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    20 February 2021, Volume 39 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    The Key to the Modernization of Vocational Education is to Improve the Basic National Institution of Vocational Education
    Guoqing Xu
    2021, 39 (2):  1-14.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.02.001
    Abstract ( 228 )   HTML ( 462 )   PDF (723KB) ( 344 )   Save

    To basically realize modernization by 2035 is an important strategic deployment made by the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. In order to achieve this goal, what is the most lacking for vocational education? What should be the focus of the next stage of development? How to develop? The analysis of the development process in the past 40 years and current situation of vocational education tells us that the key factor hindering our vocational education system to a higher level is the imperfection of the basic national institution of vocational education, so the development focus of vocational education in the next stage should be shifted from the construction of schools and colleges to the formation of the basic national institution. The demand of the development of vocational education in China for the national institution involves six levels: coordination level, structure level, demand level, content level, implementation level and evaluation level. The function of the national institution at the coordination level is to coordinate the management function of vocational education of relevant departments; the function of the national institution at the structural level is to link all components of vocational education into a system; the function of the national institution at the demand level is to provide demand information for the development of vocational education; the function of the national institution at the content level is to provide standard for the construction of vocational education curriculum; the function of the national institution at the implementation level is to guarantee the stable supply of the necessary conditions for the operation of vocational education; the function of the national institution of the evaluation level is to make an evaluation of the skill level with social credibility and to ensure its value of employment. The construction of the basic national institution of vocational education is difficult and need a long cycle, which requires a scientific design and long-term planning.

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    Karl Marx’s Thinking on Education: Construction Embedded in Emancipation of the Working Class
    Jianguo Zhang
    2021, 39 (2):  15-29.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.02.002
    Abstract ( 119 )   HTML ( 166 )   PDF (757KB) ( 255 )   Save

    Based on Richard S. Peters’ concept of education as criteria of value judgment and the evolution of educational values disclosed by Chen Gui-sheng, the paper explores the way Karl Marx thinks of education. His thinking of education is located in his evaluation of labor, fighting and instruction, the analysis of which indicates that Marx’s thinking is rooted in his construction of the working class’ emancipation. The author investigates into how educational values are embedded into Marx’s evaluation of three sorts of praxis above from the perspective of working class’ emancipation, and into the specialty of Marx’s thinking from the perspective of educational values. The analysis shows that it is impossible to master Marx’s educational thoughts without his theory of the working class’ emancipation, and that Marx values culture (“Bildung”) over the narrow-sense educational value, the imbalance of which may be relevant to the way Marx thinks of morality and the formation of moral characters.

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    To the Foundation and to the Future: Construct the Basis, Logic and Strategies of Discipline of Textbook
    Hongliang Yu
    2021, 39 (2):  30-39.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.02.003
    Abstract ( 140 )   HTML ( 159 )   PDF (726KB) ( 458 )   Save

    Discipline of textbook construction is the current pursuit of textbook history, theory and practice. Exploring the basis of constructing discipline of textbook, modern textbook research originated from New Education during the late Qing Dynasty when textbook discipline compilation began. It has accumulated over start-bloom period (1877—1919), diversity-dynamic period (1920—1948), regulation-uncertainty period (1949—1978) and recovery-prosperity period (1979 till now). Currently, discipline element, resource platform and operating mechanism, which support the independence of discipline of textbook, have improved. Broadening the logic of discipline of textbook construction, discipline of textbook is the supporting discipline of education, whose discipline features derive from the complexity and utterance controversy of textbook. Discipline of textbook involves researches on textbook phenomena and rules, which can classify textbook spectrum based on fundamentality, applicability, disciplinarity, intersectionality and comparability. With the distinct practical character, discipline of textbook informs textbook compilation, textbook teaching and textbook assessment, which are its core functions. Designing the strategies to develop discipline of textbook, it is necessary to promote problem domain transformation of textbook theory, establish methodology system of textbook research, excavate disciplinization path of textbook elaboration and enhance systematic guarantee of textbook compiling-research in the future.

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    On “Utilizing for Learning”:Teaching Epistemology for Competence Development
    Liang Zhang, Shengquan Luo
    2021, 39 (2):  40-49.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.02.004
    Abstract ( 172 )   HTML ( 417 )   PDF (660KB) ( 395 )   Save

    Inquiry into the teaching epistemology for competence development aims to clarify the relationship between knowledge and competence, and the epistemology principles and teaching mechanism of their transformation. Competence is the moral ability of using knowledge to solve complex problems, and this learning outcome is based on knowledge and beyond, and depends on the fact that learners could transfer and utilize knowledge morally in complex situation. The nature of competence is practice which implies the epistemological meaning of the unity of knowledge and action, intellect and morality. This implication demands that teaching epistemology should handle well with the integration between ‘learning’ and ‘utilizing’. Although traditional teaching epistemology consistently advocates ‘learning for utilizing’, clamped by the knowledge creed of firm belief in rationalism, it struggled with the dualism cruces including the time sequence view, instrumental theory and mechanism in dealing with the relationship between knowledge and action, ‘learning’ and ‘utilizing’. The crux of dualism not only split the inherent unity of ‘learning’ and ‘utilizing’, but made it difficult to ensure the practicality of learners’ learning outcomes. ‘Utilizing for learning’ adjusts the sequence between ‘learning’ and ‘utilizing’ and aims to re-evaluate the epistemology meaning of action and practice, so as to promote ‘learning for utilizing’. ‘Utilizing for learning’ as the practice-oriented teaching epistemology, not only outlines the teaching mechanism of turning knowledge into competence, but reflects the practical turn of modern and contemporary epistemology research, the newest development of learning science and the action-based epistemology tradition implied in Chinese culture.

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    The Policy Statements and the Fiscal Education Investment Efforts of Local Governments: An Empirical Study Based on City-Level Panel Data
    Jia Qian, Wanpeng Lei, Hongmei Ma
    2021, 39 (2):  50-60.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.02.005
    Abstract ( 103 )   HTML ( 137 )   PDF (1036KB) ( 311 )   Save

    Based on the 282-prefecture-city panel data from 2007 through 2016, this paper tests the overall impact and spatial distribution effect of the policy statements related to the fiscal education investment on the efforts of local governments by using FE estimates. Empirical results show that the education expenditure as a proportion of public fiscal spending or GDP, the growth rate of education expenditure and education expenditure per student have increased significantly when the key word “4%” is clearly stated in government working paper. The growth of education expenditure in public fiscal spending and the sequential growth of education expenditure within the county are both significantly lower than those in urban areas. The growth of the proportion of education expenditure in GDP and education expenditure per student within county areas are considerably higher than those in municipal districts. This study responds to the long-term mechanism establishment of fiscal education expenditure in the post-4% era and the integrated development of urban and rural education.

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    Characteristics of Different Teacher Groups’ Teaching Behavior Improvement Based on Experiential Learning Cycle
    Lu Wang, Ruxia Ma, Le Peng
    2021, 39 (2):  61-74.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.02.006
    Abstract ( 214 )   HTML ( 412 )   PDF (943KB) ( 323 )   Save

    Teaching behavior has a direct influence on the effectiveness of teaching. Improvement of teaching behavior is a dynamic process and has group characteristics. Based on the theory of experiential learning circle, this study focused on the continuous improvement of 71 teachers’ teaching behavior in two years. 350 classes of these teachers were studied by the method of content analysis, in order to investigate the characteristics of teaching behavior improvement of novice teacher group, competent teacher group and proficient teacher group. This study indicated that the two-year continuous teaching behavior improvement process based on the experiential learning circle made great achievements, and all three groups of teachers improved the openness of the question. The common difficulties in behavior improvement of three teacher groups are engaging students in discussion and encouraging students to ask questions. The improvement of teachers’ teaching behavior was not significant in the stages of reflective observation and abstract conceptualization in experiential learning cycle. The focus of the three groups of teachers’ teaching behavior improvement has notable difference. The teaching behavior and learning stage that is most difficult to make improvement for proficient teachers are different from that for novice teachers and competent teachers. Novice teachers and competent teachers have different difficulties in teaching behavior improvement. Besides, the stage that is most difficult to make improvement is the same for these two groups. The teaching behavior improvement characteristics of different teacher groups found in this research can optimize the teaching behavior improvement methods and strategies, provide theoretical foundation for more targeted services that support teaching behavior improvement, and enrich relevant research on teaching behavior improvement.

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    Farewell to Autonomy: American University Governance in the Age of Compliance
    Rong Yao
    2021, 39 (2):  75-88.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.02.007
    Abstract ( 147 )   HTML ( 147 )   PDF (745KB) ( 337 )   Save

    Traditionally, influenced by academic freedom, university autonomy and federalism, the US federal government has been less involved in higher education. In the second half of the 20th century, in the context of a revolutionary change in the relationship between academia and the legal world, the federal government began to actively participate in university governance based on four explicit or implied federal constitutional power forms related to education, including the right to expenditure, taxation, trade, and enforcement of civil rights. At present, American university governance has entered an era of compliance. The strengthening of federal higher education regulations not only promotes the protection of teachers and students' rights and the public interest, but also inevitably breeds a “compliance panic” and a crisis of teacher rights. In recent years, under the influence of a “spiral” compliance culture, the sources of compliance pressure for American universities have continued to increase. As one of the most widely regulated types of institutions, universities are often pulled into different, sometimes conflicting and irreconcilable directions. Now, through the reform of federal higher education regulations, the expansion of university compliance functions, and the re-definition of the role of university legal counsel, the relationship between the federal government and universities is being reshaped, which constitutes the latest trend of American university governance change in the era of compliance.

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    On the Shaping Modernization of University Academic Ability
    Liang Chen
    2021, 39 (2):  89-99.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.02.008
    Abstract ( 84 )   HTML ( 143 )   PDF (713KB) ( 248 )   Save

    The academic governance ability includes multiple factors such as the enthusiasm of the multi-stakeholder’s participation in the academic field practice of the university, the mode of participation, the design of the governance system, the responsibility division among the governance subjects, and the distribution of benefits. Improving the level of modernization of academic governance has become a comprehensive push in the governance of education and modernization. It includes academic understanding of the system goodwill, responsibility to read the force, execution, conflict resolution and innovation driving force. However, the university academic field under the real situation suffers from the confusion of the power and the lack of supply of the external legal system, which leads to the “pseudo-governance” dilemma of lower academic public governance ability. The realization of the modernization of academic governance needs to maintain the concept of good governance in a symbiotic environment with democratic contract, to shape the multi-center academic governance pattern, and to ensure that the process of academic governance can achieve the unity of good means and results.

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    The Effect of School Entrance Age on School Performance of Children and Adolescents in Compulsory Education
    Zhening Xu
    2021, 39 (2):  100-114.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.02.009
    Abstract ( 184 )   HTML ( 413 )   PDF (923KB) ( 463 )   Save

    In the stage of compulsory education, the actual school entrance age in the same school year is different due to the cut-off date for school admission. Based on the sample survey of primary and secondary school students in Shanghai, the effect of school entrance age on school performance was analyzed and the relative-age effect was discussed. The results showed that the relative-age effect in primary schools was significant, which gradually weakened or even disappeared after junior middle schools.But the school performance of summer-born children was more disadvantageous than those who were born in autumn from primary to the junior middle schools.The relative-age effect was significant on the academic achievement of both boys and girls, as well as on the social interaction of girls. Family resources can moderate the relative-age effect.

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    Regional Difference and Distribution Dynamics Evolution of Regular Senior Secondary School Education Funds in China: An Empirical Analysis Based on the Provincial Panel Data from 2005 to 2018
    Xuan Yu
    2021, 39 (2):  115-126.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.02.010
    Abstract ( 122 )   HTML ( 138 )   PDF (1188KB) ( 282 )   Save

    The national time series data and provincial panel data from 2005 to 2018 are used to analyze the regional difference and distribution dynamics evolution of regular senior secondary school education funds in China with Dagum gini coefficient and Kernel density estimation method. Results show that per-student educational funding of regular senior secondary school is characterized by significant spatial inequality. Spatial distribution of per-student educational funding of regular senior secondary school is decreasing, and the disparity among regions is the major source of overall inequality. The absolute difference in per-student educational funding of regular senior secondary school is widening and is characterized by bipolar or multipolar differentiation. It is imperative to improve and implement the per-student allocation system for regular senior secondary school education, strengthen the overall planning of provincial finance for regular senior secondary school education, and improve the transfer payment system of central finance, so as to promote the high-quality and balanced development of regular senior secondary school education.

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