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Table of Content

    01 May 2023, Volume 41 Issue 5 Previous Issue   
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    New Concepts and Trends in the Cultivation of International Elite Creative Talents
    Yong Zhao
    2023, 41 (5):  1-15.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.05.001
    Abstract ( 630 )   HTML ( 50 )   PDF (689KB) ( 565 )   Save

    Elite creative talents are wanted and sought after in every modern society as they seem to be the primary force that drives social and economic development. But cultivating elite creative talents can follow different approaches in different societies. This article provides a comprehensive review and analysis of current thinking and emerging issues in cultivating innovative, creative, and entrepreneurial talents. Primarily, the author finds the following. First, elite creative talents are not programmed and trained by early selection. Second, creativity is naturally born and everyone has the potential to become a creative elite. Third, creativity appears in different domains and must be based on solid knowledge and skills. Thus elite talents have their unique abilities and knowledge. Fourth, different society has different attitudes toward creative talents and thus different societies have different environments for cultivating creative talents. Fifth, opportunities and luck play significant roles in the development of creativity. It is therefore critical for individuals to have opportunities or create their own opportunities. Finally, creativity must be bounded by ethical and moral standards, which vary in different societies. But at least, the outcomes of creativity should not cause harm to others and the world.

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    An Empirical Study on the Development and Problems of Higher Education: Analysis Based on the National Higher Education Satisfaction Survey in 2021
    National Higher Education Satisfaction Survey Group
    2023, 41 (5):  16-25.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.05.002
    Abstract ( 336 )   HTML ( 33 )   PDF (705KB) ( 362 )   Save

    Higher education satisfaction survey not only reflects students’ satisfaction with the development of higher education, but also reflects the implementation of macro policies of higher education. In 2021, the Chinese Academy of Educational Sciences implemented the third round of national higher education satisfaction survey after 2016 and 2018. The survey found that the overall satisfaction of national higher education is steadily improving, especially in the aspects of ideological and political education, construction of teachers’ morality and style, information technology empowerment and educational environment, which has brought more and more satisfactory learning experience and gains to college students. However, the satisfaction with students’ innovative ability and quality, practical teaching opportunities, teachers’ teaching methods and professional identity is not high. Based on the above contents, from the perspective of improving satisfaction, the article puts forward suggestions on improving the effectiveness of innovative talent training, exploring new practical teaching models, building a dedicated teacher evaluation system, enhancing the social adaptability of talent training, and innovating the forms of international exchange and cooperation.

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    Higher Education and High-quality Economic Development: Mechanism, Path and Contribution
    Haigang Huang, Siqi Wu, Yue Qu
    2023, 41 (5):  26-40.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.05.003
    Abstract ( 512 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (1041KB) ( 515 )   Save

    To build a modern socialist country in all respects, we must, first and foremost, pursue high-quality development. Improving the role and efficiency of higher education in high-quality economic development is not only an important task to implement the spirit of the Twentieth National Congress of the Communist Party of China in the field of education, but also a proper meaning to accelerate the construction of high-quality education system. Based on panel data of 31 provinces in China from 2000 to 2019, this paper analyzes the contribution of higher education to high-quality economic development and its realization mechanism based on the transmission chain of “higher education-human capital, technology, industry-high-quality economic development” by building the direct effect, indirect effect and complementary effect models of higher education. The research shows that higher education has a positive contribution to high-quality economic development, and this economic effect shows significant regional heterogeneity. The contribution of higher education to economic quality is in the order of western region, central region and eastern region from large to small. Factors such as diminishing marginal return of human capital investment, industrial transfer and education policy support jointly promote the strong role of higher education in improving quality and efficiency in the economic development of central and western regions. Further mechanism inspection found that higher education could promote high-quality economic development through multi-dimensional paths such as human capital accumulation, promoting technological innovation and giving play to the complementary effect with industrial structure.

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    Research on the Quality Structure and Influencing Factors of High-level Talents in the Field of Philosophy and Social Sciences
    Min Zhang
    2023, 41 (5):  41-52.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.05.004
    Abstract ( 240 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (1034KB) ( 257 )   Save

    High-level talents in the field of philosophy and social sciences generally have profound love for motherland, a strong sense of social responsibility, and clear academic aspirations. Knowledge structure, ability to interpret and construct, and openness and inclusiveness are relatively unique characteristics of knowledge, capability, and personality of high-level talents in the field of philosophy and social sciences, whose growth depends on social needs, governmental support, organizational cultivation, academic environment, and important others, in which social needs and organizational cultivation are unique important environment elements. Personal factors include ideological and political quality, value pursuit, personal efforts, ability, and growth experience, in which political quality and value pursuit are unique important personal elements. Stepping into the new era, for the purpose of cultivating those talents, it is necessary to raise their ideological standing position, improve the discipline system designed for their growth, and stimulate their lofty ideals, academic interest and social responsibility.

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    To Enter “The Second Half” Reform:The Theoretical Framework of University Governance Capability and Its Produced HEIs
    Zhimin Luo, Chunlian Chen
    2023, 41 (5):  53-64.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.05.005
    Abstract ( 164 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (1058KB) ( 184 )   Save

    Universities with the same governance system, structure or system have world-wide differences in governance performance levels, which often stem from differentiated governance capabilities. Under the current development situation, turning to the research of governance capabilities can not only break through and make up for the barriers and the shortcomings of “absence of ability” in existing related research, but also cater to the needs of the university governance modernization reform moving into “the second half ” in China. Based on the perspective of factors-resources, university governance capabilities are, in essence, a comprehensive reflection of the university’s influence, control, and effects in the process of allocating various factors it possesses. expressed as the amount of resources that can be produced. In the production of university governance capacity, HEIs undertake the intermediary role from “potential” (element) to “manifestation” (resource). The allocation of relevant elements by HEIs should be the allocation of the maximum governance effect under the existing time and space conditions, and form a virtuous governance cycle of utilization and exploration of elements. In terms of specific configuration methods, HEIs should adopt or comprehensively adopt corresponding configuration methods according to the characteristics of the elements, so as to continuously produce and reproduce the resources required for the development of the university.

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    The Role of State and the Image of University: A Comparative Study of International Governance Reform of Higher Education
    Rong Yao
    2023, 41 (5):  65-83.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.05.006
    Abstract ( 256 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (891KB) ( 367 )   Save

    The classical theory of university autonomy aims at clarifying the scope and boundary of state supervision on university autonomy through the legal and even constitutional guarantee of university autonomy. With the coming era of governance, the relationship between state and university has been changing from legal decentralization to functional decentralization. In continental European countries, the emergence of the evaluative state which aims at the unification of university autonomy and responsibility provides more systematic guidance and guarantee for the increase of university corporation’s ability to fulfill responsibility. In Anglo-American countries, the rise of the regulatory state in the field of higher education induces or forces universities to strengthen the prevention and management of compliance risks, improve the self-regulatory system of universities, and enhance their ability of achieving good governance through good law. The modernization of China’s higher education governance system and governance capacity should draw on the governance wisdom of the evaluative state and the regulatory state, and coordinate the two reform approaches of prescriptivism and functionalism, so as to realize the synergistic improvement of the government’s law-based and effective supervision ability and universities’ law-based and effective governance ability.

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    Are Women No Inferior to Men: A Study on Gender Differences of Engineering Doctors in Elite Academic Positions
    Ying Zhao, Wenqin Shen, Jun Zhu, Haotian Xu
    2023, 41 (5):  84-97.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.05.007
    Abstract ( 264 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (2034KB) ( 220 )   Save

    With the continuous improvement of women’s education, women in the scientific circles have become an important force in scientific research and innovation, but the low proportion of female teachers in universities, especially in science and engineering in research universities, is still a prominent problem. This paper focuses on the employment of engineering doctors in the academic career pipeline, and tries to analyze the gender differences in the acquisition of elite academic positions. The study found that the vast majority of female doctors are willing to continue to engage in academic careers, and from the employment results, there is no statistically significant difference in the probability of male and female doctors obtaining academic posts, but the probability of women obtaining elite academic posts (formerly 211 universities and Chinese Academy of Sciences) is 30% lower than that of men. Further, according to the Oacaxa-blinder decomposition, the probability of male doctors obtaining elite academic positions is 11% higher than that of female doctors, and almost 100% are classified as “the unexplainable part of the model”. In combination with this questionnaire, 60% of female doctors believe that they have been treated with gender discrimination in the process of employment. We can cautiously infer that gender discrimination in the process of employment still exists in a way that is difficult to observe.

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    The Influence of Teacher Care on the Development of Rural Children’s Non-cognitive Ability: Analysis of the Mechanism of Co-education in Home and Schools
    Xiaomei Ye, Xiaojie Cao
    2023, 41 (5):  98-112.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.05.008
    Abstract ( 332 )   HTML ( 33 )   PDF (1060KB) ( 441 )   Save

    Based on the data of the China Education Panal Survey (CEPS), this paper analyzes the influence of teacher care on the development of non-cognitive ability of rural children and its mechanism from the perspective of home-school co-education by regression analysis and KHB intermediary effect test. According to the conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness and extraversion under the framework of the Big Five personality theory to measure non-cognitive ability, the study found that the subjective teacher care can significantly improve the development of non-cognitive ability of rural children, and the objective teacher care can have a differentiated effect on the non-cognitive ability of rural children. Specifically, teachers’ learning care has a significant positive effect on rural children’s extroversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness, and significantly improves their neuroticism. Teacher’s psychological care can significantly improve the agreeableness and conscientiousness of rural children, and teachers’ dating care can significantly improve the rural children’s extroversion and openness. We also found that teacher care will affect the non-cognitive ability of rural children by the improvement of parenting. This mechanism is achieved through the parents’ response and demander to the children, and compared with the parents’ demander, the contribution of parents’ response to the needs of their children is greater.

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    The Vicissitude of Zoning of Higher Normal Education
    Liyong Zhang
    2023, 41 (5):  113-126.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.05.009
    Abstract ( 235 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF (870KB) ( 332 )   Save

    To save the nation from crisis and achieve the goal of universal education, ‘training teachers in higher normal schools’ was chosen by the late Qing Government. This model continued in the early Republic of China and later was improved by implementing ‘Zoning of Higher Normal Education’ with the establishment of six higher normal schools. Things changed soon and ‘training teachers in universities’ seemed more favored by the elites. Continuing debates emerged at both official and folk conferences. In the subsequent movement of promotion to universities, several higher normal schools were transformed to comprehensive universities. With less normal schools to supply qualified teachers, there left hidden troubles in the development of secondary education. Only Peking Higher Normal School remained its tradition of normal education, but it suffered from several tempests and was considered to be superfluous by some scholars. During the Anti-Japanese War, referring to the Zoning system, six normal colleges were established, which manifested the value of higher normal education and the Zoning system. Due to domestic trouble and foreign invasion, it was until the founding of People’s Republic of China that normal education institutions were eventually set up separately rather than affiliated to universities. The vicissitudes of ‘Zoning of Higher Normal Education’ is of some reference meaning to current training of teachers.

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