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    01 January 2022, Volume 40 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Research on the Construction of High-quality Early Childhood Education Indicators System in China
    Liyan Huo, Qiangqiang Sun, Zhengyu Long
    2022, 40 (1):  1-18.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.001
    Abstract ( 833 )   HTML ( 836 )   PDF (927KB) ( 898 )   Save

    This study uses the thinking method of “four beams and eight pillars”, draws on the structural logic of the CIPP evaluation model and follows the five-step research path of sequential evidence-based to analyze the status quo, international comparison, theoretical formulation, empirical construction and policy suggestions of China’s early childhood education indicators system. First, it selected the current Chinese early childhood education texts that have great influence in China to conduct content analysis to structurally describe the status quo of China’s early childhood education indicators system. Then it analyzed the structural problems of China’s current early childhood education indicators system by juxtaposing and comparing the structural framework and specific indicators in both domestic and international early childhood education indicators system. Subsequently, it conceived the structural framework and specific contents of the high-quality early childhood education indicators system including four first-level indicators of background, input, process and outcome, 13 second-level indicators and 55 third-level indicators. Then, based on empirical research, it constructed the “four beams and eight pillars” and key indicators of the new era China’s high-quality early childhood education indicators system, which includes four first-level indicators (value quality, condition quality, process quality, and outcome quality), eight second-level indicators (value orientation, social background, system and mechanism, resource allocation, care and education, management of kindergartens, popularization and universal benefit, safety and high quality) and 57 third-level indicators. Finally, it put forward five policy recommendations for the construction of China’s high-quality early childhood education indicators system. First, actively construct a structural framework to impove overall attention to systemic quality. Second, pay special attention to background factors to ensure priority attention to value quality.Third, pay attention continuously to input factors to ensure long-term attention to condition quality. Fourth, put emphasis strongly on process factors to ensure focus on process quality. Fifth, rationally strengthen the output factors to ensure comprehensive attention to the outcome quality.

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    Trace on Calculation Method of Evaluation Reform of Education
    Xin Yang
    2022, 40 (1):  19-29.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.002
    Abstract ( 392 )   HTML ( 770 )   PDF (835KB) ( 455 )   Save

    In terms of calculation method, the evaluation reform of education is questioned, which is not only a critical response to the evaluation on the basis of information technology, but also to grasp the breakthrough in the evaluation reform of education while clarifying the challenges and risks. The challenge of evaluation reform of education promoted by calculation lies in how to correct the educational concept, improve the scientificity of improving the evaluation; secondly, how to produce the knowledge of education and promote the professionality of evaluation; thirdly, how to optimize the educational governance and manifest the objectivity of the evaluation. However, limited to the complicated cognition behind the calculation, the evaluation may meet the risks such as the bias intensification, ranking trap, digital divide, materialization dilemma and etc. Regarding this, in order to realize the pursuit of the reform of “putting the risks into challenges”, it is necessary that the breakthrough of the calculation method of the evaluation reform of education should be prompted from the aspects of method in cognition, aim, object and mode, that is to surpass the self-fulfilling prophecy through pursuing the causes, transcend the race via peace agreement, to use the overall development to go beyond the individual features, finally the ample data to take place of the insufficient data.

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    How to Evaluate Universities? The Rise, Spread and Institutionalization of International Evaluation in China’s Top Universities
    Qu Yu
    2022, 40 (1):  30-42.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.003
    Abstract ( 320 )   HTML ( 740 )   PDF (834KB) ( 430 )   Save

    China’s university evaluation has always been accompanied by a strong top-down administrative dominance for a long time. The allocation of government resources among universities is also closely related to the evaluation results. In such a system, universities are more likely to highlight advantages rather than problems. In the process of promoting the construction of world-class universities, the evaluation system of Chinese universities has gradually changed and international evaluation has become an important way for leading universities to carry out self-evaluation. This study found that the early international evaluations mainly originated from universities’ initiation for specific issues. Under the strong willingness to reform in the universities, international evaluations were introduced into the self-evaluation systems of these universities and promoted organizational changes, such as personnel system reform, university and school management system reform, inter-discipline construction. Since then, the international evaluation mechanism has continued to spread among the first-class universities in China. This article believes that changes in the environment of higher education evaluation system is an important foundation for the spread of international evaluation mechanisms, and the learning and imitating of pioneers is the direct cause of proliferation. Under the effect of the legitimacy mechanism, international evaluation has accelerated its spread among the first-class university groups in China. It has become an important part of the continuous self-reformation of universities.

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    What is the Practical Experience of Impact Evaluation of PK-12 Educational Programs in the United States:Thematic Text Analysis Based on 25 High-Quality Evaluation Research
    Chenchen Shi
    2022, 40 (1):  43-59.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.004
    Abstract ( 442 )   HTML ( 121 )   PDF (883KB) ( 799 )   Save

    The impact evaluation of PK-12 educational programs in the United States not only started early in practice, with a relatively solid foundation, but also has developed into an important type of educational scientific research and the evidence source for the evidence-based educational reform at present, accumulating a lot of relatively mature practical experience. After thematically analyzing the text of 25 high-quality evaluation research, this research found that its practical experience is as follows. First of all, adequate evaluation funding is the first prerequisite for evaluation. The funding support comes from government and other sources, the raising is a collective action of wisdom, and the allocation runs through the entire evaluation process. Secondly, professional evaluators are the core input of evaluation. The evaluators come from professional organizations such as universities and colleges, and appropriate evaluators will be carefully selected and determined based on many factors, and there are currently three types of evaluator role positioning, namely, internal evaluators, external evaluators, and evaluators who collaborate internally and externally. Thirdly, scientific evaluation conducting is the key process of evaluation. The evaluation planning usually determines the evaluation type and questions. The evaluation design will clarify the theoretical basis, evaluation methods and outcome measures. And the evaluation implementation will attach great importance to sample recruitment, intervention implementation and data collecting. Fourthly, utility fruit is an important output of evaluation. The evaluation findings will be properly analyzed and reasonably explained. The evaluation results will be written by specifications and presented in various ways. And the evaluation products will be vigorously disseminated and used effectively. In addition, while striving to improve its quality, the impact evaluation of PK-12 educational programs in the U.S. has also begun to burst out new practical trends.

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    A Study on the Inequality of Basic Education Expenditure per Student in China: Based on the Gini Coefficient and Theil Index
    Lele Geng
    2022, 40 (1):  60-73.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.005
    Abstract ( 453 )   HTML ( 103 )   PDF (885KB) ( 744 )   Save

    The equity of expenditure per student on basic education affects the equity of educational process and outcome. Based on the data of expenditure per student on basic education and the data of current students from 1995 to 2018, this paper estimates the equity degree of expenditure per student on basic education in China by calculating the Gini coefficient and Theil index. It is found that the equity of expenditure per student on basic education is generally at a “relatively fair” and “relatively reasonable” level and became more equitable from 1995 to 2018. The inter-provincial difference of basic education expenditure per student is greater than the regional difference. The expenditure of basic education per student in eastern China varies greatly among provinces, and the degree of equity is low. The fairness of the average expenditure of senior high school students tends to decrease. According to the research findings, relevant policy recommendations are put forward.

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    Are Your Educational Expectations Rational? Research on Effects of Parent-Child Discrepancies in Educational Expectations on Academic Performance
    Gang Cheng, Sihui Du, Qian Yu
    2022, 40 (1):  74-87.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.006
    Abstract ( 760 )   HTML ( 123 )   PDF (890KB) ( 903 )   Save

    Educational expectations are the expectations of individuals, parents, or teachers for the future level of education of learners, which have a great impact on academic performance and individual development. Numerous studies have overlooked the prevalence of differences in educational expectations between parents and children, while such differences can easily result in poor behavioral and performance. Based on the large-scale data of the 2014—2015 China Education Panel Survey, we use OLS, PSM and corrected Bootstrap method to explore the effects of parent-child discrepancies in education expectations on the academic performance of adolescents, as well as the differences in the influence mechanisms. The research has found that, firstly, parent-child discrepancies in education expectations have negative and significant effects on the academic performance of adolescents. Secondly, upward-biased parent-child discrepancies in education expectations, typically manifest as holding high hopes for children, are not rational, with a significant and negative effect on academic performance. However, there is no significant relationship between downward-biased parent-child discrepancies in education expectations and academic performance. Thirdly, psychological stress, academic burden and negative emotions play partial mediating roles in the relationship between the upward-biased parent-child discrepancies in education expectations and academic achievement. Finally, compared to that of girls, the academic performance of boys is more susceptible to the negative impact of upward-biased parent-child discrepancies in education expectations. Based on the results of empirical research, we put forward countermeasures such as forming appropriate educational expectations and improving parent-child communication.

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    System Review and Legalization of Compulsory Withdrawal from Colleges and Universities
    Hang Zhang
    2022, 40 (1):  88-101.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.007
    Abstract ( 522 )   HTML ( 72 )   PDF (826KB) ( 428 )   Save

    The handling of compulsory withdrawal from colleges is the behavior of colleges and universities to forcibly terminate the legal relationship of students in school, including disciplinary withdrawal and academic elimination. The legal nature of compulsory withdrawal is a state administrative act, and in the specific type of administrative act, it belongs to the cancellation or abolition of unformatted administrative acts that grant benefits. In view of the fact that the handling of compulsory withdrawal has excessively restricted or even deprived students of their basic rights such as the right to identity and the right to education, the formal legality of the compulsory withdrawal system must follow the principle of legal reservation, the principle of clear norms, and the principle of due process. In terms of substantive rationality, the above should comply with the principle of proportionality, the principle of prohibition of improper connection and the principle of trust protection. Based on the conclusions of the legality and rationality of the system, the legalization of the system should be carried out from four aspects. Specifically, first, the basis for withdrawal should be partly based on the principle of relative legal reservation to assign authority; second, the reasons for withdrawal should be divided into political standards, disciplinary standards and academic standards to be determined separately; third, the withdrawal procedure should be established as an open procedure, hearing procedures and period procedures; fourth, rights relief should be improved and explored in school appeals, administrative reconsideration, judicial litigation and administrative compensation and other systematic remedies.

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    The Educational Thoughts and Practice of the Early Tongcheng School: A Focus on the Three Ancestors of Tongcheng
    Zhengping Tian, Ziwei Pei
    2022, 40 (1):  102-115.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.008
    Abstract ( 430 )   HTML ( 77 )   PDF (859KB) ( 520 )   Save

    As a well-known cultural group in Qing Dynasty which long lasting, large in numbers and influential, the Tongcheng School is commonly regarded as a literary school because of its famous ancient style prose. Actually, most of the Tongcheng Scholars had rich teaching experiences and educational ideas and closely related to education. Represented by the “Three Ancestors”, the early Tongcheng School took an active part in imperial examination and academies of classical learning in Qing Dynasty and made great effects. Studying on their educational thoughts and practice will help to enrich the comprehensive understanding of education in Qing Dynasty and figure out the internal logic of the later Tongcheng School’s performance in the process of Chinese education modernization.

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    How Expository Writing Has Become the Only Required Course at Harvard University: A Conversation between Nancy Sommers and He Mingzhu, Yu Haiqin
    Nancy Sommers, Mingzhu He, Haiqin Yu
    2022, 40 (1):  116-126.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.009
    Abstract ( 343 )   HTML ( 78 )   PDF (687KB) ( 582 )   Save

    Writing is a way to both literally and metaphorically put a mark on the world. It is a process to lead students to read critically and deeply, and write effectively and clearly. It is also an approach to figuring out what ideas students really care about and guiding them to write about these ideas with care and depth. Writing courses are usually required in American colleges and universities, which aim to cultivate undergraduates’ written communication ability and critical thinking. The Harvard College Writing Program was founded in 1872, and its expository writing course is the only academic experience required of every undergraduate today. Beginning with her college writing handbooks and expectations for cooperation with China, the interview was carried out with a focus on the following themes: why Nancy Sommers has devoted herself to writing education; why she has focused her research on revision and responding; why she set up the Harvard Writing Project; why she created the Harvard Study of Undergraduate Writing; and why she set up the Writing Workshop for graduate students. In this profound and impressive interview, Sommers attributed her success to loving to read and loving to write. She pointed out that learning to write is a great way for college undergraduates to learn more effectively about the various other subjects which they study, and regarded writing as the power that helps students set a course in life for themselves. At the same time, she stressed that writing is the center of undergraduate education, and that at the heart of writing is really revision. Sommers also elaborated on revision strategies of student writers, responding to student writers, writing partners in the Writing Workshop, the idea of ten thousand hours of practice, the relationship between speaking and writing, “personal dragons,” and avoiding plagiarism.

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