Table of Content

    01 April 2023, Volume 41 Issue 4 Previous Issue   
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    Current Situation, Influence and Suggestions of China’s Elementary School Science Teacher: Based on a Large-Scale Survey in 31 Provinces
    Yonghe Zheng, Xuanyang Yang, Jingying Wang, Jia Li, Yangxu Lu, Shuhui Li, Yujing Yang, Xiaolin Zhang
    2023, 41 (4):  1-21.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.04.001
    Abstract ( 1027 )   HTML ( 609 )   PDF (2134KB) ( 696 )   Save

    To investigate the current situation of elementary school science teachers in China, large-scale research in 31 provinces was organized by the Professional Committee on Science Teaching of the Steering Committee for Basic Education of the Ministry of Education in the second half of 2021, and 131,134 valid questionnaires were collected. The current situation of the elementary school science teacher workforce involves three major aspects: faculty structure, professional literacy, and professional development. The study found that there is a serious structural imbalance in the structure of China’s elementary school science teachers, with part-time teachers and liberal arts backgrounds dominating; weak knowledge and beliefs, practical wisdom such as information technology application to be strengthened; weak professional development, lack of experimental resources and professional training. It is recommended to strengthen the teacher management of elementary science, improve the supervisory mechanism, and optimize the structure of the teaching force; strengthen the professional standards and development planning of integrated pre-service and in-service elementary science teachers; promote the reform of the content and form of elementary science assessment and pay attention to the monitoring and evaluation of the quality of elementary science teaching.

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    Does Growth Mindset Affect Students’ Social and Emotional Skills Development: Empirical Analyses Based on OECD Social and Emotional Skills Study
    Zhongjing Huang, Kaiyue Shang, Jing Zhang
    2023, 41 (4):  22-32.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.04.002
    Abstract ( 737 )   HTML ( 331 )   PDF (697KB) ( 1027 )   Save

    Mindset plays a decisive role in people’s words and deeds. This study adopted the OECD-Suzhou data to explore the growth mindset of 10-year-old and 15-year-old adolescents in social and emotional skills from the perspective of students, parents, and teachers, as well as the relationship between their thinking patterns and abilities. The results of the study show that, first, the growth mindset of students’ social and emotional skills is restricted by socioeconomic status. Second, the growth mindset of students, parents, and teachers’ social and emotional skills is significantly positive, relevant, and predictive for students’ social and emotional skills. This result has enriched the current research on growth-oriented mindset and society and skills, and pointed out and provided new ways and new measures to promote the cultivation of the social and emotional skills of our teenagers.

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    Empirical Research on the Cultivation Performance of Social and Emotional Skills: An International Comparative Analysis Based on SSES 2021
    Yipeng Tang, Zhongjing Huang
    2023, 41 (4):  33-45.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.04.003
    Abstract ( 859 )   HTML ( 292 )   PDF (2512KB) ( 731 )   Save

    Social and emotional skill is the cornerstone of success and happiness in life. In 2021, the global first test of SSEs (Study on social and emotional skills) provides a solid data foundation for the international comparative study of adolescents’ social and emotional skills. Using DEA (data envelop analysis) method, taking class size, teacher education, sses training, sses measures and campus activities as input variables and five skills as output variables, this paper evaluates the training effectiveness of 1,171 primary and secondary schools in 10 cities participating in the international evaluation. The results show that: first, the social and emotional skill training effectiveness of primary and secondary schools in all cities is generally high, and the average value of primary school is more than 0.8. The average value of middle school is above 0.9. Second, at the primary school stage, Suzhou schools have achieved outstanding results, not only the highest average, but also a high-level balanced type as a whole. In the middle school stage, Istanbul is the city with outstanding training results, which is also a high-level balanced city. Third, there are 82 high-performance primary schools and 87 high-performance secondary schools in all cities, of which Istanbul and Bogota account for a large proportion. Fourth, sense of belonging to school is the most important factor to improve the social and emotional training effectiveness. According to the above research results, this paper suggests that we should strengthen international cooperation and empirical research on social and emotional skill, look for gaps and fill in weaknesses while summarizing the successful experience of Suzhou, and take high-quality balance as an important goal of social and emotional ability training in primary and secondary schools in China.

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    Can Social and Emotional Skills Effectively Reduce Students’ Bullying: Empirical Analyses Based on OECD Social and Emotional Skills Study
    Jing Zhang, Zeliang Jin, Zhongjing Huang
    2023, 41 (4):  46-55.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.04.004
    Abstract ( 498 )   HTML ( 56 )   PDF (665KB) ( 498 )   Save

    Grounded on the social ecology theory and the OECD social and emotional skills framework, this study described the current situation of bullying among students aged 10 and 15, and explored the individual factors and environmental factors affecting bullying based on the OECD survey data in Suzhou. On the one hand, the results confirmed the relationship between demographic factors, environmental factors and bullying victimization, and found that although the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization was low, it was highly correlated with school bullying victimization. On the other hand, it explores the relative importance of social and emotional skills on bullying victimization through relative importance analysis, in which self-control and stress resistance were key factors in predicting students from school bullying and cyberbullying, and trusting skill was a protective factor from cyberbullying. The study reveals the close relationship between social and emotional skills and bullying victimization, and enlightens to carry out all-round and targeted prevention and intervention of bullying victimization from the perspective of social and emotional skills.

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    Can Virtue Be Taught: Research on the Influence of Higher Education on the Development of College Students’ Moral Cognition
    Wei Bao, Dechun Chen, Linnan Tong
    2023, 41 (4):  56-71.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.04.005
    Abstract ( 373 )   HTML ( 39 )   PDF (1065KB) ( 373 )   Save

    The primary purpose of higher education is to enhance students’ moral responsibility awareness, to internalize their moral ethics, and to develop a sound personality. Faced with the transition and evolution of external social morality, the question of whether higher education can promote the development of students’ benign moral cognition has emerged as a critical academic and practical concern. Using data from a national survey of university students, this paper develops a system of observational indicators of moral cognition among university students and examines the moral cognitive qualities of contemporary youth in society-family-university setting. Additionally, we use ordered logistic regression and Shapley’s value decomposition to examine the influence effects and mechanisms of five major educational elements on students’ moral cognition development: institutional organizational endowment, curriculum instruction, extracurricular activities, faculty-student interaction, and peer effect. The study contributes to the theoretical understanding of moral teaching mechanisms in Chinese higher education. It provides scientific advice for the development of an all-encompassing, multi-level, and three-dimensional platform for moral education.

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    Research on the Relationship between Exam-oriented Education and Students’ Creativity
    Zheng Ke, Can Liang
    2023, 41 (4):  72-82.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.04.006
    Abstract ( 1520 )   HTML ( 115 )   PDF (783KB) ( 1099 )   Save

    Although many people rightly believe that exam-oriented education hinders the development of Chinese students’ creativity, there is no basic evidence to prove that the overall creativity level of Chinese students is lower than that of other countries. Therefore, it should not be simply asserted that exam-oriented education restricts the cultivation of Chinese students’ creativity. But this does not mean that exam-oriented education has nothing to do with students’ creativity. A reasonable explanation is that exam-oriented education has different effects on different types of students. It is effective in “raising the bottom”, but it will obviously hinder the creativity of top students. This is supported by many direct and indirect factual evidence. Although the number of highly creative students accounts for a small proportion, their creativity is affected, which is related to national security and competitiveness and deserves attention and vigilance. Exam-oriented education has a significant negative impact on the creativity level of top students, which does not mean that other groups of students are not affected by it. But in the environment of exam-oriented education, the top students are more affected and restricted. Using the analytical framework provided by the “the componential theory of creativity”, this negative impact can work through three mechanisms, that is, reducing the width and depth of top students’ knowledge mastery, reducing the spirit of adventure and questioning, as well as the tolerant attitude towards uncertainty, and weakening the internal motivation of learning.

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    Should Calculators Be Allowed to Use in College Entrance Examinations in Mathematics: An International Comparison of 30 Countries and Regions’ Calculator Use Policies and Practices in College Entrance Examinations
    Shuhui Li, Shang Li, Lianghuo Fan
    2023, 41 (4):  83-92.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.04.007
    Abstract ( 995 )   HTML ( 27 )   PDF (1579KB) ( 1145 )   Save

    Whether calculators should be introduced to College Entrance Examinations in Mathematics (CEE-M) in China is a long-standing controversial topic. This study examined calculator use policies and practices in CEE-M in 30 relatively economically developed countries and regions, and compared their delivery modes (single, mixed), types of calculators allowed and roles of calculators in exam questions and solutions; representative questions in selected sample exams were also used for case analysis. The study found that most CEE-M allowed students to use calculators, with mainly the single delivery mode using scientific calculators, and introducing calculators into the CEE-M can provide a new opportunity to enhance the real-life context, openness, and flexibility of questions in mathematics examinations. According to the results, the study concluded that there is a need to fully realize the value of introducing calculators in CEE-M, carry out more research in designing exam questions allowing calculators to promote examination reform and innovation, and establish a long-term plan for introducing calculators into mathematics classrooms and examinations.

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    How to Understand and Depict Educational Inequality from the Perspective of Basil Bernstein’s Code Theory
    Xing Ma, Tienhui Chiang
    2023, 41 (4):  93-110.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.04.008
    Abstract ( 397 )   HTML ( 35 )   PDF (830KB) ( 472 )   Save

    The phenomenon of cultural reproduction has foregrounded inequity in educational results as a social fact. Although Basil Bernstein argues that this phenomenon is rooted in students’ coding orientations that regulate the practice of rules of recognition and realization, the influence of code theory has been gradually declining mainly due to its numerous jargons. Considering this constraint, this article sets out to illustrate the interplay of rules of recognition, rules of realization, classification, framing and coding orientation in simple descriptions in order to stimulate further empirical studies. We further argue that this interplay is geared by rules of inner logic embedded within coding orientation, classification and framing. As this inner logic is systematically correspondent with the inner logic of an elaborated code, this situation situates high SES students in a privileged position in learning. Unfortunately, a restricted code doesn’t have this connection, so that it is difficult for low SES students to generate excellent performance. The principle of inner logic provides us with a gateway for improving inequity in educational results.

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    Towards Reinvention: The Dual Effects of Intergenerational Transmission of Family Education of the First Generation College Students
    Tao Chen, Yan Zhang, Haiping Xue
    2023, 41 (4):  111-126.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.04.009
    Abstract ( 480 )   HTML ( 33 )   PDF (1120KB) ( 485 )   Save

    The first generation of college students is a generation of family intergenerational transmission, and a generation of China’s intergenerational society. As they form their own families, they also start the process of reinventing their children after remolding themselves. Based on the CHFS data in 2019, this article focuses on the first generation college students in families. This article, from the micro perspective of “family intergeneration” to the macro perspective of “urban and rural stratum, studies the family and rural-urban effects of the obtainment of supplemental education on the offspring of four groups: the families started by the first generation college students, non-college families, the families started by the first generation college students in urban areas and that in rural areas. The results show that: (1) intergenerational transmission of education widens the gap of the obtainment of supplemental education among children of families with different cultural capital; (2) intergenerational transmission of education narrows the gap of the obtainment of supplemental education between rural and urban children; (3) authoritative parenting and characteristics of the first-generation college students’ families are the internal reason of the double effect. To sum up, the experience and characteristics of the first generation of college students determine intergenerational reinvention that transmits cultural capital, class reinvention that crosses urban-rural boundaries, and upbringing reinvention that values all-round development.

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