai Liu, Shuang Wang, Xiuhong Zhu
    2022, 40 (6):  1-15.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.06.001
    Abstract ( 264 )   HTML ( 75 )   PDF (1080KB) ( 238 )   Save

    Constructing a complete remuneration system is essential for improving the overall quality of rural teachers, promoting the balanced allocation of rural teachers, and stimulating the motivation and development vitality of rural teachers. A large-scale survey of 39 counties (cities, banners) in 12 provinces shows that there is a large regional gap in rural teacher salary income in my country, and rural teacher salary income levels in some areas are low. The teacher salary income gap in counties is small, which does not fully reflect the difficulties and remoteness of schools; and there is a significant gap in the level of salary among teachers, which does not reflect the actual contribution. This remuneration pattern is closely related to the basic composition and determinants of rural teachers’ salary income. The “county-based” fiscal security system determines the overall level of salary income, and the functional design of “compensatory wages” highlights the group differences between rural teachers in the county, while performance pay under “secondary distribution” reflects the individual differences of teachers. In order to give full play to the labor pricing, differential compensation and continuous incentive functions of rural teachers’ salary income, it's necessary to optimize the structure of rural teachers’ salary income, improve the funding guarantee mechanism and the supervision mechanism.

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    The Policy Logic, Implementation Trap and Reform Logic of the Construction of Rural Teachers under the Rural Revitalization Strategy
    Xiuhong Zhu, Shanhuai Liu, Shuang Wang
    2022, 40 (6):  16-30.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.06.002
    Abstract ( 204 )   HTML ( 39 )   PDF (982KB) ( 204 )   Save

    With the gradual improvement of hardware facilities and public funding guarantees, the role of teachers in promoting the development of rural education has become more and more prominent. of exploration, under the framework of the overall planning of rural education development, a more complete policy system has been formed for the construction of the rural teaching team: policy goals point to “high-quality development”, policy concepts highlight “reverse compensation”, and policy measures focus on “overall coordination”. However, due to the inertia of the system, the construction of the rural teacher team tends to fall into multiple implementation traps such as “opportunism”, “power hollow” and “policy idling”, resulting in policy failure or inefficiency. Entering a new stage of comprehensive promotion of rural revitalization, how to reasonably avoid the implementation trap and fully release the effectiveness of policies is the key to promoting the high-quality development of rural teachers in order to promote education to revitalize rural areas. To this end, we should strengthen the top-level design of policies, break through the institutional barriers of policy implementation, and promote the coupling and coordination of the policy system and local conditions: one is to design policies in layers and categorization to improve the appropriateness and accuracy of policies; the other is to optimize the institutional environment to improve the operational efficiency of policies; the third is to improve the evaluation and feedback mechanism to promote effective policy integration.

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    Identity Separation and Identity Crisis: Research on the Professional Commitment of Non-staff Teachers under the Rural Revitalization Strategy
    Yunyun Li, Shanhuai Liu, Ailei Xie
    2022, 40 (6):  31-43.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.06.003
    Abstract ( 192 )   HTML ( 33 )   PDF (864KB) ( 179 )   Save

    Based on the data collected from a survey of 2,196 non-staff teachers in 12 provinces and in-depth interviews with 36 non-staff teachers, this research systematically explored the professional commitment of non-staff teachers in public primary and secondary schools. The study finds that the professional commitment of non-staff teachers in my country is at a low level, and the low-level professional commitment behavior is essentially a strategy for non-staff teachers to adapt to and respond to inequality and identity crises in their daily work. Non-staff teachers have a professional identity crisis through the self-categorization of their identities and the “non-recognition” of their identities by others, and they tend to make low professional commitment such as escape, compromise, and daily resistance. The low professional commitment performance of non-staff teachers is mainly affected by two mechanisms: cost-benefit analysis and pay-return imbalance.

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    Pre-compensation or Post-incentive: Research on the Breach of Contract by Rural-oriented Normal Students under the Rural Revitalization Strategy
    Yuanyuan Zhang, Fangfang Xue
    2022, 40 (6):  44-56.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.06.004
    Abstract ( 353 )   HTML ( 44 )   PDF (926KB) ( 187 )   Save

    Rural-oriented normal students are an important source of rural teachers. In recent years, with the expansion of the oriented normal student training scale, the problem of normal students’ breach of contract has emerged, disrupting the supplementary plan of rural teachers and affecting the policy effectiveness. Based on the policy texts of rural-oriented normal students in 25 provinces and field survey data in three provinces (cities), it is found that the current policy forms a contractual relationship in the form of “pre-compensation + constraint”, emphasizing the responsibilities and obligations of normal students, but lacking continuous incentives for pre-service and in-service normal students, which may easily lead to normal students’ breach of contract. In order to reduce the default rate, based on the principle of incentive compatibility, the design of “post-incentive + constraint” should be strengthened to bridge the gap between individual expectations and policy objectives, and to avoid insufficient policy “post-incentives”.

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    Research on the Calculation Standard of Authorized Number of Preschool Teachers under the Rural Revitalization Strategy
    Tiantian Qin, Shanhuai Liu, Meina Yin, Xue Zhang
    2022, 40 (6):  57-81.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.06.005
    Abstract ( 176 )   HTML ( 24 )   PDF (2367KB) ( 184 )   Save

    Improving the quality of education plays a crucial role in the development of preschool education, while the keystone of education quality lies in the construction of the team of teachers. At present, the teachers of public kindergartens in our country are mainly temporary staff, but this can’t thoroughly guarantee the quantity, quality and team stability of teachers. In addition, using the single-dimensional index of teacher-to-child ratio or teacher-to-class ratio to compute the number of teachers can’t realize a balance between the supply and the demand of staffing. In order to popularize high-quality preschool education, “how to allocate teachers of public kindergartens” has become a major problem that needs to be solved urgently. The experience of preschool teacher allocation in nine countries including the United States, France and Japan shows that granting preschool teachers the status of public officials is beneficial for the education department to scientifically allocate the number of teachers, strictly control the qualifications of teachers and uniformly regulate the professional behavior of teachers. It can also better protect teachers’ welfare benefits, promotion and other rights and interests. The contract employee system can promptly dismiss surplus teachers according to the changing trends of preschool children. However, its promotion has higher requirements on the construction of contract legal system and the level of economic development. At present, the economic development of China is unbalanced and insufficient, and there are still many weaknesses in the contract management system of public institution. Therefore, comprehensively promoting the contract employee system has a high risk coefficient. We should insist on authorized strength as the basic way of arranging teachers for public kindergartens, take the kindergarten as the accounting unit, and regard grade distribution, child-care and teaching activities, and teachers’ working hours as basic parameters. We have built a calculation model that takes into account nursery needs, teachers’ reasonable workload and utilization efficiency of human resource. Additionally, it is supposed to simultaneously push forward supporting reforms such as financial allocation, preschool teacher staffing management, normal education and treatment system. In this way, the local government can approve authorized size of teachers on demand and replenish sufficient teachers according to authorized size.

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    Research on the Influence Mechanism of the Turnover Intention of Rural Preschool Teachers under the Background of Rural Revitalization: Analysis of a Moderated Mediation Model
    Tao Wang, Mengzhuo Li, Shanhuai Liu, Xue Zhang
    2022, 40 (6):  82-96.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.06.006
    Abstract ( 198 )   HTML ( 30 )   PDF (2143KB) ( 227 )   Save

    Stabilizing the teachers team is the key to the development of rural preschool education in the context of rural revitalization strategy. By using the work stress scale, work apathy scale and the turnover intention scale, this study investigated 3 790 rural preschool teachers in 22 counties(cities) of 10 provinces and analyzed the influence mechanism of work stress and work apathy on turnover intention. The results show that work stress can significantly predict teachers’ turnover intention. Work apathy plays an intermediary role between work stress and turnover intention, and the indirect effect is larger than the direct effect. The authorized staff status can regulate the mediating effect of work stress on turnover intention and work apathy. A combination of measures should be taken to alleviate the turnover intention of preschool teachers in rural areas, including keeping the workload at a reasonable level, improving the comprehensive treatment of preschool teachers in rural areas, creating a friendly organizational climate and increasing the supply of preschool teachers who have authorized staff status in rural areas.

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    How to Transform Labour into a Kind of Education: On the Conception of Labour and Labour Education
    Chuanbao Tan
    2022, 40 (6):  97-104.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.06.007
    Abstract ( 237 )   HTML ( 40 )   PDF (646KB) ( 215 )   Save

    Recognizing the phenomenon that “there is labour without education” necessitates the theoretical-philosophical reconsideration, in particular, of the conception of labour education and of the relationship between labour and education. In comparison with moral education, intellectual education, physical education as well as aesthetic education, labour education is a compound of these educational concepts and meanwhile a link between general education and the real-life labour world. To transform ‘labour’ into ‘labour education’, or say to think of ‘labour’ from the education perspective, it is to develop conscious, natural, and organic connection between labour practice in general sense and the cultivation of educational competencies embodied in morals, intelligence, physical health and aesthetics. The practice of labour education is fundamentally associated with the daily educational life. Emphasizing the educational conception of labour not only helps rectify the current distorted situation in which ‘there is labour without education’, but also has other significant implications. That is, it also helps implementing an all-round labour education, building a proper relationship between labour education and students’ daily lives, preventing ‘anti-labour education’, and respecting the educational principles that are inherent in different stages of schooling and in various educational institutions.

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    The Modelling of Laborers’ Image in Textbooks: Exploration of Integrating Labor Education into Curriculum of Schools
    Yue Hu, Yule Jin
    2022, 40 (6):  105-115.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.06.008
    Abstract ( 206 )   HTML ( 24 )   PDF (775KB) ( 176 )   Save

    Full excavations of educational values of laborers’ image in textbooks can be said as one important measure to integrate labor education policy into schools’ curriculum. By taking the unified textbooks in primary and secondary schools as research objects, this paper defined the connotation of laborers’ image in textbooks, as well as established totally seven analytical dimensions for creations of laborers’ image. In addition, it also explored the orientation of laborers’ image in unified textbooks of ideology and political education in character selection, character shaping and teaching suggestions respectively. From overall structure, this paper presented distinctive discipline characteristics, masculine tendencies, as well as related features dominated by mixed graphics and texts. It suggested that in future all the textbooks improve overall labor-education quality in the knowledge world by recreating connotation of laborers’ image and adjust corresponding structure.

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    The Genetic Mechanism and Transformation Logic of Educational Inequality
    Dandan Guo
    2022, 40 (6):  116-126.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.06.009
    Abstract ( 161 )   HTML ( 33 )   PDF (713KB) ( 231 )   Save

    The education inequality in reality and the constant pursuit of equality of education, which are both sides of the same problem, are subtler and deeper with the development of education. Genetics provides us with a suitable research incision. To sort out and explore the action mechanism of the existing inequality in the field of education, we need to go back to the occurrence of practice and trace the logical path of the development of the fact of inequality; go back to the occurrence of cognition, and summarize the theoretical condensation in the pursuit of equality. On the basis of the occurrence of practice and cognition, the function and operation of the generating mechanism of educational inequality are concluded, and the whole process of the generating mechanism of educational inequality is divided into four stages: dynamic mechanism, intermediary mechanism, process mechanism and integration mechanism.

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