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    01 February 2022, Volume 40 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Conceptual Framework of Children’s All-round Development through a Multi-disciplinary Approach
    Xudong Zhu, Xiuyun Li
    2022, 40 (2):  1-16.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.001
    Abstract ( 622 )   HTML ( 578 )   PDF (869KB) ( 617 )   Save

    Conceptual framework of children’s all-around development through a multi-disciplinary approach is based on Marxist “all-around development of humans”. It attempts to construct a conceptual framework for children’s all-around development through a multi-disciplinary perspective, consisting of “five pairs of concepts and twelve categories”. Specifically, it includes the conceptual construction of children’s civic and moral development through the lens of political science and ethics; the conceptual construction of children’s cognitive and emotional development through the lens of psychology and brain science; the conceptual construction of children’s social and personality development through the lens of sociology, psychology, social psychology; the construction of children’s artistic and aesthetic development through the lens of art studies and aesthetics; the conceptual construction of children’s health and safety development through the lens of human kinematics, nutrition, and safety; the conceptual construction of children’s physical and brain development through the lens of physiology and brain science. The construction of children’s all-around development through a multi-disciplinary approach is to deepen the discussion around the basic theories for children’s development. The conceptual framework provides theoretical reference for a more comprehensive grasp of the goal of education, as well as theoretical basis for constructing a scientific educational evaluation system.

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    The Cultural Studies on Labor Education
    Shaoming Xiao
    2022, 40 (2):  17-28.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.002
    Abstract ( 617 )   HTML ( 543 )   PDF (699KB) ( 443 )   Save

    Labor education is a process of cultural practice in which people transform the external world, realize the cultural value of people’s free and all-round development, and meet people’s material and spiritual cultural needs. The critique of “labor worship”, “labor determinism”, “labor ends” and “human being’s origin in labor” and the debate on labor education in Chinese and foreign education history reveal that culture is the essence of labor and labor education, and their studies require cultural study. “Labor”, “culture” and “education” have common meanings in etymology. Labor education, as cultural practice, is the unity of “civilizing” to transform nature through material and energetic transformation and “education” to transform society through information-language. It contains different levels of culture and its practice synthesis, such as value-norm, behavior-function, language-symbol, knowledge-technology and so on. Labor education has the characteristic of culture materialism. In another word, it has the cultural characteristics of material and broad masses, based on material production and social reality oriented mass culture. The cultural value of labor education lies in that it is the cultural enlightenment to liberate all people, and its knowledge and culture enlightenment to reflect and express the culture of social life. In a word, the cultural essence and practice of labor education fully present the transformation of substance, energy and information, the material transformation and spiritual creation among human, nature and society. It is a historical, realistic and social dialectical relationship and unity between the “education” of labor and the “labor” of education, physical labor education and mental labor education, civilizing and enlightenment, elite and the public, theory and practice.

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    What is a Good Evaluation of the Effect of Education Policy
    Zhanyong Qi, Yue Du
    2022, 40 (2):  29-42.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.003
    Abstract ( 592 )   HTML ( 356 )   PDF (781KB) ( 451 )   Save

    The evaluation of the implementation effect of education policy is the basic guarantee for the orderly operation of education policy activities and even the education system. A good evaluation of the implementation effect of education policy is not only the fundamental way to achieve the goals of the education policy, but also an important measure to strengthen the operation and implementation of the education policy. Besides, it is the basis for “reengineering education policy” or “producing new education policy”. The evaluation of the implementation effect of education policy is an activity, where the subject of evaluation, based on certain value standards, uses specific ways and methods to describe the facts and value judgments of the impact of educational policy implementation activities on the social system elements in the policy target area, and feedback in the policy cycle. It involves complicated stakeholders, ambiguous and extensive goals, unstable and uncertain processes, limitations of methods, and feedback of results. The current evaluation of the implementation effect of China’s education policy has problems such as the lack of theoretical research, and the evaluation horizon is stuck in the empirical paradigm. Also, the evaluation method and technology are single; the professionalism of the evaluation activities need to be improved; and the feedback and utilization of the evaluation results are inefficient. Based on this, a good evaluation of the implementation effect of education policy needs to be reconstructed from the following aspects. The evaluation standard adheres to the unity of facts and values; the indicator system takes into account the multiple elements and linkage coordination; the evaluation methods and technologies are practical, and the results of the evaluation emphasize both analysis and feedback application. In this way, the phenomenon of policy vacancy, policy suspension, and policy failure in the implementation of education policy should be minimized or disappear.

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    Obesity in Primary and Middle School Students: Inter-school Differences and Time-use Patterns
    Wenming Zhang, Jiasheng Chen
    2022, 40 (2):  43-56.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.004
    Abstract ( 391 )   HTML ( 194 )   PDF (988KB) ( 437 )   Save

    Does school environment shape students’ bodies? To answer this question, based on the data from the Survey of Primary and Middle School Students’ Learning Situations and Learning Environments (2020), we investigated, through an “individual-centered” research perspective, latent profile analysis and multilevel ordinal logistic regression, whether inter-school differences and time-use patterns in basic education have an impact on obesity among primary and junior secondary school students. This research found that, first, at the primary and middle school level, the school level and the school type have an effect on the obesity of students. The effect of school factors at the senior high school level was not significant. Second, there are significant time-use patterns in obesity levels and two characteristics with school level. At the primary and middle school levels, students with more quiet time for homework and video games are more likely to be obese. Third, the time-use patterns of obesity among primary and middle school students were variable with inter-school differences and was particularly evident at the middle school level. Students in public middle schools were more likely to show differences in the time-use patterns of obesity compared to students in private middle schools. Therefore, the structural characteristics of obesity in primary and middle school students should be fully considered in the formulation of school and student health policies. Policy interventions should be made through the time spent on homework, cell phones (games), sport and sleep, so as to effectively curb the occurrence of overweight and obesity.

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    To What Extent Does the Course “Moral and Civic” Affect Students’ National Identity: Based on an Empirical Survey of Primary and Secondary School Students in Macao
    Chenzhi Li, Shuting Liang, Xiaoming Guo
    2022, 40 (2):  57-70.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.005
    Abstract ( 490 )   HTML ( 68 )   PDF (841KB) ( 796 )   Save

    This study used self-compiled national identity, Moral and Civic Course Perception questionnaire, and cluster sampling method to investigate primary and secondary school students in Macao. The results show that the overall level of national identity is above average, and the emotional domain is slightly higher than the cognitive and behavioral domains. There were significant differences in gender, grade, father’s nationality and parents’ educational level, especially in grade. Most students have a good perception of the objective and content of the course, but the teaching methods and evaluation methods are not diversified. There are significant differences in the factors of curriculum perception among the groups of gender, grade, mother’s nationality and mother’s education level, which is still the most significant difference among grade. National identity is closely related to the course perception of “Moral and Civic”, and the degree of curriculum goal perception is a key factor affecting national identity, but teachers’ teaching methods and evaluation methods have little influence on national identity.It is recommended to pay attention to the differences in nationally recognized grades, to lay a solid foundation for the lower grades, and to check for omissions in the upper grades. Family education is a key link in the implementation of national identity education. It is imperative to offer “parent curriculum” to pay attention to mother education. “Moral and Civic” is one of the key courses to carry out the fundamental task of cultivating people by virtue. The implementation of the course needs to improve the documents of Basic Academic Competence to guide teachers to optimize the teaching methods and evaluation methods.

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    Starting Line Competition: An Analysis of the First Time for Primary and Secondary School Students to Participate in Extracurricular Tutoring—— An Empirical Study Supporting the Implementation of the “Double Reduction” Policy
    Haiping Xue, Huanhuan Shi
    2022, 40 (2):  71-89.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.006
    Abstract ( 1982 )   HTML ( 219 )   PDF (1060KB) ( 2027 )   Save

    The effective implementation of the “Double Reducation” policy needs to accurately identify the deep-seated reasons why students choose to participate in extracurricular tutoring. Studying the time when primary and secondary school students participate in extracurricular tutoring for the first time can provide an empirical basis for relieving the extracurricular tutoring needs of parents and students. Based on the data of the 2017 China Institute for Educational Finance Research-Household Survey (CIEFR-HS 2017), this paper uses the method of survival analysis to describe primary and secondary school students’ first-time participation in extracurricular tutoring, and discusses the impact of family socio-economic background on the survival time of students’ first-time participation in extracurricular tutoring. This paper finds that, first, most of the primary and secondary school students in China have participated in extracurricular tutoring, and many of them have participated in extracurricular tutoring relatively early. Second, the time of primary and secondary school students who participate in extracurricular tutoring of subjects for the first time is significantly earlier than that of interest classes, and the difference is more prominent with the increase of grade. Third, there is a significant difference in the first time students from urban and rural and different social classes participate in extracurricular tutoring, but the difference gradually reduces with the increase of school period. Fourth, family socio-economic status has a significant positive impact on the time of students’ first participation in extracurricular tutoring. Students with better family socio-economic backgrounds are more likely to participate in extracurricular tutoring earlier, but this difference decreases with the increase of students’ learning period. In the context of “Double Reduction” policy, it is suggested that the government should continue to improve the quality of elementary education to meet the needs of parents and students for individualized education. Besides, it's important to provide academic counseling for disadvantaged students with poor academic performance, and provide subsidies for the students of vulnerable groups with poor academic performance. Also, it’s important to guide parents to choose extracurricular tutoring rationally, as well as objectively and dialectically examine the impact of extracurricular tutoring on the development of students.

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    Discussion on the Management Mode of Loosely-coupled Disciplines
    Liguo Li, Pengda Feng
    2022, 40 (2):  90-99.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.007
    Abstract ( 273 )   HTML ( 34 )   PDF (666KB) ( 628 )   Save

    Under the loosely-coupled system, the development of different disciplines not only holds autonomy and relative independence, but also maintains interaction with organizations. Protected by loosely-coupled system, different disciplines can adopt development measures that suit their circumstances to cope with the environment and pursue legitimacy. The evaluation and resource allocation in discipline governance should be conducted in accordance with the laws and characteristics of different disciplines, reflecting their own particularity, so as to avoid requiring them with uniform mechanical standards. Loosely-coupled discipline governance, conforming to the characteristics of university organizations and the uncertainty of discipline development, will help to deal with the fragmentation of external and internal environment and promote the innovation of discipline development. At the same time, in order to drive the overall promotion of disciplines and the realization of organizational goals, the coupling of disciplines should be strengthened through the construction of shared values and organizational culture.

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    What are the Changes in the Employment Situation of Chinese College Graduates in the Context of the 2021 Epidemic: An Empirical Study Based on National Survey Data in 2021 and 2020
    Tao Li, Nuan Sun, Zhihui Wu
    2022, 40 (2):  100-113.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.008
    Abstract ( 1167 )   HTML ( 216 )   PDF (924KB) ( 1526 )   Save

    The “Comprehensive Investigation of Employment Situation of College Graduates in China During the Epidemic Period” conducted the second round of surveys in 34 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities across the country for two and a half months from June to August 2021. Compared with the first round of survey in 2020, the following findings were found. (a) Nearly 50 percent of graduates signed a monthly salary of 3,001-5,000 yuan after tax. (b) The overall matching rate of job positions and majors increased significantly. (c) Employment satisfaction remained high but declined slightly, and (d) the rate of considering leaving had increased slightly. In 2021, unemployed graduates felt that the impact of epidemic factors on employment had significantly reduced. Their intentions of employment within the government system were obvious. Those who failed in civil service examinations and higher education had strong willing to retake the examinations. Different from the situation of employed graduates, the “salary package” exceeding the “place of work” became a significant employment factor for unemployed graduates. At the same time, the gap between expected salary and actual salary was widening. The ranking of employment expectations for private enterprises had dropped significantly. In the survey sample, employers’ recruitment plans were shrinking, but rates were rising. The salary levels were increasing, as well as the recruitment standards. The satisfaction of college graduates with the employment guidance work of the college remained good, which was the same as in 2020. Through logistic regression analysis, it was found that the variables include gender, household registration, family economic status, school type, school level, subject type, subject level, personal education, academic performance, entrepreneurial willingness etc., had significant differences in the impact of different categories on employment. The same as in 2020, men have a significant employment advantage over women. This employment advantage existed in the comparison of economically non-difficult families with economically difficult families as well. Meanwhile, employment advantage was showed in the comparative between colleges of science and engineering and finance and agriculture and forestry colleges, national "Double Tops" universities and higher vocational college, humanities and social sciences, national double first-class disciplines and ordinary disciplines, master’s degrees and bachelor’s degrees. The graduates from top 20 percent of professional rankings had more advantage than the 20-60 percent and bottom 40 percent graduates. Difference from 2020, the findings show that rural household registration graduates have a higher employment probability than urban household registration graduates, current graduates from medical colleges and normal colleges had a higher employment probability than colleges of science and engineering graduates, the employment probability of undergraduate graduates was lower than that of college graduates, and the employment probability of agricultural medicine was higher than that of humanities.

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    Educational Leadership Reform and Teachers’ Professional Development from the Perspective of “the Fourth Way”: Theoretical Approach and Practical Pattern
    Gang Zhu, Shirley Dennis
    2022, 40 (2):  114-126.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.009
    Abstract ( 368 )   HTML ( 37 )   PDF (754KB) ( 627 )   Save

    Amid the global education reform movement dominated by neoliberalism, the internationally-renowned education reform and teacher education scholar Professor Dennis Shirley and his colleagues proposed the “Fourth Way” aimed at promoting sustainable development, innovation and inclusive global education reform. At present, the “Fourth Way” reform model has been implemented in countries such as Finland and South Korea. In response to a series of new imperatives in educational reforms, Dennis Shirley considered “leading from the middle” and community organizing as breakthrough points for the new reform model. In view of the importance of teacher education in the global education reform, Dennis Shirley proposed the concept of mindful teachers and explored the five types of professional capital that need to be developed in teacher education, namely human capital, social capital, decisional capital, moral capital and symbolic capital. At the same time, Dennis Shirley also pays attention to the well-beings of teachers and the different kinds of teacher culture in the context of educational reform. In response to the global issues faced by human being, such as the new coronavirus pandemic and climate change, Dennis Shirley called for more cross-cultural dialogues and exchanges to address these challenges. Scholars at home and abroad have conducted in-depth academic dialogue on the theoretical approach and practical patterns on the above issues, in order to show the reform of educational leadership and teacher professional development from the perspective of “the global fourth way”.

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