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    20 May 2020, Volume 38 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Educating Students for Their Future, Rather than Our Past
    Andreas Schleicher
    2020, 38 (5):  1-21.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.05.001
    Abstract ( 472 )   HTML ( 625 )   PDF (1145KB) ( 575 )   Save
    This chapter reviews some of the changes in the demand for knowledge and skills that are placed on young people to be successful in their future, and then examines what this entails for teaching, teachers and the work organisation in education. The chapter also acknowledges that the laws, regulations, structures and institutions on which educational leaders tend to focus are just like the small visible tip of an iceberg. The reason why it is so hard to move school systems is that there is a much larger invisible part under the waterline. This invisible part is about the interests, beliefs, motivations and fears of the people who are involved in education, parents and teachers included. To address this, the final part of the chapter examines issues around the political economy of changes in education to facilitate this, including incentives to encourage innovation and the need to redesign assessment.
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    New Findings in Reading Literacy Assessment among Students in the Four Provinces/Municipalities of China in PISA 2018
    Chen Chunjin
    2020, 38 (5):  22-62.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.05.002
    Abstract ( 543 )   HTML ( 420 )   PDF (5176KB) ( 616 )   Save
    Adolescents’ reading literacy is affected by both ascribed and self-achieved characteristics,while the research on the heterogeneity effects of the ascribed and self-achieved factors is insufficient. Based on the data from Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in the four provinces/municipalities of Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang in 2018, this paper used the methods of Shapley value decomposition, quantile regression model, and structural equation model, aimed to examine the impact of ascribed and self-achieved factors on students’ reading literacy. The study finds that: (1) the effect of ascribed factors on the students’ reading literacy is significantly lower than the self-achieved factors. Using effective reading meta-cognitive strategies, keeping positive self-expectations and strong enjoyment of reading are the key elements of higher reading performance of students in the four provinces/municipalities of China. (2) The impact of family background on students’ reading literacy is heterogeneous at different stages of education, different types of schools, and different regions. (3) Self-achieved factors such as meta-cognitive strategies and reading enjoyment are more significant for students’ reading performance in upper secondary level, vocational schools, and rural areas. (4) The effects of family background on students’ reading literacy in different quantiles is lower at both ends and higher at the middle, especially for students in the 50th quantile who have the greatest influence on reading literacy. (5) Compared to understanding and remembering strategies and summarizing strategies, assess credibility strategies had a higher positive effect on students’ reading literacy in low quantiles. (6) Obsessed with digital reading or paranoid about printed reading is not the most effective reading habit. Read books equally often in paper format and on digital devices were more conducive to improving students’ reading literacy, and significantly reduced the effects of family background. These findings indicate that the key to improving adolescents’ reading literacy lies in cultivating adolescents to grasp diversified meta-cognitive strategies, strengthen the construction of communities with home-school cooperation, and promote the deep integration of digital reading and printed reading.
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    Learning Beyond School Walls in Times of Inequality
    Yang Po
    2020, 38 (5):  63-77.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.05.003
    Abstract ( 280 )   HTML ( 141 )   PDF (1044KB) ( 490 )   Save
    Against the background of the parallel development of economic inequality, equalization of compulsory education, and growth of online technology, private tutoring enters a new era, characterized by extensive and intensive household participation. It has gradually transformed into a new form of out-of-school learning, provided by the government and the market. Such learning activities are governed by micro-, meso-, and macro-level factors. There are three new trends in this field. First, the equalization policy for basic education and the stratification strategy for tertiary education have jointly pushed the basic education competition out of the school wall. Second, income inequality forces parents to increase their time and financial inputs, and thus the intensive parenting spreads out globally. Third, internet technology removes household’s barriers to participate in after-school learning, and increase their choice. The interactions among the policy, the culture, and the technology facilitate the institutionalization of learning beyond school walls. One significant consequence of such transformation is that the low-level equilibrium, characterized by high within school competition, low outside-school competition, and low-level private tutoring, is replaced by a new high-level equilibrium, characterized by low within school competition, high outside-school competition, and high-level private tutoring. In the post-tutoring era, learning beyond school walls is turning into a major instrument for social mobility and stratification. As such, the government needs to adjust its understanding and take the responsibility of closing the class divide in out-of-school learning opportunities.
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    Online Tutoring or Offline Tutoring: Evidence from Family Decisions on Private Tutoring
    Tang Rongrong
    2020, 38 (5):  78-92.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.05.004
    Abstract ( 312 )   HTML ( 140 )   PDF (791KB) ( 361 )   Save
    Today, with the institutionalization of shadow education, it is common for pupils to attend supplementary lessons, but the existing literature lacks discussion on the forms of tutoring. This article focuses on famil’s choice of the forms of tutoring, trying to explore the relationship between online tutoring and offline tutoring. The analysis of China Family Online Tutoring Survey conducted by CIEFR in 2018 indicates that, on the one hand, online tutoring and offline tutoring, as supplementary education choices, are subjected to parent’ education levels and expectations. On the other hand, some factors with significant impact on offline tutoring have no significant effect on online tutoring, mainly in terms of distance and income. This reflects the fact that online tutoring can reduce transportation costs and search costs, thereby lowering the threshold of household tutoring consumption and making the distribution of educational resources less uneven. Further analysis shows that, pupils participating in offline tutoring are more likely to attend online tutoring as well, both from a financial-constraint and a demand-satisfaction perspective. In other words, when parents make their tutoring decisions, they do not choose between offline and online . Instead, they choose both, which confirms the popularization of private tutoring.
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    Does Private Tutoring Help High School Students Gain Higher Education Opportunity?
    Xue Haiping, Zhao Yang
    2020, 38 (5):  93-102.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.05.005
    Abstract ( 380 )   HTML ( 139 )   PDF (792KB) ( 307 )   Save
    Based on the four-year mixed cross-section data of the Peking University Chinese Family Tracking Survey in 2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016, a structural equation model was used to test the intermediary effect of private tutoring and the quality of general high schools between family capital and higher education opportunities. The findings show that: (1) participating in private tutoring can help high school students get into college, but it cannot help them to further into undergraduate colleges; studying in general high schools with high teaching quality can help high school students go to college and get into undergraduate college; (2) high school students’ participation in private tutoring and school quality differences play a part of the intermediary role between family capital and whether they are admitted to university. The intermediary role of participating in private tutoring is slightly greater than that of school quality differences; The difference in school quality between general high schools played an intermediary role between family capital and whether they were promoted to undergraduate colleges, while private tutoring did not play an intermediary role between family capital and whether they were promoted to undergraduate colleges.
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    In-school or Out-of-school: Household Spending on Children’s Basic Education in China
    Wei Yi
    2020, 38 (5):  103-116.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.05.006
    Abstract ( 543 )   HTML ( 127 )   PDF (738KB) ( 962 )   Save
    Using national data from 2017 CIEFR-HS, we first examine the full cost of household expenditure on children’s education and the structure of in-school and out-of-school education expenditure. Second, we take advantage of the detailed information about household education expenditures, including those that occurred within and outside schools, to examine how families’ marginal propensity to spend on education-related items and activities varies across household income, mother’s education level, and residency groups. On average, families spend over 10000 yuan on education per student per academic year, covering about 16% of annual household consumption. About one-third of the household spending on education is spent outside school. The analysis of the marginal propensity to spend on education shows that families with higher income, families with better educated mothers, families with only one girl, and families with urban hukou tend to increase their spending on education when the total household consumption increases, especially on in-school developmental spending and private supplementary education. In conclusion, the level and structure of in-school and out-of-school spending for children from different families have become more stratified.
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    Textual Research and Explanation of “Textbook”
    Wu Xiao'ou
    2020, 38 (5):  117-126.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2020.05.007
    Abstract ( 366 )   HTML ( 112 )   PDF (769KB) ( 473 )   Save
    In 1866, ‘text-book’ was first introduced into China in the English and Chinese Dictionary edited by a German missionary Wilhelm Lobscheid, but it was not translated to ‘Jiaokeshu’. The Chinese word ‘Jiaokeshu’ appeared in the Meiji Restoration period of Japan and was introduced to China by Huang Zunxian in the Annals of Japan in 1887. In 1896, Kang Youwei listed 59 textbooks in the Bibliography of Japan. In 1899, Bai Zuolin, a normal university student of Nanyang Mission College, wrote an article named Advice on Compiling Textbooks. At the beginning of the 20th century, textbooks became the major concern of China’s educational reform. Luo Zhenyu, Xia Xiefu, Yan Fu, Zhang Zhidong, and others held a special discussion on textbook system and its implementation. A series of folk textbooks were published. In 1904, a textbook review and approval system was established. The popularity of the word ‘Jiaokeshu’ in China is a sign of cultural progress, which highlights the value and growing space of modern education. ‘Jiao’ emphasizes the method, order and volumn of teaching, ‘Ke’ stresses the classification, system and arrangement of knowledge, and ‘Shu’ clarifies the style, norms and copyright of compilation. ‘Jiaokeshu’, as a conceptual tool and ideological resource, determines the logical relation of the essence by its literal meaning. It sets a clear boundary, norm and framework for modern education. It has also laid down a new ‘cultural infrastructure’ for Chinese society and become the keyword of modern China’s enlightenment.
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