华东师范大学学报(教育科学版) ›› 2014, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (1): 1-10.doi:

• 教育均衡发展研究 •    下一篇

论城市化进程对中国义务教育班级、学校规模的影响

傅维利,张淼   

  1. 辽宁师范大学教育学院,辽宁,116029
  • 出版日期:2014-03-20 发布日期:2014-04-14
  • 通讯作者: 傅维利 辽宁师范大学教育学院暨田家炳教育书院院长,教授,博士生导师 张 淼 辽宁师范大学教育学院博士研究生,沈阳师范大学教育科学学院,讲师
  • 作者简介:傅维利:辽宁师范大学教育学院暨田家炳教育书院院长,教授,博士生导师 张淼:辽宁师范大学教育学院博士研究生,沈阳师范大学教育科学学院,讲师
  • 基金资助:

    本文系教育部基础教育一司重点研究项目:“义务教育阶段学校合理规模研究”(YWJY2011A4)

The influence of urbanization process on the class size and the scale of school of compulsory education in china

Fu Weili & Zhang Miao   

  1. Liaoning Normal University, Education College, Liaoning, 116029
  • Online:2014-03-20 Published:2014-04-14
  • Contact: Fu Weili Zhang Miao
  • About author:Fu Weili Zhang Miao

摘要: 快速的城市化过程对一些地区的中小学规模产生了强烈的扩张效应,这给城乡义务教育班级与学校规模的合理调整带来严峻挑战。中国义务教育城市化有两个显著特征:一是一些人口大省的小学城市化水平低于城市总体的城市化水平;二是初中城市化水平不仅明显高于小学而且大大超越城市总体城市化水平。受人口自然增长放缓、农村人口迁移流向不确定、城市化水平的区域发展不平衡及隐性城市化人口激增等因素影响,中国的义务教育在学校数量和规模方面呈现总量基本合理、城乡差异化发展、隐性生源压力日增、一些地方大班额问题突出等特征。解决上述问题的思路是:把农村和城镇作为两个向度,在数量和规模间寻找不同的平衡点;保持教育城市化水平与区域总体城市化水平的协调一致;善于利用小班额预存的人数弹性空间,以应对流动人口流向的不确定性;对城市化进程较快的人口大省和中心城市周边地区的人口流向实施科学监测,并建立有效控制班级和学校规模的预警机制;提高义务教育统筹协调层次,保证各级政府在实施流动人口子女教育方面责权对称。

关键词: 城市化, 义务教育, 班级规模, 学校规模, 应对策略

Abstract: The rapid urbanization process has led to the strong expansion of the scale of primary and secondary schools in some areas, this brings severe challenges to the adjustment about the class size and the scale of school of compulsory education in the urban and rural regions. There are two notable features on Compulsory education urbanization in China: firstly, the level of urbanization of the elementary school is lower than that of the city's overall development of urbanization in some populous provinces; secondly, the level of urbanization of junior high school is not only higher than that of the elementary school but also significantly surpasses that of the city’s urbanization. As for the following reasons, the slowing down of growth rate of the natural population ,the uncertain migration direction of the rural population, the unbalanced regional urbanization development and the recessive urbanization population explosion, there are several characteristics of school number and scale at the compulsory education,, including the total number is basic reasonable, different development between urban and rural areas, increasing pressure of covert growth of the student number, severe problems of the large class size in some areas. Several measures are suggested to solve the above problems, first to maintain the different balance between the number and scale of the school at two dimensions of rural and town; second, to keep consistent of the level of urbanization of education with the overall level of regional urbanization; third to cope with the uncertainty of floating population by using the flexibility student number of the small class; fourth to implement the scientific monitoring to the rapid urbanized big population province and the population in areas surrounding the center cities; fifth to establish the effective warning mechanism to control the class size and the school scale; sixth to improve the compulsory education coordination level; seventh to ensure that all levels governments are symmetrically in rights and obligations about the education of the floating population children.