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01 October 2022, Volume 40 Issue 10 Previous Issue   
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Adapting, Remixing and Emerging: The Function and Essence of the Second Bachelor’s Degree Education in the New Era
Xiaodong Lu
2022, 40 (10):  1-16.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.001
Abstract ( 28 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (872KB) ( 10 )  

In the higher education structural system, in the “world”, and in the dual time vision of personal and public time, the second bachelor’s degree education is indispensable. The three key words of its function and essence are adapting, remixing and emerging. The important function of the second bachelor’s degree education in the new era is to quickly respond to the demand for talents and human resources from the changes in the market and industrial structure, and to provide learning opportunities for individual/Dasein with emerging learning motivations to enhance their adaptability; to supplement students enrollment to “unpopular” majors; cultivating top-notch creative talents based on remixing to increase the probability of “emerging” and enhance the country’s momentum for innovation and development. At the same time, the second bachelor’s degree education also provides a repair for the current teaching reforms that are still lagging behind in some colleges and universities. The classifications of remixing provide framework guidelines for the curriculum construction, enrollment qualifications and teaching of the second bachelor’s degree major. In the dual time vision of personal time and public time, the individual/Dasein recognizes himself, locates himself, projects himself with understanding of the world and the earth, and new learning motivation emerges unpredictably and unplannedly in the field within the worldliness and worlding of the world. The second bachelor’s degree education and other learning opportunities together promote the emerging and sheltering of diversity, richness and innovation.

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Does Reflection Improve Teachers’ Classroom Behavior Continuously: Based on a Longitudinal Study of Teachers with Different Teaching Philosophy
Fan Yang, Yuxuan He, Zhichen Xia
2022, 40 (10):  17-28.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.002
Abstract ( 30 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (883KB) ( 21 )  

Reflection is an important way to promote the professional development of primary and secondary school teachers. This study conducted a multi-level linear growth model analysis based on three waves of a longitudinal study of 301 primary and secondary school teachers over one year. In this study, the developmental trend of teachers' classroom behaviour, and the influence of reflection on the developmental trend of teachers’ classroom behaviour were described, then the classroom behavior effects with different teaching philosophies through conducting reflection were discussed. The results show that teachers’ classroom behaviour will be significantly and continuously improved with the implementation of reflection. Reflection has different continuous effects on teachers with different teaching philosophies. Teachers who hold a teaching philosophy of student-centeredness are more likely to obtain positive effects of classroom behaviour in the process of reflection. Because of the positive and continuous influence of reflection on teachers’ classroom behaviour, teachers should be guided to form a “student-centeredness” teaching philosophy and should improve classroom behaviour through conducting reflection in the future.

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How Cultures and Contexts Influence Teacher Learning: Taking Empirical Studies on Chinese Teacher Learning Communities as Examples
Xin Zheng, Yuan Liu, Hongbiao Yin
2022, 40 (10):  29-41.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.003
Abstract ( 41 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (914KB) ( 19 )  

In the past decades, the situative and socio-cultural perspective has deeply influenced the research on teacher learning, and teacher learning occurs in multiple and complex communities or systems. As a result of the high performance in international programs such as PISA, Chinese version of professional learning community (PLC) has gained much attention. This paper introduced a series of empirical studies that focused on teacher learning in multiple learning communities within Chinese cultures and contexts. These studies attempted to respond to three questions: how to build strong PLCs in Chinese context? is Chinese version of PLCs beneficial for teachers? how can the research on teacher learning in Chinese contexts contribute to the international knowledge community? The findings showed that teachers learning was influenced by Chinese cultures and contexts, which was different from the Western counterparts. However, the “others” perspective can help us to understand our own problems, to reflect and improve the educational practice. The unique contexts of teacher learning in China could also make knowledge contributions to the academic community through appropriate conversations.

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Competitive Government: An Explanation for the Expansion of China’s Higher Education
Hui Liu, Junfeng Ma
2022, 40 (10):  42-53.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.004
Abstract ( 23 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (903KB) ( 4 )  

The Chinese-style fiscal decentralization makes competitive governments the game process of “growth for competition”. The result has intensified the trend of higher education localization and expanded the scale of China’s higher education. Using the panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2004 to 2018, the paper explores the impact of fiscal decentralization and competitive government on the expansion of China’s higher education scale. The research found that fiscal decentralization has an inhibitory effect on the scale of local higher education, but competitive government has a significant improvement, and has a moderating effect on the adverse effects of fiscal decentralization on the scale of local higher education. After lagging the variable of competitive government, the estimated coefficient has dropped significantly, indicating that the expansion of higher education scale is likely to be the result of the immediate competition policy of the local government, and it is heterogeneous between the eastern and inland areas. It is necessary for the central government to correctly guide local governments to compete and transform the concept of competition.

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What is University Teachers’ Scholarship Ability of Teaching and Learning: Connotation and Development Path
Zhe Liu
2022, 40 (10):  54-64.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.005
Abstract ( 25 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (853KB) ( 4 )  

Scholarship ability of teaching and learning is a kind of practical expertise structure that teachers can use appropriate methods to study teaching and learning problems, apply the research results to teaching activities, and public sharing for community evaluation and construction, in order to promote students’ deep learning and discipline literacy development. It not only has specialized scholarship knowledge and ability, but also includes pedagogical content ability transformed by the combination of content knowledge and pedagogics among which the ability of curriculum development and teaching design is the core. Scholarship ability of teaching and learning highlights distinctive practical, integrative and developmental. It is related to and different from discipline scholarship ability, educational research ability and scholarly teaching ability. The ways to improve university teachers’ scholarship ability of teaching and learning include constructing the development model, attaching importance to reflective practice, and promoting action research.

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Supply of Public Education in the New Population Situation
Xi Zhang, Ming Lu
2022, 40 (10):  65-76.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.006
Abstract ( 23 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1021KB) ( 7 )  

Both challenges from population aging and low fertility rate and opportunities from labor relocation and human capital accumulation have been revealed by the seventh National Census. Improving public education are inherent requirements of the new population situation. The crux of education supply in China is not only insufficient quantity, but also inefficient distribution that misses changing education demands derived from population migration. Accordingly, education supply must be adjusted based on a deep understanding about China’s spatial economy evolution. On the one hand, because of continuous population agglomeration, education resources in big cities urgently need to be expanded, especially senior high school education supply. On the other hand, while population is contracting to central urban districts in population outflowing regions, the quality of local education supply needs to be enhanced by centralization. From an institutional perspective, the top-level design should focus on reforming local governance and adjusting fiscal arrangements, and thus mobilizes multiple subjects in improving education supply.

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Disaster Prevention Education: An Educational Attempt to Inherit Memory of Catastrophe
Jiaqi Yu
2022, 40 (10):  77-90.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.007
Abstract ( 10 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (945KB) ( 3 )  

Natural disasters and social disasters can be understood as the phenomena that lead to the destructive shaking of people’s life field and social foundation. And the memory of catastrophe is people’s recollection and recognition of the past phenomenon. For people, the memory of catastrophe is the basis that gives people identities, the wake-up call for survivor, the accident that brings the chance, the place of debate for seeking truth. However, the memory, which is essential to the bildung of individuals, has been completely forgotten by modern education, which is rooted in real life and repels uncertainty. The inheritance of memory is gradually replaced by formal commemoration and knowledge-based disaster prevention education. In fact, disaster prevention education that attaches importance to inheriting the memory of catastrophe is not only self-help education that helps students become survivors, but also co-help education that makes students become volunteers. Under the effect of emotional resonance and sincere dialogue, people who recognized the catastrophe together build a connection, in order to face a new catastrophe that may come again in the future.

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Psychology Trumps Pedagogy: A Review of China’s New EducationExperiment in Action by Zhu Yongxin
A. Berg Donald
2022, 40 (10):  91-99.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.008
Abstract ( 22 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (644KB) ( 16 )  

Throughout the world the pattern of disengagement established in primary and secondary schools leads to the problem of disengagement in the workplace which, according to Gallup, results in global losses of $7 trillion per year in productivity. In his book China’s New Education Experiment in Action, Professor Zhu Yongxin presents a variety of stories about the success that the innovative schools that follow his principles have achieved. Recent findings in psychological research that are not commonly known in the field of education can help explain the success that Professor Zhu’s principles have facilitated. Through placing their central emphasis on the motivation and engagement of students, the schools that apply the principles of the New Education Experiment produce both academic achievement and “a happy, complete life of education.” Looking to the future, there are challenges that all educational innovations face, no matter where they occur. As a potential means for proactively facing those inevitable challenges to the schools in the New Education Experiment, the value of using scientifically informed measures of the psychological climate in those schools is discussed.

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Open the Black-box of “Informational Learning Style”: Discussions Based-on Don Ihde’s Phenomenology of Technology
Wenxin Chen, Jing Zhao
2022, 40 (10):  100-107.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.009
Abstract ( 15 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (696KB) ( 6 )  

Recent massive application of information technology has led to a great reform of learning style. Compared with emerging practical models, there is lack of profound theory. As a current philosophical leader in the fields of phenomenology of technology, Don Ihde integrated phenomenology with pragmatism together. On that basis, he opened “Experience turning” up to philosophy of technology firstly. Given his theory, it was clear that informational learning style involved complex kinds of relation between machine and human, such as “embodiment relation”, “hermeneutic relation” and “background relation”. Therefore, to focus on only one “relation” and see it as the essence are not the right choice for exploring informational learning style. In the long run, there are some principles which can benefit informational learning style research, including breaking through limitations of reductionism and dualism, transcending confrontation between engineering paradigm and humanism paradigm, emphasizing on mutual promotion of practice and theory, and developing study research continually in the perspective of complexity theory.

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Research on Risks and Countermeasures of Running Private Schools by Group
Jiayong Zhang, Yuhua Zhu
2022, 40 (10):  108-116.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.010
Abstract ( 16 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (754KB) ( 10 )  

Private education group is an important form of capital market and education industry combination, which has a profound influence on the healthy development of private education by effectively utilizing capital market. Private education groups engage two different industries (education and business) and its regulation and operation are facing many risks. Private education group supervision responsibility is not clear; the regulatory means are limited, and law enforcement is weak. Irregularities for profit weaken school legal person property rights, underrate public assets as well. Crossover cross-regional wanton expansion and multi-stakeholder bound would trigger a series of operational risk. Penetrating management of groups deprives member schools’ running autonomy. Listed private education groups control member schools to withdraw funds or conduct connected transactions through structured contracts. Equity financing may lead to barbarian acquisition and profit outflow of non-profit schools. Illegal borrowing and misappropriation of member schools’ funds and investment in non-educational industries may lead to capital chain fracture. International capital investment in private education groups and the establishment of a series of international schools may damage national education sovereignty. It is urgent to establish the governance system, prevent and control assets management risks, regulate excessive and illegal affiliate transactions, and take multiple measures simultaneously to ensure a smooth transition of listed private education group.

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Enlightenment via Pictures and Forging Citizens: An Analysis Focusing on Vulgar Pictorials in Late Qing
Huimei Zhou
2022, 40 (10):  117-126.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.011
Abstract ( 9 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1132KB) ( 4 )  

Reading was considered to be a graceful activity in traditional Chinese value. However, it gradually became an outdated opinion with the popularity of vulgar pictorials in late Qing. The appearance of vulgar pictorials in large amount, which imitated the models established by foreign pictorials as well as continued the Chinese tradition of left picture right historical narrative, and which was low in price but balanced entertainment and aesthetic, provided a knowledge warehouse for the populace (including females and children). Reading became part of the daily life of the populace who had little knowledge. The contents those vulgar pictorials presented, included not only the cultural images and interpretations articulated by the government and elites, but also the processed images and interpretations articulated by publishers and the authors who drew those pictures. The generalization of those vulgar pictorials provided the public opinions and practical experiences for the establishment of modern social education. The influence on the social value brought by those vulgar pictorials echoed to the cultural interaction between elite and populace.

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