Table of Content

    01 March 2023, Volume 41 Issue 3 Previous Issue   
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    Digital Transformation in Education: What to Turn and How?
    Zhenguo Yuan
    2023, 41 (3):  1-11.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.001
    Abstract ( 1253 )   HTML ( 107 )   PDF (672KB) ( 921 )   Save

    The digitalization of education is not only an empowerment of education, but also a reform and reshaping of education. Due to the complexity and specificity of the digitalization of education, the digital transformation of education has not achieved the expected results in many other areas. There is some confusion and even misunderstanding in the perception of scholars, policy makers and the public. It is necessary to clarify the basic theoretical and practical issues of the current digital transformation of education. The fundamental difference between the digitalization of education and digitalization in other fields is that educational activities are not the connection between things and things, but the connection between people, and the digitalization of education not only cannot replace people, but also aims at human development, through people, by people, for people, and whether it promotes human development as the standard. At present, the key tasks of education digitalization are to innovate education scenarios, develop digital resources, improve teachers' digital literacy, improve the level of the national digital education platform, and govern the digitalization of education with digital thinking.

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    Digital Transformation of Education Driven by Design Wisdom: The Goal Orientation, Guiding Principles and Practical Approaches
    Zhiting Zhu, Ling Dai
    2023, 41 (3):  12-24.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.002
    Abstract ( 692 )   HTML ( 46 )   PDF (1625KB) ( 997 )   Save

    The core of the digital transformation of education is to build a future education ecosystem integrated with digital technology through a thinking approach combining evolution and innovation, promoting system reconstruction and cultural innovation of the total elements, the whole business, the whole field and the whole process, and accelerate the realization of balanced, personalized, lifelong, flexible and open education to enhance the operational vitality of the education system and meet the expectations of all parties in society for fair and quality education. The research and practice of digital transformation of education in China are still in the initial exploration stage. Facing various confusions and bottlenecks of the digital transformation of education, it is necessary to carry new value concepts and practice logic through design wisdom to guide and lead the success of the digital transformation of education. This study proposes six target orientations: the shift of educational paradigm from supply-led to demand-led, the shift of teaching mode from teaching-centered to learning-centered, the shift of educational evaluation from knowledge-based to competency-based, the shift of educational system from stage-based to lifelong learning, the shift of educational architecture from system closure to system opening, and the shift of educational system operation mechanism from management to governance. It proposes the guiding principles of problem-driven and concept-led, future-oriented and competency-based, learning-centered and adaptive services, human-machine collaboration and digital empowerment, lifelong learning and accompanying records, multidimensional evaluation and credible evidence, iterative evolution and continuous innovation, and system opening and ecological development. It also proposes an action framework, ecosystem and risk prevention mechanism for the digital transformation of education led by design wisdom.

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    A Maturity Model for Digital Transformation in Education
    Yonghe Wu, Qiuxuan Xu, Zhuzhu Wang
    2023, 41 (3):  25-35.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.003
    Abstract ( 1098 )   HTML ( 64 )   PDF (854KB) ( 1247 )   Save

    The digital transformation in education is the driving force and innovation factor of the high-quality development of education. The evaluation of the ability level of the digital transformation in education has become one of the key points of the current education reform and practice. The maturity model provides a new method to solve the difficulty of evaluating the ability level of education digital transformation and helps to lead the implementation of the transformation practice. Based on the theory and basic structure of maturity model, this study analyzes the existing digital maturity model from the perspective of international comparison, and refines the key components of education digital transformation through policy analysis. By referring to the maturity levels and behavior characteristics of Capability Maturity Model and combining with the development characteristics of education digital trans- formation, an evaluation framework of education digital transformation maturity was constructed, which included five key process domains, 18 sub-key domains and five maturity levels. Based on the idea of “macro to medium to micro” to systematically promote digital transformation, this study discusses the key application scenarios of the ma-turity evaluation framework of education digital transformation from national, regional and school levels. A maturity model for digital transformation in education provides feasible evaluation paths for the implementation of education digital strategic actions and high-quality development of education.

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    The Essence of Education Digital Transformation: From Technology Integration to Human-machine Fusion
    Lianyu Cai, Mingfei Jin, Yueliang Zhou
    2023, 41 (3):  36-44.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.004
    Abstract ( 982 )   HTML ( 47 )   PDF (766KB) ( 1243 )   Save

    Exploring the qualitative prescriptive nature of education digital transformation is the cognitive basis for effectively promoting transformation practices. Information technology enhances the efficiency of information sharing, but objectively brings about the separation of technology from educational subjects (teachers, students, and administrators) and fails to achieve the convergence and fusion of machine intelligence and human intelligence. As a theoretical paradigm, “education technology integration” believes that the application of information technology in education is a process of improving the efficiency of industrialized “educational production” through the “integration of things and things” between technology and curriculum, innovating the presentation of teaching content, focusing on knowledge push, and facilitating students’ knowledge acquisition. The “technology integration” paradigm has limitations in the four dimensions of ontology, methodology, epistemology and axiology, and it is difficult to meet the value creation needs of education digital transformation. The essence of education digital transformation points to “human-machine fusion”. This new paradigm believes that the application of information technology in education is a process of “human-machine fusion” between educational subjects and machine, using human-machine collaboration to bring together machine intelligence and human intelligence to promote students’ mental growth, thus realizing “teaching students in accordance with their aptitudes on a large scale”. This paradigm follows the modern educational philosophy and is the theoretical basis for education digital transformation. Pushing education digital transformation needs to be based on the paradigm of “human-machine fusion”, and: (a) realize the digital-intelligence drive of the education system by the overall process of reengineering; (b) realize the human-machine fusion of education through new capacity building; (c) realize value system reconstruction by system optimization & innovating; (d) realize the educational function improvement of technology by organizing special researches and developments.

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    Understanding the School Public Space in the Digital Age:Practical Problems of Digital Transformation of Education
    Tong Jin, Yafen Li
    2023, 41 (3):  45-51.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.005
    Abstract ( 365 )   HTML ( 35 )   PDF (591KB) ( 508 )   Save

    School is a special public space. The application of digital technology in school education leads to the coexistence of physical space and digital space in school public space. To understand the school public space in the digital age, we need to re-examine the school boundaries, curriculum and people of the digital space. “Internet + School” broadens the public space of schools and restores the concept of school. In the digital space, the boundaries of schools are defined based on the educational goals by teachers. With the highly developed artificial intelligence, the question that whether teachers would be replaced by artificial intelligence has turned from a technical issue to an ethical one. There is an urgent need to improve teachers’ digital literacy as a whole, not just their IT skills. At present, the focus of digital curriculum construction has shifted from resource construction to people.

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    The Core Technology Engine of Digital Transformation in Education: Trustworthy Education Artificial Intelligence
    Bo Jiang, Yingwen Ding, Yuang Wei
    2023, 41 (3):  52-61.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.006
    Abstract ( 779 )   HTML ( 44 )   PDF (976KB) ( 730 )   Save

    The digital transformation of education aims to reengineer the education and teaching process and improve the quality and efficiency through digital technology. On the one hand, digital technology represented by artificial intelligence as the technical engine of digital transformation of education drives the continuous deepening of digital transformation of education. On the other hand, the “black box” problem of artificial intelligence technology has caused a crisis of human-machine trust, and there is a risk of violating basic constraints such as fairness, accountability, transparency, and ethics in education, hindering the digital transformation of education. This study sorts out the four major governance problems caused and aggravated by artificial intelligence to help the digital transformation of education, analyzes the theoretical research and development status of trustworthy artificial intelligence in education, puts forward the basic framework of trustworthy artificial intelligence in education, summarizes the opportunities brought by trustworthy artificial intelligence in education for the digital transformation of education, and puts forward the development suggestions of trustworthy education artificial intelligence to promote the digital transformation of education. The research recommends the introduction of relevant standards and regulations for trustworthy educational artificial intelligence, incorporating technical credibility into the evaluation system of education digitalization, further promoting educational data governance, and improving the digital literacy of education practitioners.

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    The Key Stages of Digital Transformation in Education
    Yu Shengquan
    2023, 41 (3):  62-71.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.007
    Abstract ( 767 )   HTML ( 52 )   PDF (693KB) ( 841 )   Save

    Digital transformation in education includes three levels of change: technology, business, and people. It will go through five key stages of departmental local information application, overall institutional application and integration, business process service reorganization, organizational change of the future school, and new ecology of intelligent education services. If digital transformation of schools is effectively promoted, actions are needed in five areas: awareness of innovation acceptance, top-level planning and design, innovation in school education services, restructuring of school organization, and performance evaluation for continuous improvement.

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    The Difficulties and Corresponding Strategies of Educational Digital Transformation
    Junjie Shang, Xiuhan Li
    2023, 41 (3):  72-81.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.008
    Abstract ( 2366 )   HTML ( 116 )   PDF (1016KB) ( 1263 )   Save

    The digital transformation in education is an inevitable result of the developing affordance of digital technology for education. This paper discusses the barriers, difficulties, and coping strategies in the educational digital transformation. It first describes three stages of future panoramic transformation of education: infrastructure upgrading, learning mode reforming, and educational process reengineering. The digital transformation of education, as a technology-involved innovative social revolution, is not bound to be a smooth journey. The interaction between technologies and education subjects is affected by multiple factors, thus leading to various corresponding difficulties and obstacles. The surface difficulties mainly come from the barriers of technological availability in building the new education infrastructure, referring to limited investments (e.g., human & financial) and technical bottlenecks. The deep difficulties mean educational subjects’ (e.g., teachers, students, & parents) action obstacles. The core difficulty is how to improve the consensus on digital educational innovation and how to deal with the relationship between humans and technology. To solve the core difficulty of educational digital transformation, it is necessary to carry out structural reform in education and strengthen the basic research of learning science to have a deep understanding of the process and mechanism of education with digital transformation. Finally, this paper puts forward several practical strategies to solve these difficulties from three levels: foundation-building strategies, empowering strategies, and exploring strategies.

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    Difficulties and Solutions: Next Step in the Digital Transformation of Education
    Xiaozhe Yang, Ruoxin Wang
    2023, 41 (3):  82-90.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.009
    Abstract ( 903 )   HTML ( 63 )   PDF (693KB) ( 763 )   Save

    The importance and value of digital transformation in education are getting more and more attention all over the world. Nowadays, China’s approach to the digital transformation of education is at an important and urgent stage, facing many difficulties, including blurred top-level design and lack of boundaries of responsibilities, inefficient digital resources and lack of stereo integration bases, overemphasizing data scale and technological innovation while ignoring the comprehensiveness of people development. This paper tries to point out paths for the next step of the transformation and think about how to break these dilemmas. The ways include reshaping the consensus and forming a diverse and consistent community; in-depth teaching and exploring five-application scenarios of digital education; and trying to promote people’s all-around development with people-oriented.

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    Reconstruction of Teachers’ Competencies: A Key Support for the Digital Transformation of Education
    Xiaohong Tian, Yilong Ji, Yueliang Zhou
    2023, 41 (3):  91-100.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.010
    Abstract ( 1013 )   HTML ( 68 )   PDF (1645KB) ( 897 )   Save

    The digital transformation of education is driven by the technical ecology formed by the integration of multiple technologies, and it is necessary to analyze the needs it brings to the teaching profession from a technical perspective. The technical intention of the digital transformation of education has shifted teachers from “teaching” to “learning”-centered, and smart education environment has shifted human-machine relationship from auxiliary to collaborative. The physical-social-cyber space survival mode penetrated by technology requires teachers to have corresponding moral cultivation capabilities, and the paradigm of knowledge growth in the digital age requires teachers to continue to develop themselves. Borrowing the functional capacity analysis construction path of organizational behavior elements analysis, the paper analyzes the core mission and attributes of educational organizations, and combines the needs of education digital transformation to obtain the specific types of capabilities supporting the digital transformation of education: curriculum development and teaching competency, human-computer collaboration competency, effective moral education competency and self-growth competency. From the perspective of supporting the digital transformation of education, curriculum development and teaching competency is the premise and guarantee of “learning”-centered, and human-computer collaboration competency is the transformation direction of teachers’ ICT capabilities in smart environments. Effective moral education competency is the primary role of teachers in the process of digital transformation, and self-growth competency is the purpose and means of digital survival. Teacher education needs to face up to the current problems in teacher capacity development and reshape teacher education around the core competencies required by digital transformation.

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    Design and Implementation of Intelligent-textbook: Digital Transformation Perspective
    Feng Li, Jie Sheng, Wei Huang
    2023, 41 (3):  101-109.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.011
    Abstract ( 978 )   HTML ( 59 )   PDF (1507KB) ( 920 )   Save

    With the application of the Internet, big data, and artificial intelligence in education, a new form of textbook construction has been created, promoting the development of digital textbook. However, the construction of digital textbook has some problems, such as simplifying to “electronic text”, being a “multimedia resource database”, or as a “dialogue machine”. This study analyzes the necessity of intelligent textbook development and explains the educational characteristics of intelligent textbook, such as “intelligent adaptation learning, intelligent guidance, accompanying evaluation, and in-depth learning interaction” from the perspective of instruction theory. Combining the technical advantages of AI, such as knowledge map, learning analysis, online tracking, learner digital profiles, it describe the methods and strategies of intelligent textbook to achieve corresponding educational functions. In view of the educational and engineering characteristics of intelligent textbook, this study analyzed the strategies for promoting the construction of intelligent textbook from adhering to the instruction theory, paying attention to the iteration of practice, and adopting technical method to supervise and manage.

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    Exploration of the Path of Digital Education Transformation and Practice in Shanghai
    Haiwei Li, Gong Wang, Meichen Lu
    2023, 41 (3):  110-120.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.012
    Abstract ( 651 )   HTML ( 64 )   PDF (1190KB) ( 1179 )   Save

    In the background of the “Digital China” strategy, accelerating digital transformation and development and building a digital China have become the torrent of the times. In the field of education, with the integration of a new generation of information technology and education, such as artificial intelligence, Internet of Things and cloud computing, education informatization has reached a critical point of “quantitative change” to “qualitative change”. At present, China’s education digital transformation practice still faces challenges in terms of top-level design and implementation paths. Around Shanghai Educational Digital Transformation policy implementation process, this paper introduced the procedure Shanghai constructed its plan from top to bottom and extract its experiences, including forming new vision through new infrastructure, breaking barriers through digital base, exploring educational new normal through top-down and bottom-up paths, enhancing deep reform through digital competences, assessment and resources construction. These measures can help solve the key problem in educational digital transformation.

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    Artificial Intelligence Curriculum Guidelines for Primary and Secondary Schools
    Jiang Bo Penner:, Dai Juan Core Members:, Zhou Aimin , Dong Xiaoyong , Liu Xiaoyu , Hong Daocheng Participants:, Jiang Fei , Zheng Longwei , Zhao Jiabao , Zhang Hengyuan , Liu Yalin , Yuan Zhenguo Consultant:
    2023, 41 (3):  121-134.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.013
    Abstract ( 2210 )   HTML ( 138 )   PDF (728KB) ( 2120 )   Save

    Artificial intelligence (AI) education in primary and secondary schools has just started in China. Lack of unified curriculum standards, we still face many difficulties in the curriculum nature and objectives, textbooks development, and academic evaluation. To address this issue, East China Normal University and Shanghai Artificial Intelligence Laboratory jointly developed the Artificial Intelligence Curriculum Guidelines for Primary and Secondary Schools. The proposed guidelines has six parts including course nature and basic concept, core competency and curriculum objectives, course structure, course content and requirements, academic evaluation standards and implementation suggestions. We aim to construct a scientific and open curriculum guidelines for AI education in primary and secondary schools and simultaneously provide a reference for the construction of an AI education system in China.

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