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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences) 2016 Vol.34
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    The Concept and Essence of Core Competency
    CHU Hong-Qi, CUI Yun-Huo, XIN Tao, ZHANG Hua, SHI ou, YU Wen-Sen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (1): 1-13.  
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    The Morality of Competition and its Expansion in Education
    GAO De-Sheng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (1): 14-23.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.01.002
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         Today competition is around us anywhere and anytime. Viewed from its origin, education has nothing to do with competition based on winning or losing. The original education was the result of leisure, while modern education is based on the logic of competition. Modern education is combined with competition, but education researchers keep a blind eye to the research of competition. This indifference should be examined and competition should be included in the field of education research.      Competition has its own functions in its particular ways and ranges. It’s elusive and tends to be pervasive in all human activities. Moreover, it’s kind of a demonic evil, and its first rule “every man for himself” inherently implies the exclusion of others. A demonic evil implies that competition is an evil. However, the demonic evil is not absolute, there is good elements in it. Competition, as a demonic evil, can stimulate humans to cooperate, though it can also disseminate selfishness and moral indifference. Living in a world of competition, people tend to sacrifice everything just for winning. As a result, people can tolerate and even do something beyond human bottom line. Competition is so cunning that humans cannot see its true colors.       Today, education and competition are intertwined with each other. Modern education is totally competitive, as can be observed either from its motivation, organizational conditions and its internal structures, or from its operating modes, evaluation standards and its spirits. Modern education is hunted by competition. If ancient education was for spiritual promotion, then modern education is totally for survival. Modern education is basically delivered by government schools. The government attempts to promote its international competitiveness by controlling education. The competition of modern education is structured, and is controlled by the government system to an extreme degree. Test scores become the main and only standard of competition. Another characteristic of competitionfocused education is that competition has become a culture of education.       What competition has conveyed through education institutions is nothing but selfishness and moral indifference. Competition involves everything about interpersonal relationships, representing the instrumentality of learning and humans. From the perspective of education’s sustainability and humanity, it’s imperative to get rid of the appendage of competition in education.
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    Beyond Living a Good Life:Reforming Moral Education Textbooks in Primary Schools
    SUN Cai-Ping,ZHAO Wei-Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (1): 24-30.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.01.003
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           The year 2002 marked a radical reform in both the theory and practice of China’s moral education over the past few decades. Rather than a state mechanism for ideological indoctrination, the new moral education is expected to return to children’s real life world. And the moral education textbooks compiled since then have witnessed a progressive outlook. The content selection is based upon children’s real life events and moral dilemmas therewith, and a new agenda is in place to help children learn how to live a good and ethical life both at present and in the future.          Helping children live a good and ethical life is a noble goal of moral education in China. However, a closer review of the textbooks used in the past 12 years shows that such a lofty goal indeed registers some ethical concerns as possibly expressed in the textbook design of certain topics and in some real classroom teaching and learning. Such ethical concerns can be discerned at three layers. First is an ethical positioning that tends to play up the Iness of children themselves, meanwhile depreciating others, whether it be other human beings, material things, or the natural world. Second is an instrumental and technological view of what a good life is. Moral education becomes the training of life skills and a good life is attainable through obtaining those skills. Third is a lopsided understanding of ethos as vulgarized utilitarianism, relating to both the environmental world and interpersonal relationships. With that, the Iness of children is to take advantage of others and the natural world for its own benefit. What is neglected is a healthy ecology wherein human beings codwell harmoniously among themselves and with the natural world.       Based on the analysis of the above ethical concerns, this paper attempts to explore four new efforts beyond living a good life. First is a rethinking of the true meaning of moral education. It argues that the key tone and contour of living a good life does not lie in a simple juxtaposition of subject knowledge, life skills, and the ideas of good life. Rather, it rests with a practical wisdom that integrates perception, knowledge, feelings, and life strategies. Second is a reconceptualization of a human subjects not as an independent subject in its modern sense but as a cobeing in the traditional Chinese Daoist sense. According to the classical Chinese philosophy of Unity of Man and Nature(Tianrenheyi), human beings are just one element/being within the entire natural world that is composed of myriads of beings, including plants and animals. With such philosophy, human beings are supposed to codwell with and corespond to the natural world harmoniously, instead of availing of the latter as a resource. The third lies in an ethical attitude that aims to replace the nearsighted, albeit dominant utilitarian and technological viewpoint in the current world. With such an ethical view, moral education is to guide children into reliving some historical and cultural contexts for a deeper understanding of the meaning as an individual. Last is for children to recultivate a sense of culture, history, and cobeing in their daily life activities.         It should be noted that all the above new efforts are to complement and supplement, not to negate China’s progressive moral education reform in the past 12 years, in order to develop our children into real ethical citizens in the future.
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    Modernity-oriented Transformation and its Ethical Risks in China’s Moral Education
    FAN Gai-Xia
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (1): 31-38.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.01.004
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    Over the last one hundred years, education researchers have been interested in the modernity of moral education. Through the normative research, this article discusses the three modernity-oriented transformations China’s moral education has experienced under the wave of modernity. The first transformation, triggered by "moral revolution", not only changed the nature of the moral education, but also the content of moral education. Since then, moral education in China gradually shifted from content acquisition and filial piety towards freedom, equality and democracy. The second transformation was caused by the socialist moral reconstruction. In the process, political purpose served as the primary pursuit of moral education and moral education tended to be politicized. Industrial and commercial ethics reform led to the third transformation. Moral education was not only controlled by political education, but also by generalization of the ideological education and psychological health education, democracy and legal system education, atheism education, adolescent education, etc. Moral education acted as a tool. The three transformations have made the moral education in China rather pan-political and instrumental. To improve the modernity of moral education, this study proposes a critique of modernity. It argues that modernity is still an unfinished programme, so the project of moral education modernity in Chinas needs to undergo internal criticism and correction. On the one hand, it’s important to recognize the established basic values of modern moral education; on the other hand, it’s necessary to keep a constant criticism of the tendency of being pan-political and instrumental in the transformation of modern moral education.
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    The Debating Characteristic of Human Mind and its Cultivation
    GU Er-Huo
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (1): 38-44.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.01.005
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          Debating is a common phenomenon throughout educational history in both China and abroad. The world history witnessed largescale debating ideological trends in ancient Greece, India and China respectively, and there emerged three major debating academic systems across the world, i.e. logistics in ancient Greece, Yinming Reasoning in ancient India, logic and argumentology in ancient China. Why is debating so popular in human history? What is the relationship between debating and human thinking? What does debating mean for education, and how can the ideas and methods of debating enhance educational quality? The article attempts to explore the connection between the debatingcharacterized human life and its correlation with education. Then it discusses the link between debating and thinking, involving the rudimentary issue of mental development in cognitive games. The findings show that from the point view of the link between debating and thinking, human mind has the characteristic of debating. In terms of the realistic life, human thinking is a process of cognitive game of inherent dialectic. Besides, not only is the speed of thinking improved, but also the quality is enhanced through debating. The essence of education is to develop the minds, and the minds characterized by debating can be completely developed through the dialogue education. As an educational construct, debating is an important approach to understanding oneself and the world. Dialogue is the realistic negotiation of meaning between different thoughts as well as the search for truth and selfrecognition. Education through dialogue means that there is no fixed educational models, and both the learners and the teachers can think freely; and the teaching aim to stimulate students’awareness of inquiry. This educational method aims to arouse students’internal potential to discover the answers, instead of imposing answers by teachers. In the context of accelerating Big Data Age, the MOOC and the Flipped Classroom provide important external conditions for dialogue education. In the traditional classroom, teachers tend to teach new lessons in the classroom, and students are required do homework at home. But in the Flipped Class, the location of both home and school has been changed. All the teachers and students can communicate with each other, do their work, and solve problems together in the classroom.       In order to cultivate the debating mind,the article suggests that the learners should dialogue with “text” before class, dialogue with “others” in class, and dialogue with “themselves” after class. The process involves feeling, expressing and understanding. Understanding before you have to express, expressing before you have to feel, especially to feel the important things. But the feeling comes from meaningful experience, and the expressing need courage, especially open expressing. In addition, understanding requires curiosity, imagine and logic. It is noteworthy that dialogue with “text” before class is the precondition of dialogue education practice. This is an important approach to building “knowledge base” through indirect experience.Dialogue with “others” in class is the key of dialogue education practice. It is a process through encouraging learners to communicate with different “others” and form “inquiry groups”. There are two important moral qualities involving dialogue with “others”: good at listening to “others” and questioning “others”. Dialogue with “themselves” after class is the purpose of dialogue education practice. This is a process of facilitating learners to write, selfreflect, selfdigest, and to form proper knowledge structures.
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    Knowledge Mapping: a New Technique of Visualization Research on Educational Literature
    GUO Wen-Bin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (1): 45-50.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.01.006
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    In an era of knowledge explosion and global digitization, educational literature is presented in a massive way. At the same time, its content and themes are changing rapidly. Using the traditional methods of educational literature processing, it’s hard to study such massive and varied educational literature objectively and capture the characteristics of its development. Therefore, it’s essential for today’s educational researchers to know how to handle such massive information objectively, effectively and scientifically generated by the digital age and generate new knowledge that can be shared by others. This study aims to help educational researchers to translate abstract information into visual information through computers and improve their ability of identifying abstract information. It not only offers a detailed introduction of the principles of knowledge mapping, the drawing processes and related considerations, but also gives an example to demonstrate the process of educational literature content visualization. First, master's and doctor's thesis from CNKI database are selected; second, distance education is specified as a search topic. Then, using Bicomb 2.0 and SPSS20 as the tools of knowledge mapping, it extracts high frequency keywords and sets up the co-word matrix of high frequency key words, conducts cluster analysis and multi-dimension analysis of high frequency key words and draws out the knowledge mapping of high frequency key words. Finally, it presents the results graph of literature content visualization and an explanation of the research field distribution. The findings show that, as an educational literature content visualization, knowledge mapping is a relatively new method of scientific analysis. Knowledge mapping helps to reveal the converging point of educational research frontier through visual images as well as the whole picture of educational researches at the macro, meso and micro level. It can help educational researchers to overview the structure and research focus of educational researches in general. Also, through information visualization, knowledge mapping combines quantitative research with qualitative research to study educational literature, thus greatly enhancing the quality of educational literature research and providing effective technical support for an in-depth interpretation of massive educational literature.
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    Teachers’ Knowledge:A Perspective of Divided Knowledge
    LIU Xu-Dong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (1): 51-56.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.01.007
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    The teacher’s teaching behavior depends on his or her given knowledge, so understanding the teacher’s knowledge is the key to accurately grasping the connotation of teacher professional development and promoting the development. Different views of knowledge can lead to quite different understanding of teacher’s work as well as varied approaches to teacher professional development. Teaching is a practical profession under specific situations, so a teacher needs to cope with the ever-changing situations and adjusts his practical strategies accordingly. It is tough for a teacher to do so by means of fixed thinking and behavioral patterns rather than the generative knowledge. Unexpected accidental events in teaching situations mean that nobody can make a careful plan and act accordingly perfectly. How to respond to the changing teaching situations necessitates the condensed knowledge which is distinctively comprehensive. According to Hayek’s divided knowledge, a teacher’s knowledge is situational, individual and implicit, and such rich personal knowledge is potentially creative, helping the teacher perform his professional duties under specific teaching situations. Based on the nature of teacher’s knowledge, teacher education reform should respect the unique value of each teacher’s personal knowledge and focus on their original thinking of the phenomena and solutions to the problems through the innovation of ideas and systems. This will help to construct an order which is generated spontaneously and corresponding to different working situations, so that each teacher, encouraged by the system, can develop their wisdom and talent. Meanwhile, spontaneity in the culture and system should be respected as well. The value orientation of school systems and culture construction should promote more barrier-free communication, provide more opportunities for exchanges and dialogues among teachers. Finally, the mode of teacher education should be further innovated.
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    The Pendulum Vibration and Interventional Transformation: Rethinking Teacher Development Theory and Teaching Practice
    CHENG Liang-Hong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (1): 57-61.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.01.008
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    Teaching practice and the related educational theory are two important factors in teacher development, and their relationship has been a major concern. Some discussions on the relationship focus on the problem of pendulum vibration swinging to theory preference or practice preference, which has long been a resistance to teacher development, hence the practical doctrines and the theoretic doctrines in teacher development. According to the practical doctrines, teacher development mainly relies on the accumulation of individual experiences and learning from others. Only in this way can a teacher make proper decision to ensure the smooth process of educational activity;thus teacher development is a bottom–up way and practice preference. On the other hand, according to the theoretic doctrines, teacher development is a reflective action originating from a living subsistence. Under the constraints of his individual knowledge organization, daily focuses and thinking habits, it’s so hard for a teacher to create a universal development theory that he has to turn to educational theorist’s guidance to overcome the shortcomings of his experiences. In the long-standing conflict between “practical experience line” and “theoretic guidance line”, there appears in teacher development the phenomenon of pendulum swing. At times when the theoretic guidance line is prevailing, teaching practice tends to be underestimated by the educational theorists, causing the lack of subjectivity and agency in teacher development. Then, the values of teachers’ practical experience are reexamined and refocused, and the theoretic guidance line could be reconstructed and surpassed. And the line of education theory preference gradually swings to the line practical experience preference. Studies show that the pendulum swing between practical experience and educational theory has caused the blind theoretical privilege or theoretical inferiority and submissive to the practice among educational theorists. This could lead to teachers’ disorientation or resistance to the educational theory and turn to his experiences. So, it’s necessary to reexamine the relationship between educational theory and practical experience, which will help improve teacher development. In this article, the author argues that nowadays if the educational theorists expect educational theories to play an effective role in teacher’s practice, they must engage themselves in teachers’ practical life, and generate new educational theories on the base of respect and understanding of teachers’ practice. On the other hand, if teachers want to seek a better professional development, they must intervene in theorist’s theoretical life, and by learning educational theories and the reconstruction of practical theory, they can improve their theoretical practice.
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    Gender Differences in Education Quality and Equity for Floating Children:A Case Study of Shanghai Primary Schools
    ZHANG Dan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (1): 62-68.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.01.009
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    Nowadays promoting equity is one of the fundamental values of China’s educational policies. However, the issue of gender equity, especially gender differences in education, is still overlooked by national policies and school education, particularly for the group of floating children in urban primary schools. What is the status quo of the gender differences of floating children in schools today? Will the floating children influence the local classes in gender difference when they attend urban schools in megalopolis like Shanghai? And how? Does the group of floating children vary the same ways in gender difference as in social stratification? Is this gender difference relevant to the variation of school quality or school locations? Why is there the learning difference between boys and girls, etc? Based on the five dimensions of education quality by UNESCO (Learner, Environments, Content, Processes and Outcomes), we try to use learning process to explore and analyze the status quo of gender difference in Shanghai primary schools today, and then attempt to explain why the gender gap is so great in school education for the floating population in Shanghai urban primary schools. We selected ten primary schools in four different districts in Shanghai. Some schools are located in the city center, while others in the outskirt. We interviewed 55 teacher s (including 36 female teachers and 19 male teachers) and conducted class observations (100 lessons in all) in seven schools. In the process of data collection, using Nvivo 9 and with the interviewees’ permission, we recorded, decoded and analyzed all the data. Our findings show that the participation of floating children has influenced the local classes, especially on gender percentage in the schools and classes which more floating children attend. The percentage of the boys is bigger than that of the girls, especially for the families of floating workers. Also, the gender divide between boys and girls is big, as is reflected in student performance in class, teacher-student relationship, etc. When we try to explain the differences, we find that the traditional and patriarchal thought is still popular, especially in the families of floating children today. This patriarchal culture has solidified the social division of gender role first in family, then in school education it is reinforced and even reproduced through teacher-student interaction in the classroom. Thereby the processes of education seem to have widened the gender differences and even gender gap in terms of students’ classroom behavior and academic performance. Finally, we suggest some solutions to narrow the gap, such as raising the parents’ awareness of their children’s education, improving the home-school collaborations, as well as effective measures taken by schools.
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    Looking back and ahead: Research on Gender Gap in China’s College Entrance Examination Scores
    SHAO Zhi-Fang,PANG Wei-Guo
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (1): 69-75.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.01.010
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    Published data from the Ministry of Education of China show that more female students than male students in Mainland China passed the college entrance examination. In 2013, the female-male ratio of college admission rose up to 55:45. As a result, the percentage of female graduate students reached 51.65%, and that of female undergraduate students reached 52.12%. Meanwhile, the percentage of female students in high schools is less than 50%. Such a situation might be considered as a sign of development of China, as it happened in many developed countries earlier. But its potential consequences should be studied. The gender gap in college entrance examination scores might lead to the increase of the number of female students in high education institutions. Meanwhile, this gender gap might be widened under the proposed reform of National College Entrance Exam (NCEE), where students would take only three subjects (mathematics, Chinese and Foreign Language). Female students are better at the latter two than male students. As a response to this situation, some people even propose to “save the boys.” The present article reviews some recent major studies on the gender gap in college entrance examination scores from multiple perspectives: the gender gap in college entrance examination scores and of subject (Mathematics, Chinese, and Foreign Language) scores; the gender gaps in subfields of a given subject; the gender differences in cognitive goals and the causes of these gaps. This review reveals that in general there exists an academic gender gap in college entrance examination. Some studies show that the gender difference is not significant in mathematics, whereas females perform significantly better than males in Chinese and English. Subfields of a given subject might have different modes of gender gap: some may be positive (males better than females), whereas others negative. The gender gap influences the university admission ratio of males to females. Competing results are found due to the complicated influential factors, including psycho-traits, behavioral and emotional differences. Although some studies propose that gender differences in most psycho-traits were very small, they also point out that men are better at science, mechanical reasoning and spatial ability, while women are better at language, perception and arithmetic. Gender gap also takes the form of behavioral or emotional differences when students are coping with their learning and tests. Other factors involve motivation, anxiety, personal traits, social economic status, self-concept level, cognitive self-regulation, locus of control, competitiveness of test situation, and type of schools. Females can get more offers when they submit their applications after learning their exact NCEE scores. In conclusion, this article poses a number of problems to be solved. For example, is it necessary for NCEE to measure or even reduce the gender gap? How to manipulate the item characteristics to change the gender gap size? There are also some unknown causes of gender gap (including the possible difference of male and female’s score distribution). We know little about the consequences of current female-male ratio of college admission, including the problem of educational equity, females’ adaptation in their college career. A meta-analysis of studies on gender gap is needed in order to draw stronger conclusions.
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    Regional Overall Reform about Learning and Teaching: Rationality, Idea and Practice
    LI Xiao-Hong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (1): 76-83.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.01.011
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          Learning and teaching reform is the core part of basic education reform. In recent years, some schools promoted autonomously learning and teaching reforms which is difficult to carry out deeply and sustainably because of lack of institutional guarantees, professional supports and reform atmosphere from its located region. Promoting learning and teaching reforms by a region as a whole is an effective path. Regional overall reform about learning and teaching is the need of promoting deep and continuous learning and teaching reform of schools and teachers, is the need of promoting the balanced development of education quality among schools in a region, is the need of carrying out the strategy of regional education development. Regional overall reform about learning and teaching must set up three big ideas: firstly, its aim located in all the students’allround development and individual development, which means that we not only promote students’ learning scores and subject knowledge, but also enhance students’ comprehensive quality. We not only promote the outstanding students’ development, but also improve the students with learning difficulties. Secondly, its subjects include not only schools and teachers, but also education administrators, supporters of the business and the parents which play important roles in learning and teaching reform. It begins from the initial year (such as kindergarten) in order to continuously promote students’ development. The strategies of regional overall reform about learning and teaching include: Firstly, redesign regional education management system which include: 1) construct monitoring and evaluation system of students’ development in a region; 2) improve incentive system of supporters of the business, schools’ administrator and teachers; 3) improve educational management organization structure which clarifies department functions, divides the work reasonably and cooperates closely. Secondly, integrate the reforms of teaching research, scientific research and teacher training in a region which include: 1) break the disciplinary boundaries and do interdisciplinary teaching researches; 2)break the grade boundaries and promote the effective connections between grades; 3) adjust the content of teaching researches and Strengthen the study on student development rules; 4) change the educational research plans in a region, guide teachers to do some little researches about student development and avoid disconnection between teaching researches and teaching practices; 5) reform teacher training in a region and meet the teachers’ training demands about learning and teaching reform. At last, improve the familyschool collaboration in a region. On the one hand, we need to systematically design and implement parents’ training in a region. On the other hand, we need to strengthen the guidance of the contents and styles of familyschool communications for schools and teachers in a region.
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    Principal Leadership and Students’ Modernity Development: A Case Study of Schools in Western China
    WANG Shu-Tao,TIAN Li-Xin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (1): 84-89.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.01.012
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           China is at the crucial period of modernization and more talents with high level of modernity are needed. In China’s modernization process, western China is believed to the most difficult place as well as the niche point. Among all the factors affecting people’s modernity development, school education is the most important. Students in compulsory schools are at the critical development period of their thoughts, ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Two thirds of their mental awakening time is spent in schools, and they are affected imperceptibly by their significant others in schools, including the principals and the teacher. A principal is the spiritual leader of a school, and his or her thought and ideological orientation reflected by their leadership styles affect the development of students’ modernity.       However, in the past studies, there were no conclusions regarding which leadership styles had more impact on students’ modernity development. Using the cluster random sampling, this study investigated 378 teachers in 50 compulsory education schools from the provinces of Yunnan, Guizhou, Xinjiang, Guangxi and the city of Chongqing. All the variables were measured by teachers, including transformational leadership, transactional leadership, and students’ modernity, as teachers are the intermediate actors between principals and students. Teachers are the best appraisers of principal leadership, as principal’s cognitive behavior is directly shown in their leading process, which can be felt firsthand by teachers. Also teachers are closer to their students and familiar with their level of modernity. The data was collected and analyzed by the software of SPSS20.0 and AMOS20.0.       The findings showed that both transformational leadership and its dimensions (r were between 0.373 and 0.579), transactional leadership and its dimensions (r were between 0.239 and 0.478) had significant relationships with students’ modernity, but transformational leadership had closer ones. All the four dimensions of transformational leaderships, such as idealized influence (β=0.164, p<0.05), inspirational motivation (β=0.253, p<0.01), intellectual stimulation (β=0.159, p<0.05), and individualized consideration (β=0.164, p<0.05), had significant effects on students’ modernity, all of which can explain 42.0% of the change in students’ modernity. The two dimensions of transactional leadership, contingency motivation (β=0.388, p<0.001) and exception management (β=0.185, p<0.01) also had significant effects on students’ modernity, both of which can explain 26.6% of the change in students’ modernity. When the impact of transactional leadership was controlled, transformational leadership had significant and exceptional impact on students’ modernity and all its dimensions. However, when the impact of transformational leadership was controlled, transactional leadership had no or less significant impact on students’ modernity or its dimensions. These results showed that transformational leadership had more advantage than transactional leadership on affecting students’ modernity.       Based on the findings, it’s suggested that principals should change their leadership styles, and strengthen their consciousness and transformational leadership in support of the development of students’ modernity.
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    The Advantages and Disadvantages of Second Language Learning:From the Perspective of Cognition and Language
    WANG Rui-Ming,JIAO Lu,CHENG Xiao-Yue,LIU Cong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (1): 90-97.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.01.013
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          Second language learning is becoming increasing important with the deepening international communication. Considering the close relationship between language and cognition, the influence of second language learning on cognitive development has always been a major interest to researchers in different fields. But most previous researches centered on the positive effect of bilingualism, neglecting the negative effect of second language learning and other controversial views. From the perspective of language and cognition, this paper is intended to summarize the influence of second language learning on cognition, focusing on the advantages in executive control and the disadvantages in lexical access. Also, the paper provides a brief review of some competing opinions on the issue.       The positive effect of second language learning was mainly reflected in the nonverbal cognitive abilities, especially in the executive function. Executive function refers to a collection of topdown mental processes used consciously, with switching, inhibition and working memory as its three core components. A growing body of research demonstrated the effect of bilingual cognitive advantage, since bilinguals have more opportunities to practice the switch to the appropriate language and inhibition of the nontarget language in different situation. Furthermore, lots of studies argued that the lifelong bilingual experience significantly delayed the onset of Alzheimer disease, and maintained the neural efficiency for executive control in aging. However, not all relevant studies identified such positive effect in bilinguals. These researchers proposed that the positive effect may not come from language learning experience but from some confounding factors, such as immigrant status or socioeconomic status.       Regarding the negative effect of second language learning, there was a general agreement that the bilingual shown poorer performance in the lexical access, with the increasing reaction time in picture naming task, since the bilingual have to cope with nontarget language interference. Recently, more researchers were interested in other aspects of accessing performance, including sublexical, noun phrase and sentence. The results also indicated that the second language learners showed a poorer performance in accessing tasks. Similarly, there was still a controversy. Some researcher who focused on the metalinguistic ability pointed out that the learning experience promoted the development of metalinguistic ability in bilingual children.       Finally this paper presents further investigation about the influence of second language learning on cognition processing. First, both bilingual advantages and disadvantages should be investigated more systematically, such as measuring different executive function components in the same participant group. In addition, different age stages of bilinguals should be paid attention to study the trajectory of the positive and negative effect. What’s more, the development of cognitive neuroscience technologies can help explore the intrinsic mechanism of bilingual cognitive effect. Also, more longitudinal designs should be adopted to study the causes of positive and negative effects, and strictly exclude the interference effect from confounding factors.
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    The Subjective Spirit of Mencius’ Thought on Character Education
    YE Fei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (1): 98-103.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.01.014
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    In the academic community of Mencius research, the question whether Mencius’ thought on Character education includes the element of subjective spirit is very controversial. Some scholars believe that Mencius was only a thinker who lived in the absolute monarchy. So, Mencius actually did not have the consciousness of democracy and subjective spirit. He was a thinker ruled by the absolute monarchy and emperor, and his academic idea was also controlled by the absolute monarchy and emperor. In a word, Mencius did not have the democratic idea or subjective spirit in his life, neither in his books. However, other scholars believe that Mencius’ idea about political construction and character education involved profound concepts of humanism and human-based thought. Although Mencius was not a democratic, but he advocated the respect for human nature and personal dignity in the framework of Confucianism. Therefore, there existed subjective spirit in Mencius’ thought on character education. But, what’s the essence of Mencius’ idea? Did Mencius advocate moral subjectivity or not? This paper begins with this controversial question. Using the methodologies of text interpretation and historical analysis, it analyzes the masterpiece Mencius and its academic ideas. Based on the comprehensive analysis of the classical book and impressive idea, the author argues that Mencius’ thought on character education focused on subjectivity, which advanced the Pre-Qin Confucianism’s humanitarian spirit to a new height. We can look at the great contributions of Mencius and his ideas from four aspects. First, Mencius thought that everyone had natural morality and natural moral ability to be a subjective moral personality. And, everyone can be a subjective moral personality. His theory of human nature transcends Confucius’ , which is unclear. Second, in terms of the methods of self-cultivation, Mencius put emphasis not only on Confucius’ idea about self-reflection, but on the self-cultivation of moral courage and sense of justice. Third, in terms of the moral will, Mencius emphasized the cultivation of people’s strong moral will through daily life and moral life. His idea is more profound and systematic than Confucius’. Fourth, Mencius not only advocated the moral action of gentleman (Jun Zi), but also the real man personality, which can defend the social morality and justice. In a word, Mencius’s thought on character education was beyond the limit of his time and space. It involves abundant sprit of subjectivity, which deserves more examination.
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    Lu Jiuyuan's Yi-Jian and its Historical Implications
    HUANG Ming-Xi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (1): 104-109.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.01.015
    Abstract456)   HTML113)    PDF (1154KB)(1365)      
    Yi-Jian (simplicity) is a teaching method developed by mind educator Lu Jiuyuan in the Song Dynasty. This meaningful and unique style of teaching method was a pioneer in mind education during the time of Song and Ming Dynasty. Based on the analysis of the collections of Lu Jiuyuan’s Works, this article aims to clarify the rationales of Yi-Jian and reveal its connotations through the interpretation of such propositions as developing one’s original mind, reading for moral cultivation and the Six Classics annotating me. Then it points out the historical implications of the teaching method of Yi-Jian. The author argues that the idea that the heart is the reason is the ontological basis of Yi-Jian. Developing one’s original mind refers to moral education, while reading for moral cultivation and the Six Classics annotating me refers to is knowledge. Yi-Jian was closely related to these propositions. Yi-Jian focused on stimulating and cultivating non-intellectual factors such as motivation, emotion, will and so on, especially the use of sudden enlightenment in teaching. It emphasized the cultivation of moral cognition and judgment through intuitive thinking, so it has great positive effect on people's moral development. Unlike the school of Zhu Xi’s Neo-Confucianism education, Yi-Jian is one of the outstanding aspects of Lu Jiuyuan's Mind Theory. Based on the detailed discussion of the connotation of Yi-Jian, this paper concludes that many Confucian scholars in the Ming Dynasty such as Wu Yubi, Chen Xianzhang, Wang Yangming and Zhan Ruoshui inherited and developed Lu Jiuyuan's teaching method of Yi-Jian to varying degrees.
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    Discussions on Every Student Succeeds Act
    TAO Xi-Ping,GU Hai-Liang,ZHANG Li,YANG Dong-Ping,XIE Xiao-Qing,ZHAO Zhong-Jian,PANG Wei-Guo
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (2): 1-15.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.02.001
    Abstract406)   HTML143)    PDF (911KB)(1401)      
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    Ecological Development of Entrepreneurship Education:Perspective of GALCHS
    XU Xiao-Zhou,WANG Xu-Yan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (2): 16-21.   DOI: DOI:10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.02.002
    Abstract284)   HTML89)    PDF (598KB)(1026)      
    How to build an ecosystem of entrepreneurship education has become a major concern all around the world, either at the theoretical or practical level. Current researches focus on the university-based entrepreneurship ecosystem (U-BEE), and it’s believed that universities are the hub of the ecosystem, which provides the infrastructure, capital and training to students’ entrepreneurial activities through dealing with the stakeholders like the governments, enterprises and markets. Entrepreneurship education ecosystem is a functional body. The school system is the core of the ecosystem, while the government, families, enterprises, and other social institutions should join the ecosystem as an input environment. The school system educates innovational and enterprising talents for society in return. To construct an entrepreneurship education ecosystem, it’s essential to analyze the elements of the system and its operational mechanism and make a top-level design as a whole including the concept, positioning and objectives of ecological entrepreneurship education. In accordance with the mission and internal requirements of entrepreneurship education, Chinese ecosystem of entrepreneurship education should establish the idea of GALCHS, i.e. global, all, lifelong, complementary, holistic and sustainable. Global entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship for all and lifelong entrepreneurship are the three main external powers of the current social development. Complementary, holistic and sustainable are the other three internal stresses in the ecosystem. Entrepreneurship education develops like whirling through the interaction of external and internal power. However, the current ecosystem of entrepreneurship education is still at the stage of infancy, it even has not stepped into the puberty time, let alone a steady state. At present, entrepreneurship education develops vigorously in universities, but it is not popular in the elementary and secondary schools. The Chinese governments, either at the central or local level, have issued both general policies and specific regulations concerning entrepreneurship education, in order to create a favorable environment for students and the development of entrepreneurship education in colleges and universities. But it seems that the entrepreneurship education policies lack a holistic plan for the development of society and economy. It would be difficult to support the effective operation of the entrepreneurship education without sufficient internal and external resources, like practical training platforms, business incubators, venture capitals, curriculum, teachers, etc. According to GALCHS, to promote the budding, growth, and steady state of ecosystem of entrepreneurship education , colleges and universities in China should solve the problem of role missing in the ecosystem of entrepreneurship education, and more efficient polices need to be produced and the basis of entrepreneurship should be reinforced in the ecosystem of entrepreneurship education.
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    A Study on Evaluating Effectiveness of Entrepreneurship Education in Higher Education Institutions and Promoting Strategies
    GAO Gui-Juan,LI Li-Hong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (2): 22-29.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.02.003
    Abstract286)   HTML38)    PDF (623KB)(1082)      
    After a rapid development of entrepreneurship education, the western developed countries have begun to focus on evaluating the entrepreneurship education and its effectiveness in order to make a proper adjustment. Entrepreneurship education in China, though emerging later than that of the western developed countries, has grown rapidly and is strongly pushed forward by the central government. It’s over ten years since the pilot work was launched in 2002 by the Ministry of Education, and entrepreneurship education has become a national highlight and is being integrated into the global context. Nevertheless, sufficient attention has not been paid to the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education. And it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education in higher education institutions. Effectiveness, in brief, refers to the actual result, which can be indicated by the ratio of input and outcome. That is, more outcome from a relatively less input in an activity means effectiveness. Thus, effectiveness of entrepreneurship education means the real and effective state after an activity of entrepreneurship education by comparing its result and expected goals. Based on the theory and practice of education quality evaluation, as well as CIPP evaluation model by D. L. Stufflebeam in 1967, which includes four dimensions (context evaluation, input evaluation, process evaluation and product evaluation), this study constructs an evaluation model for the effectiveness of entrepre neurship education from two dimensions: one is entrepreneurship education process, and the other is entrepreneurship education outcome. Entrepreneurship education process involves educational factors in the entrepreneurship education activities, which can be divided into three groups of indicators: entrepreneurship courses, entrepreneurship practice and entrepreneurship organization. Entrepreneurship education outcome, in term of measurable entrepreneurship education goals, involves entrepreneurship skills, which can be divided into three groups of indicators: professional skills, methodological skills and social skills. And then, the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education in HEIs is evaluated, and the sample includes different types of HEIs in China as well as the nine HEIs participating in the pilot work of entrepreneurship education since 2002. The fingdings show that the real result of entrepreneurship education in HEIs of China is poor. Entrepreneurship education does not function well from the perspective of process. And in terms of outcomes, students’ entrepreneurship skills need to be improved. Further factor analysis shows that factors which influence effectiveness of entrepreneurship education include HEIs, students, governments and society. Thus, it’s necessary to improve students’ entrepreneurship skills and strengthen the cooperation among HEIs, students, governments and society to improve effectiveness of entrepreneurship education. Specifically, HEIs need to highlight the educational function to integrate entrepreneurship education into the education process. Also, policies should be in place to guide HEIs to refine their entrepreneurship education goals. In addition, the enterprises should be encouraged to be actively involved in the entrepreneurship practice.
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    Evolution and Development Trend of Chinese Entrepreneurship Education
    WANG Zhan-Ren
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (2): 30-38.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.02.004
    Abstract444)   HTML36)    PDF (564KB)(2060)      
    Research on the evolution of Chinese entrepreneurship education in a systematic way is an important approach to better understanding the innovative entrepreneurship education. Through literature review, this article presents the history of Chinese entrepreneurship education and straightens out its origins. The author argues that Chinese entrepreneurship education started in 1988, and Chinese scholars represented by HU Xiaofeng put forward the thought of entrepreneurship education thoroughly. Guided by this thought, a range of entrepreneurship education experiments were conducted. The entrepreneurship education thought was directly related to the creativity-oriented education, and it was created in China but not imported from overseas. The Six-Year Research of the Chinese entrepreneurship education has a profound international background. The research, based on the logic origin of the pioneering individuality, deduced the conceptual system and theoretical framework of the entrepreneurship education, and constructed the target pattern, curriculum model, assessment model, and community management model. Besides, the research also discussed about the fundamental laws, process, method and essential ways of the entrepreneurship education. Therefore, the research promoted the establishment of entrepreneurship education, which took a unique position in the history of the theoretical research and pedagogical experiment. Entrepreneurship education in Chinese universities started in 1997, when Tsinghua University first offered the curriculum of Innovation and Entrepreneurship. So far it has experienced four stages of development, and the government’s policy guided the expanding period from “business startup drives the employment” to mass entrepreneurship and innovation. The significant expansion of innovative entrepreneurship education is the entrepreneurship based on innovation. Innovators are encouraged to start their own businesses, making the innovative entrepreneurship the engine of motivating economic and social development. Currently, the greatest challenges facing universities’ entrepreneurship education are: the holistic education has not been shaped; the operating mechanism is not yet well-established; the curriculum system has not been developed; and particularly, there are other challenges such as the shortage of teaching staff, improper teaching methods and the development of textbooks. Looking to the future trend of education for all, it’s vital to create an integrated mode of education and strengthen the implementation of practice-based curriculum and curriculum-based practice for sustained development. Constructing a supporting system to coordinate the mechanism, teaching staff, and social resources helps to ensure the sustainable development.
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    The Development of Entrepreneurship Education in UK Higher Education Institutions and its Implication
    HUANG Zhao-Xin,ZHANG Zhong-Qiu,ZHAO Guo-Jing,WANG Zhi-Qiang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (2): 39-44.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.02.005
    Abstract326)   HTML32)    PDF (911KB)(976)      
    Since the second revolutionary academic change from research universities to entrepreneurial universities in the 1980s, most UK higher education institutions have engaged in creating an atmosphere of entrepreneurial culture, offering entrepreneurial courses and promoting business practices. In this regard, the British government’s policies about college students’ entrepreneurship further pushes the development of entrepreneurship education in the UK, and provides fundamental guarantee for its prosperity. The future trend of the development of higher education institutions in the UK is the transformation from research university to entrepreneurial university. Its main concern is to strengthen the vitality of the UK higher education, and to draw some lessons from the transformation. And more generally, the whole world is in the event of such a change. There are many pressures, like funding for education, government intervention, innovation, student entrepreneurs, social mobility and employment, development of inter-regional partnerships as well as the use of modern information technology and international market changes. British universities and the government are facing a great challenge regarding how to promote the innovation and development of entrepreneurship education and to push the transformation of the British university model. Currently, the construction of entrepreneurship education system in British universities has the following characteristics: a layered and diverse curriculum, professional and innovative entrepreneurial faculty, flexible and diversified teaching methods, improved organization system, close cooperation between universities and enterprises to promote entrepreneurship practice. All this provides some reference for the development of entrepreneurship education in China’s higher education institutions. Compared with the UK, there exist many issues in Chinese universities’ entrepreneurship education. For example, understanding of entrepreneurship education is too formalized and utilitarian. Students lack innovative thinking. Entrepreneurship curriculum content is fragmented. The entrepreneurial ability of teachers should be improved. Moreover, Entrepreneurship education management mechanism is not perfect and there are no necessary synergies among various functional departments. Lessons can be drawn from the following four aspects. First, to explore the new school running modes and cultivate innovative entrepreneurial talents. Second, to highlight innovative thinking of the curriculum system and create innovative entrepreneurial teams of teachers. Third, to strengthen efforts to support the organization of entrepreneurship education and improve the framework of entrepreneurship education. Fourth, to enhance the interaction, exchange and cooperation between schools and enterprises and establish the brand awareness of higher education institutions.
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    The Main Features of the Development of US Entrepreneurship Education and Its Implications
    KAN Yue
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (2): 45-51.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.02.006
    Abstract330)   HTML33)    PDF (554KB)(1049)      
    The United States is seen as a nation where entrepreneurship education originated and prevailed, and after so many years of development, entrepreneurship education in the US has now reached a stage of maturity. The US has built an integrated ecosystem of entrepreneurship education involving multi-stakeholders including government offices, non-governmental organizations, enterprises and educational institutions. The mutual complementation of these independent players ensured the effective operation of this ecosystem. Meanwhile, on the basis of business entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurship and female entrepreneurship are greatly promoted as a solution to the various social challenges and improvement of socioeconomic conditions for disadvantaged groups. Considering the crucial role of educational institutions in developing the entrepreneurial attitude, skills and behavior for the new generation, a diversified and coherent provision of curriculum, activities and related supporting services has been developed through the K-12 schools and higher education institutions in the US. In the context of the Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation, the experiences and practices in the US will be beneficial to the further development of entrepreneurship education in China, especially in terms of legal environment, ecosystem, social entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial curriculum and knowledge entrepreneurship. In line with the requirement of the building for a government ruled by law, a sound system of legislation for innovation and entrepreneurship should be established to create a fair, orderly and sound legal environment. The further development of entrepreneurship education in China should pay more attention to the encouragement of social engagement, support and contribution in order to create a better ecosystem. Another priority should be given to arousing the students’ and citizens’ concern over the social challenges and to developing the social entrepreneurs with the sense of social responsibility, philanthropy and the competences of public services in order to solve social problems by innovative services, products and approaches. Since curriculum is the breakthrough for the development of entrepreneurial sprits and skills, a system of curriculum should be constructed at various levels of education from primary, secondary to higher education. Finally, in the context of information society and knowledge-based economy, with a view to increasing professionalism and scientific and technological values, the entrepreneurship education in higher education institutions should be based on knowledge innovation to encourage the transfer and application of research outcomes.
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    A Multi-analysis of Students’ Workload: a Case Study of Nine Provinces and Cities
    YANG Xin,SONG Nai-Qing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (2): 52-61.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.02.007
    Abstract431)   HTML87)    PDF (670KB)(2175)      
    At present, it’s imperative to solve the complex problem of students’ academic workload in Chinese educational context. In addition to the gradual reform of the examination evaluation and admission system, empirical studies on students’ workload should be carried out to explore the connotations of workload scientifically. In order to clarify the characteristics and conceptual elements of workload, the article, based on literature review and questionnaire, analyzes the perception of workload among students, parents and teachers, including its causes, components, consequences, and other problems. The questionnaire surveys were conducted among 7,524 students (including primary and junior high school students), 3,836 parents and 3,766 teachers from nine provinces and cities. The analysis revealed three perceptional elements of the workload. First, workload is the result of the interaction of various factors, among which, examination competition and performance requirements are the main factors. Second, from the perspective of students, parents and teachers, workload is the trouble for most students, which involves three concepts: academic tasks, performance pressure and energy consumption. Third, heavy workload can have negative impact on most students, which is different for different individuals. The article seeks to construct the operational definition of workload: namely, students’ experienced pressure caused by examination evaluation and academic tasks as well as time and energy spent on them. This definition can guide the shift of workload study from concept to operation, which can divide characteristics of workload into several observable and evaluable key points so as to establish necessary conceptual foundations for quantitative workload study. However, due to the complexity of the workload problem, this operational definition of workload needs to be improved. To explain different subject-related workload in different cultures, it is necessary to refine the observation point and evaluation factors of workload. Similarly, this operational definition of workload is far from the synonym of the connotations of workload, and it can only be used as a reference in workload study. In future studies, it’s essential to have a better understanding of the connotation of workload through experimental researches and case studies based on this operational definition. On the other hand, it is necessary to use different research methods for cross validation of the existing assumptions and conclusions.
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    Research on the Occurrence Mechanism of Education Needs
    ZHANG Yang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (2): 62-67.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.02.008
    Abstract305)   HTML122)    PDF (1307KB)(1244)      
    Throughout the concurrent history of human and education and in the context of modern society, It's been a common belief that any person's growth and development cannot do without education. Education is becoming more and more valued either at the state, community or individual level. Although sometimes people may oppose, hate or reject education, they still have their education needs. This kind of phenomenon shows that people need valuable education on the one hand; on the other hand, it indicates that education need should have a reasonable boundary. It’s true that people are dependent on education. The problems with education arise not only from the objective aspects of a country and society, but also from the subjective aspect of people's education need. Education need is not the synonyms for education, and researches on education need show that the educational researchers are awakening again. At the microcosmic level, this research discusses the basis, conditions and process of the occurrence of the individual education needs. First of all, the basis of the individual education need is the need of cognition and self-actualization. According to Maslow, cognitive need characterized by objectivity, apriority and independence is very important for people. Maslow suggested that cognitive need includes the desire of understanding, systematization, organization, analysis, seeking contact and craving significance, and these desires form a small hierarchical relationship. Moreover, cognitive need is limitless and its expanding process involves happiness and anxiety. Cognitive need is not simply placed in the hierarchy of needs, but can be expressed at different levels. It is not only the way to get the basic security in the world, but also the expression of the self realization. Everyone has a need for self-actualization, which is a desire for self-fulfillment and an aptitude to make people realize their potentials. This aptitude helps enable a person to become more and more unique and anyone he can be. Secondly, the social and cultural environment and the need for core others is the objective precondition for the need occurrence. The development of self-consciousness is the subjective core conditions. Core others refer to those who have a direct impact on a person in the process of individual education needs, including significant others. The process of individual education needs should be the process of showing, enriching and realizing education needs gradually. This could rely on self maturity and regulation on the basis of respect for individual cognition and self actualization by influencing from the reasonable educational needs of the “core others” in the objective environment. Finally, there are five stages for process: (a) initial display and gradual enhancement of cognitive needs and self-actualization; (b) the emergence of obstacles to development and the gradual emergence of the education needs from caregivers as the core others; (c) the occurrence of schooling and the involvement of teachers as other core others; (d) emergence of need conflicts and enhancement of development barriers and self realization needs; and (e) the gradual strengthening of self adjustment and the improvement of autonomy and consciousness and so on.
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    Three Forms of Teaching Environment and their Values:Perspective of Process Philosophy
    WEI Shan-Chun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (2): 68-75.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.02.009
    Abstract335)   HTML101)    PDF (1379KB)(1900)      
    Process philosophy is also known as a philosophy of organism or activity. It takes process and activity as the fundamental characteristics of organism, and holds the view that the whole world consists of the procedural and continually creative activity of organism. In recent years, the impact of process philosophy on education and teaching has become increasingly evident, and more and more researchers have applied the process thinking to the study of teaching process and the practical exploration of subject teaching. The purpose of this study is to apply the thinking of process philosophy to the research of teaching environment, and suggest the specific survival patterns of teaching environment and their characteristics and values. Adopting the method of philosophical introspection and the introspection of philosophy, this article argues that, in real teaching life, the relationship between teaching environment and individuals as the subject is in the state of dualism opposition, regulated and controlled. More attention has been paid to optimizing teaching environment to improve the teaching effectiveness from the technical level. By sorting and analyzing the literature about process philosophy and its thinking comprehensively, this study attempts to explore the three forms of teaching environment through process-related thinking of process philosophy. The first form is the sense and body of teacher and student .The second is the community formed between teacher and student or between student and student, such as the education community, teaching community, learning community and so on. The third is the continuity of curriculum knowledge around children’s life and experience. These teaching environments are both subjective and objective. They are not just stable, but are generated dynamically and energy flowing. These environments have the subject appeal of a moral concern which aims at their own integrity, independence and internal harmony. Also, they have the object value which enables teacher and student to be more creative and caring. This will help promote teacher and student to learn to care and develop the qualities of caring,including caring about oneself, the community, nature and the knowledge. Constructing a teaching environment based on the theoretical process philosophy does not mean creating a material, solidified and tangible environment, but a trnastormantion of concept and way of thinking. Instead of focusing on the effectiveness of teaching environment on teacher and student growth (just an instrumental value), this way of thinking focuses more on the inner good, external creativity and caring relationships in teaching environment. And it will make the teaching and education more and more human-centered, and furthermore, teaching life begins to walk out of the fence of the classroom and school and return to nature, society and ourselves.
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    From Possession to Generation: Transforming the Concept and Practice of Child Learning
    ZHANG Geng-Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (2): 76-81.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.02.010
    Abstract343)   HTML122)    PDF (609KB)(1255)      
    It seems widely recognized that a child should be engaged in learning, and that his future happiness and accomplishments rely on his learning outcomes. Increasingly, child learning has attracted people’s great attention. However, there are different points of view of the child, child development and happiness, leading to different concepts of learning closely related to child development and happiness. These learning concepts each have their own epistemological basis with their own characteristics, and have exerted influence on people's educational ideas and practices to varying degrees. Therefore, in promoting education reforms, it is very important to understand the child, clarify child learning and transform the educational concepts. The idea that learning is possession is a concept of child learning in the context of modern utilitarian society. Under the framework of the adult-child binary comparison, this concept is built on “scarcity”, and it takes utilitarian happiness as the purpose, possession as the means and efficiency as the standard. This kind of learning concept has its defects due to its specific conceptual basis and values. In particular, the concept inverts the relationship between a child’s life and his learning, ignores a child’s active endogenous learning power, and separates the process of happiness from the results of happiness in child learning, and the holistic state of learning disappears. In fact, a child is neither inherently fixed nor a passive existence, but a generative human being who has great potential of development beyond the framework of adult-children binary comparison. Besides, generation and development are the inherent characteristics of a child’s life process when regarded as a human being. The idea that learning is generation implies the process of a child’s self-generation and self-creation. In this process, a child actively draws on his life experience based on his own needs and interests, and employs his psychological absorbability to interact with the environment frequently. As child learning is a generative development arising from his natural rhythm, it is of survival value. Specifically speaking, generative child learning is not a passive mechanical process driven by external forces, but a creative life process following the principle of genuine interest with a lot of positive experience. Generative child learning is different from that of external input, which is based on the objectivist empiricism. It emphasizes learning subjectivity and autonomy, which is based on direct experience. In addition, it attaches great importance to the unique value of a child's life and games in the process of his generation and development. Generative child learning is holistic. In the process, a child is ready to open himself, excited to embrace the whole world, and active in interacting with the environment in an integrated way. In the generative learning, a child experiences the unified happiness of the results and processes. Furthermore, based on the characteristics of a child’s life, this generative learning has its own internal definition that constitutes the basic conditions for the realization of the generative learning. In other words, while immaturity is the primary condition for generative child learning, internal time is the basic scale and freedom is the basic requirement.
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    Practical Significance of Moral Beliefs and its Cultivation in Primary and Secondary Schools
    PENG Hong-Bin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (2): 82-87.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.02.011
    Abstract357)   HTML33)    PDF (648KB)(1012)      
    While faith is mainly applied to the religious dimension, belief is more suitable for morality. Moral belief refers to the psychological tendencies to believe in someone or something and resolution to put it into practice. In fact, most Chinese people don’t have definite faith, as they are too realistic rather than pious. So it’s suggested that in moral education, it’s better to use moral belief instead of moral faith. In structure we have core moral beliefs and derivative moral beliefs. There are two types of moral beliefs: espoused beliefs and acting beliefs. Starting from the effectiveness of moral beliefs on students, the article puts forward some methods of cultivating the students in primary and secondary schools. From the perspectives of philosophy and psychology, we find that the moral beliefs attained in different periods change differently. Generally, moral beliefs attained in early times are difficult to change. After adulthood, moral beliefs are easier to change. So childhood is the best time for students to attain moral beliefs. School climate is an important factor which influences students’ moral beliefs . As the foundation of school culture, the beliefs shared by members in schools are the important factors of moral beliefs. And teachers should try to create a healthy school culture in order to improve students’ moral beliefs. Moral beliefs can influence the students’ choice of values and self-discipline. Moral beliefs affect the decisions, behaviors and the ways they deal with problems. In Lewis’s opinion, the foundation of beliefs consists of power, logic deduction, affection, personal significant experiences, rational intuition, and application of personal scientific methods. Educators should help students to establish the early moral beliefs subtly, as children are nave and usually don’t question the moral beliefs taught by their teachers. Besides, school teachers and parents should make use of affection to help change students’ moral beliefs. They can create effective situations to help students form moral beliefs through practice. Teachers should encourage students to practice, because students’ moral beliefs and practice are closely linked, and mutually affected. In this way teachers can promote a virtuous cycle between students’ moral beliefs and practice. Teachers should also stimulate students to contemplate their behaviors. As Confucius said, we should contemplate ourselves three times a day. Reading without thinking tends to throw one into bewilderment. By contemplation students can understand the meaningful ideas, and realize the importance of correct moral beliefs.
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    An Investigation of the Types and Causes of College Students’Online Anomie Behavior
    ZHU Lin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (2): 88-95.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.02.012
    Abstract441)   HTML145)    PDF (870KB)(1313)      
    The purposeful social interaction of college students in syber space, that is, the online behavior, is not only a practice, but also a cognitive interaction. In essence, the online behavior of college students is also a kind of social behavior, which has an interactive and close relationship with the realistic morality. With the increasing popularity of the Internet and its stability, the advantage of the Internet era is becoming more prominent. But the anomie of some college students’ online behaviors can never be ignored. Meanwhile, the lack of rational knowledge and moral judgment of misbehaviors online leads them to be deeply stuck. Online anomie behavior of college students has been a major concern in the field of moral researches of college students. It is also a high-risk social issue concerning many aspects, which can exert far-reaching influences. Based on the questionnaire among 1708 college students from 22 universities, 126 educators and 46 parents, this article analyzes four common types of online anomie behavior of college students: violation behavior, infringement behavior, violence behavior and crime behavior. The survey revealed that online violation behaviors existed commonly in Chinese college students, among which the most prominent behaviors were online game addiction, ill information browsing and the abuse of online languages. Meanwhile, this article offers a detailed explanation of the factors leading to the online anomie behavior of college students from internal and external dimensions. The internal dimensions include the misunderstanding of the virtual reality, the excessive worship of the online information technology and the initiatives to deal with the psychological stress. On the other hand, the external dimensions refer to the decline of social collective consciousness, the absence of norms, and the relative backwardness of the ideological and political education and management of college online. Higher educational institutions are the major places where moral education is carried out for college students. This education plays a critical role in cultivating college students’ online behaviors and their moral qualities. Thus, moral educators in higher education institutions should adapt actively to the new requirements for college education in the Internet era and introduce some intervention measures, such as guiding the self-strengthening of college students’ compliance awareness, intensifying the role of moral educators, innovating the methods of moral education, improving college students’ online environment and implementing evaluation system of college students’ online behaviors, etc.
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    The Effect of Non-contingent Negative and Positive Reinforcement Operations on the Acquisition of Superstitious Behaviors
    HAO Jian-Yu,LI Ling
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (2): 96-103.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.02.013
    Abstract299)   HTML29)    PDF (674KB)(869)      
    Superstitious behaviors, as exceedingly common phenomenon, take place frequently in our daily life, which can have either negative or positively effect on people’s life. In addition, they can jeopardize moral education in colleges and schools. For example, the superstitious phenomenon may make people rather vain about their prediction or even cause people to kill others in fear. Therefore, it’s extremely essential to investigate the mechanism of the occurrence of superstitious behaviors. There are two major psychological theories which can explain the mechanism of the occurrence of superstitious behaviors. They are behavioral sect and cognitive sect. From the perspective of behavioral sect, Skinner proposed the accidental reinforcer-response pairings account, and after that, other psychologists addressed control illusion, a vital concept in the superstitious field, and presented control heuristic theory and regulatory focus explanation from the cognitive perspective. However, there are drawbacks in both explanations, so we need a more integrated account for the procedure of superstitious behaviors. Based on two experiments, this research examines the differential effects of non-contingent positive and negative reinforcement operations on the acquisition of superstitious behaviors. In the first experiment, 72 participants were randomly and evenly divided into four groups, including the positive group (6s), positive group (3min), the negative group(6s) and negative group(3min). All participants were instructed to try to produce and/or keep the positive pictures (all from IAPS) on a computer screen (positive reinforcement), or try to prevent and/or remove the negative pictures from the screen (negative reinforcement) by using response keys. In the second experiment music experimental material (all were pre-tested) was used, and the stimuli schedule was different from the first experiment while other conditions remained the same. For instance, all 80 participants were randomly and evenly separated in four groups: the positive group (6s), positive group (3min), the negative group(6s) and negative group(3min). All participants were instructed to try to produce and/or keep the positive music on a computer audio amplifier (positive reinforcement), or try to prevent and/or remove the negative music from the audio amplifier (negative reinforcement) by using response keys. Data from the two experiments indicated that participants exposed to lean schedules of negative reinforcers believed that they had greater control over non-contingent stimulus events than participants exposed to either rich or lean schedules of positive reinforcers. These findings suggest that, compared to positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement operations may provide a more fertile condition for the development and maintenance of superstitious behaviors. And compared to rich schedule, lean schedule seems to make participants believe there was more control than rich schedule under the negative reinforcement operations, but the data show the opposite variation direction of illusion of control under the positive reinforcement operations. These conclusions will help us to predict the future tendency of the occurrence of superstitious behaviors more accurately. Meantime, this can help us to adjust the moral educational programs for students in colleges and schools.
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    A Historical Study of Achievement Exhibitions of Vocational Schools in China (1918-1944)
    WANG Jiang-Tao,YU Qi-Ding
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (2): 104-110.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.02.014
    Abstract296)   HTML30)    PDF (550KB)(1109)      
    Similar to the industrial education implemented in the late Qing Dynasty, the vocational education emerging in the Republic of China aimed to cultivate techinical talents in the field of agriculture, industry and commerce. However, with the long-term profound impact of the imperial education, the vocational education was not widely accepted. Therefore, vocational schools used to hold exhibitions which originated from World Expo to display the achievements of skill development, trying to attract social attention and change people’s views of vocational education. As early as 1851 when the first World Expo was held, educational achievements were part of the exhibits, and since then educational achievement exhibition has expanded worldwide. Influenced by international expositions, more and more domestic educational exhibitions were held, which also involved industrial education achievements. During the early twentieth century, it was an educational association named ZHONGHUA Vocational Education Association rather than the government that promoted vocational education achievement exhibition in China. The Association aimed to promote and improve vocational education. In 1918, the Association set up ZHONGHUA Vocational School, delivering experimental vocational education. The school sought to promote practical skills education and organized the vocational schools all over the country to participate in achievement exhibitions, thus contributing to the development of vocational education in China. From 1918 to the end of the Anti-Japanese War, ZHONGHUA Vocational Education Association and ZHONGHUA Vocational School managed to expand the impact of the exhibitions both at the local and national level. The historical process can be divided into five stages: exploration, rising, maintenance, climax and recession. Initiated by ZHONGHUA Vocational Education Association, the achievement exhibition of vocational education focused on the developed region of eastern China (exploration period, 1918-1921). Following that, three consecutive national exhibitions were held in the city of Shanghai, Peking and Wuhan, expanding its impact to the whole country (rising period, 1922—1924). Because of the warlords involved in the civil war and the Japanese invasion in 1931, the exhibition was greatly affected and forced to retreat to local areas again, mainly in the provinces of Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shanghai (maintenance period, 1925—1933). Driven by the movement, the Nanjing National Government became so interested in vocational education that it sponsored an exhibition of school students' achievements in handiwork courses, which meant that the organization of such exhibitions changed from nongovernment level to government level (climax period, 1934—1937). Soon exhibitions were suspended again due to the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War and practically disappeared (recession period, 1938—1944). The exhibitions built a bridge between vocational schools and the community, strengthening the public propaganda, mass education and social identity. It also had a positive historical impact on the rapid development of modern vocational education in China.
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    Five Scholars’ Discussion on the Building of Wordclass Universities
    WANG Ying-Jie
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (3): 1-4.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.02.001
    Abstract91)   HTML35)    PDF (911KB)(1292)      
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    Five Scholars’ Discussion on the Building of Wordclass Universities
    Chen Hong jie
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (3): 4-6.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.03.001
    Abstract136)   HTML122)    PDF (911KB)(964)      
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    Five Scholars’ Discussion on the Building of Wordclass Universities
    Hu Jian hua
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (3): 7-9.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.03.001
    Abstract110)   HTML30)    PDF (911KB)(852)      
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    Five Scholars’ Discussion on the Building of Wordclass Universities
    Zhang Hong xia
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (3): 9-12.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.03.001
    Abstract92)   HTML30)    PDF (911KB)(653)      
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    Five Scholars’ Discussion on the Building of Wordclass Universities
    Xiao su
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (3): 12-15.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.03.001
    Abstract118)   HTML29)    PDF (911KB)(751)      
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    Stavros N. Yiannouka
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (3): 16-16.  
    Abstract122)   HTML44)         
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    Research Design of EDUCATION FOR THE FUTURE: Global Experience of Developing 21st Century Skills and Competencies
    LIU Jian1,2WEI Rui3,1LIU Cheng4,1LIU Xia5 FANG Tanxiang1 Chris Tan1
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (3): 17-21.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.03.002
    Abstract383)   HTML43)    PDF (670KB)(2961)      

    China Education Innovation Institute of Beijing Normal University (CEII, BNU) was entrusted by World Innovation Summit for Education (WISE) to summarize the global experience of developing 21st Century Skills and Competencies. It aims to help policy makers, education leaders and researchers to have a comprehensive understanding of the formulation, connotation and implementation of 21st Century Competencies around the world. International organizations or economies use various terms to describe the educational goals. For the purpose of the current study we use the term “21st Century Skills and Competencies” or “21rst Century Competencies”. A competency is, therefore, a broader concept that may comprise skills, attitudes and knowledge. The study has four aims: (a) to identify the driving forces behind these competencies, (b) to analyze the elements and structures of the frameworks, (c) to investigate the implementation of the frameworks in education, and (d) to discuss necessary support from government and communities. Finally, suggestions are put forward based on the above analysis. Official publications on the frameworks of 21st Century Competencies by five international organizations and 24 countries or regions have been reviewed. The frameworks represent organizations or economies from six different continents. The inclusion of more economies from Asia, Africa and South America in this study presents more substantive research findings, compared with previous studies focusing on Europe or America. The economies are at different stages of their development. Besides, the inclusion of middleincome economies may be a meaningful expansion of previous studies. The research process includes defining the terms, identifying the research questions, selecting research subjects, reviewing literature and writing the report, suggesting strategies to promote, develop and apply these competencies, etc. As the outcome of this study, the report EDUCATION FOR THE FUTURE: Global Experience of Developing 21st Century Skills and Competencies was published in this journal, together with four research papers centered around the four aims. The papers are: (a) Driving Forces under the Construction of 21st Century Competencies, (b) Analysis of 21st Century Competencies and Frameworks, (c) Curriculum, Teaching and Learning, and Assessment for 21st Century Competencies, (d) Supporting 21st Century Competencies education. We conclude this study with some issues worthy of further study, e. g, what competencies are needed today and in the future and how they can be cultivated? The traditional Chinese philosophy (e.g. dealing with changes with changelessness) could offer alternative perspectives on these issues. On the one hand, it requires considering whether there are some core competencies based on children’s cognitive development. Moreover, the wholeperson development is not simply a total of these competencies. Therefore it’s essential to explore the connotation of a “whole person” and the way to cultivate such a person.

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    Driving Forces under the Construction of 21st Century Competencies
    ZHOU Ping-Yan,WEI Rui,LIU Sheng,SHI Man,CHEN You-Yi,LIU Xia,LIU Jian
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (3): 22-28.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.03.003
    Abstract246)   HTML124)    PDF (1307KB)(1750)      

    What kind of talents should be nurtured to embrace the future? What competencies should they have? These are the perennial questions most countries have been pondering. The stakes are high when they try to identify the future direction for education and set development goals. Demands from all sides must be taken into consideration, including an understanding of the changing era and the transformations in science & technology, demands for social and economic development, as well as the challenges arising from the educational sector. These factors, as the driving forces behind 21st century competencies, affect their frameworks and connotations. This paper presents the ten driving forces identified by different international organizations and economies. Often, they fall into three categories: a) changes in science and technology: globalization, knowledge age, scientific and technological development; b) economic and social development: economic growth, occupational needs, demographic changes, multicultural trends, environmental and sustainable development; c) educational development: education equity and quality improvement. The results show that there are both similarities and differences among the driving forces identified by the international organizations and economies. Over half of the 29 international organizations or economies put a focus on six driving forces: globalization, knowledge age, scientific and technological development and information age, economic growth, occupational competencies and education quality improvement. This indicates that these driving forces are, to some extent, universal. Fewer than half international organizations or economies focus on demographical changes, multiculturalism, environment and sustainable development, educational equity. In addition, these driving forces tend to reflect regional or national demands. Some highincome economies are now pursuing knowledge economy as a priority, while some middle or lowermiddle income groups are more concerned with educational equity. Highincome economies are more concerned with the needs of knowledge age, which may reflect their postindustrial context. The driving force of knowledge age attracts more attention to education reform of highincome economies while the middle or lowermiddleincome groups are more concerned with educational equity. This paper concludes with three suggestions on how to generate these driving forces for various economies: a) policymaking should be based on a comprehensive, indepth analysis of the driving forces at a global level; b) when identifying the driving forces, societies should fully consider their levels of socioeconomic development, cultural traditions and geographical features; and c) education policies based on driving forces need to center on the nature and developmental needs of children.

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    Analysis of 21st Century Competencies and Frameworks
    1SHI Man;2,3LIU Cheng;4LIU Xia;5 ZHOU Pingyan;3 Chris Tan;3、5LIU Jian;6、3 WEI Rui
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (3): 29-37.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.03.004
    Abstract501)   HTML810)    PDF (1379KB)(3523)      

    Due to the overlap in their educational goals, international organizations and economies possess both similarities and differences in the selection and framework construction of 21st Century Competencies. This article first presents different frameworks for 21st Century Competencies. For instance, the framework of OECD aims to help its citizens live a successful life and develop wellfunctioning societies; the EU framework is to sharpen citizens’ learning skills and promote lifelong learning; and the US P21 framework is to cultivate creativity and entrepreneurship with a focus on the needs of job market. Frameworks of some Asian economies like Singapore, and Mainland China, emphasize core values and sense of responsibility. Still there are other frameworks focusing on enriching citizens’ daily life and improving the quality of their leisure time, such as Russia’s framework. Then it identifies 18 competencies from 29 frameworks, which are categorized into two groups: subjectspecific and general competencies. Next, the authors offer a comparative analysis of how much attention are paid to the 18 competencies in different frameworks, especially the discrepancy in competency selection between highincome, middleand lowerincome economies. Findings show that competency frameworks are characterized by inclusiveness, comprehensiveness and diversity. Seven competencies have gained attention from most organizations and economies, including competencies of communication and collaboration, information, creativity and problem solving, selfperception and selfcontrol, critical thinking, learning skills and lifelong learning, civic responsibility and social participation. However, competencies like environment, finance, life planning and wellbeing and leadership, which are considered important in future education development, are not incorporated in many frameworks. Moreover, most economies have incorporated competencies like language, mathematics, humanities, sports and health, critical thinking, communication and collaboration, civic responsibility and social participation. Highincome economies pay special attention to several competencies, such as information literacy, creativity and problem solving, crosscultural competence, especially selfperception and selfcontrol. Competencies like science and technology, art, environment, especially learning skills and lifelong learning, have become the focus of the middle and lowerincome groups. In conclusion, based on the analysis above, the article makes some policy suggestions regarding the development of 21st Century Competencies frameworks. Competencies should be developed in line with the times, global trends, regional demands, and local educational goals. The concept of competencies should be precisely interpreted and a systematic network within competencies should also be established. The framework and education practice of 21st century competencies should focus on lifelong learning. In particular, it’s important to pursue some eternal competencies facing the future.

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    Curriculum, Teaching, Learning and Assessment for 21st Century Competencies
    LIU Sheng,WEI Rui,ZHOU Ping-Yan,SHI Man,WANG Ying,LIU Jian,CHEN You-Yi,LIU Xia
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (3): 38-45.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.03.005
    Abstract286)   HTML135)    PDF (609KB)(1950)      

    To meet the challenges of globalization, knowledge age, and scientific and technological development, various frameworks of 21st Century Competencies have been constructed by different countries or regions. Fostering 21st Century Competencies is a sophisticated process which can only be achieved through multilayered education systems. Examples in official documents or research reports from various countries and regions could illustrate the ideas and understanding about how 21st Century Competencies could be incorporated into current educational systems. The examples show that curriculum, teaching and learning and assessment, as three interconnected elements in education, should target these competencies. First, the framework of 21stCentury Competencies should be integrated into every stage of K12 disciplinary curriculum. Meanwhile, some interdisciplinary themes should also be embedded into the current curricula to help cultivate students’ competencies through experiential learning in the real world. Three interdisciplinary themes are typical of this kind. The first one concerns international, domestic or local events or affairs, which could engage students in learning. The second theme—STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) has already been universally accepted as interdisciplinary. In addition, the theme of entrepreneurship and innovation is getting more attention and become an interdisciplinary theme as well. These changes in curricula for 21st Century Competencies need to be supported by proper teaching resources. Second, competencybased education calls for reform in teaching and learning strategies. The studentcentered approach could motivate students, satisfy their various needs and promote the development of related competencies. Problem or ProjectBased Learning (PBLs) can help teachers shift from teachercenteredness to studentcenteredness. Third, besides changes in curriculum and strategies of teaching and learning, assessment reform is imperative to monitor and guide the implementation of competencybased education. Formative assessment can provide timely and complete record and feedback to students so as to promote their further learning. Meanwhile, national, regional or school examinations should be geared towards competencies. In addition, many competencies are closely related to professions and occupations. Certificate tests are another important way to carry out evaluation. Nevertheless, there are still many issues to be explored about the implementing of 21stCentury Competencies education.

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    Supporting 21st Century Competencies Education
    WEI Rui,LIU Sheng,SHI Man,ZHOU Ping-Yan,WANG Ying,CHEN You-Yi,LIU Xia,LIU Jian
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (3): 46-51.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.03.006
    Abstract306)   HTML28)    PDF (648KB)(1957)      

    To push the implementation of 21st Century Competencies education, it’s important for the stakeholder like governments, research institutes, communities, and other civil organizations to work together. In this article, the authors discuss the international experience of supporting 21st Century Competencies education and describe the development of its supporting system from three aspects. First, governments have had the policies in place to drive and guide these education practices. Some practices promote the competencybased education through integrating the framework into the curriculum; others advance competencybased education through policies targeting some specific competencies, or through enhancing some aspects of the framework. Different practices reflect the varied needs of economies in different development phases and the impacts of local societies and cultures. Second, more autonomy should be granted to local education authorities, schools and teachers. By strengthening local autonomy, schools can tailor education to meet their unique needs. Cooperation should be promoted between schools and research institutes or NGOs. Apart from education authorities, some research institutes and civil societies have also voiced their own opinions on Competencies, thereby prompting deeper thinking and further reform. Also, communities and civil organizations should be encouraged to be engaged, providing authentic learning opportunities to children. Occupational needs are important starting points for developing a competency framework. Connection with vocational education is another important way to pursue competencybased education. Third, training programs should be delivered to ensure that teachers have a full undersatnding of 21st century competencies and master the proper teaching methods. We should also provide teachers with teaching resources and tools to help them transform ideas into practice. Based on the above discussion, the authors finally make the following policy suggestions: (a) a systematic design is needed for cultivating 21st Century Competencies in education and such a design involves driving forces, frameworks, practices and support systems. (b) a support system should be built, including support from within the schooling system (education authorities and school leaders), and beyond (research organizations, social organizations, businesses, communities, parents, and the public). (c) professional development pathways for teachers should be explored to improve the effectiveness of teacher training programs. (d)systematic solutions should be developed that can be disseminated elsewhere to promote competencybased education.

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    Attribution Analysis of Entrepreneurial Bugs of the NewGeneration Overseas Returnees and Strategies
    ZHONG Yunhua
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (3): 52-60.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.03.007
    Abstract181)   HTML29)    PDF (870KB)(1294)      

    With China’s rapid economic and social development and the increasing internationalization of higher education, the number of students studying abroad and returning after graduation keeps growing. In recent years, most of the returned students were born in the 1980s or 90s, who obtained a bachelor degree or master degree at public expense or their own expense, i.e. socalled ‘overseas returnees of the new generation’. They are not only internationalminded, but also skilled at the international advanced technology and business management, belonging to a typical ‘intelligence intensive group’. However, under the wave of massive entrepreneurship and innovation, they are having difficulties starting their business. This paper first presents a new analysis framework, in which entrepreneurial process is divides into four stages: seeding (preentrepreneurship), budding (early entrepreneurship), rooting (midentrepreneurship) and fruiting (mature entrepreneurship). Then, adopting descriptive statistics and regression analysis based on the questionnaire survey of 1200 new generation overseas returnees in Hunan, it conducts an attribution analysis of the difficulties facing the overseas returnees of the new generation from four aspects including individual traits, entrepreneurial resources, entrepreneurial preparation and retention policy environment. The descriptive statistics shows that, in the 1200 new generation overseas returnees, 320 (26.5%)chose to be employed,528(44.1%) chose to start a business, and 280(23.5%)have employment and entrepreneurial experience. In short, there are more entrepreneurs than employees among the new generation overseas returnees. However, more than 78% entrepreneurs of the new generation overseas returnees face serious difficulties, and there are great variations in the entrepreneurial bugs. For example, the item Your business is a massive layoffs has the lowest score, only 1.54 points; and the item The costs of your product or service continue to rise has the highest points, i.e. 4.28 points. Regression analysis shows that the main contributing factors include gender disparities and specialty differences in individual traits, inadequate entrepreneurial preparation, deficient entrepreneurial resources especially social capital, and imperfect and exclusive retention policy. In order to encourage the new generation overseas returnees to start businesses, we should establish a “revolving door” system to bring in more talents of new generation overseas returnees, formulate preferential entrepreneurship policies, build a entrepreneurial platform and financing dynamics for new generation overseas returnees.

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    The Emergence of the Institutionalization of Pedagogics and Its Logic
    CHENG Liang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (3): 61-70.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.03.008
    Abstract175)   HTML26)    PDF (674KB)(1238)      

    Since the 1980s, scholars in China have been reflecting and reconstructing pedagogics as an intellectual discipline or field of study. In the framework of metatheory of education, many a researcher has been intellectually enthusiastic about the pedagogical issues such as pedagogics’ connection with other disciplines and its intertwining between past and present, West and China, knowledge and action. In recent years, a pedagogical shift has emerged from the epistemological dimension to the sociological one concerning the institutionalization of pedagogics, i.e. the establishment of faculty and development of courses and textbooks. This paper attempts to depict and interpret the emergence and logic of the institutionalization of pedagogics in some European countries using a historical and comparative method. It has been found that pedagogics was institutionalized in the eighteenth century in Germany, in the form of textbooks, chairs, seminars and faculties. This process sought to meet the demands for welltrained teachers in secondary grammar schools and the philanthropic movement sparked by Rousseau’s discovery of children, and was rooted in the intellectually free atmosphere of modern universities. Later, pedagogics displayed diverse institutionalization when spreading to Denmark, Finland, Switzerland, UK and France etc. In general, the institutionalization of pedagogics was to meet the practical or even political demands for training and educating teachers for the nationstates, rather than theoretical or knowledge interest. This institutionalization to a certain degree shaped the traditions of pedagogical knowledge, including the normative paradigm in Germany, “comprehensive social science”mode in France, and “foundations disciplines”mode in UK. And also the institutionalization served to construct pedagogics as a professional identity. With the accumulation of pedagogical knowledge and the multiplication of interdisciplinary interactions, pedagogics has produced the strong awareness of its own professional identity from its reliance on other disciplines in the early stage of institutionalization. Meanwhile, it has been struggling to legitimize itself as an academic discipline, not simply driven by practical demands.

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    Education and Human Nature: Perspective of Conservatism View of Humanity
    WU Quan-Hua
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (3): 71-78.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.03.009
    Abstract256)   HTML29)    PDF (550KB)(1842)      

    From the perspective of conservative ideology of human, this paper aims to reveal the relationship between education and human. Although conservative ideology of human serves its political science, it is meaningful to examine education from the conservative angle, which contributes to refining the ideology of human and humanism position of education. Based on the review of related literatures about the proposition of conservative ideology of human, this paper argues that conservatism has abundant and unique propositions about human nature. In the view of conservatism, human nature is a potential ability. The moral issue of human nature is concrete, while goodness and evil is the concrete manifestation of the social realities. The relationship between human nature (as human potential) and the goodness and evil in human behavior is the same as a seed in different soil has different growth. Human being is a dignified existence, if a person lives without dignity, his or her life is not a real human life. Human nature is not only constant but also is the same everywhere. Human moral issue is no abstract, on the contrary it is concrete. As a concrete human morality, it is imperfect, and it is unlikely to be perfect. Human nature is the source of goodness and evil, the social system is not the source but is goodness or evil itself. Even if the social system is perfect, the tendency of evil in human nature also cannot be got rid of. Although human nature shows great uncertainty and difference, the possibility of human nature potential (goodness and evil) is constant, which makes human born imperfect, and is unlikely to achieve the highest goodness. Human nature is equal, and the actual performance of human nature is diverse. Immutable human nature is not only diverse but also natural. This natural diversity determines the social ability of different individuals and the difference between social roles. And the social ability of different individuals and the difference between social role leads to social inequality. Freedom is a part of human nature, but freedom is concrete and societal; it changes with the times and the environment. What’s more, freedom is based on the premise of order, which is real and meaningful. Although freedom cannot be separated from order, the value of freedom takes precedence over the value of order and authority. Without freedom of human nature, there would be no true virtue; without moral, there would be no human nature freedom. The conservative ideology of human nature has important educational implications. Based on the above analysis, this paper concludes that educators should not take the moral character and behavior of human being as a substantive nature but show much respect for the dignity of the educated. Only when the dignity of the educated is well respected can education be improved. The effect of education is limited, as it cannot change human nature and it should respect the imperfectness of human being. Education result equality should not be taken as a direct and primary objective of education justice. The orderly and virtuous freedom of human nature which liberal education aims to achieve is based on educational freedom. Without it there would be no liberal education. Education should enable the free growth of human nature by maintaining and creating freedom.

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    Analysis of Coword Visualization of Research Focus in China’s Education Law Studies
    QI Zhan-Yong,CHEN Peng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (3): 79-90.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.03.010
    Abstract153)   HTML27)    PDF (1602KB)(1230)      

    Education law studies is an emerging crossdiscipline subject in China. Since the reform and opening, China's education law studies has made great progress and played an increasingly prominent role in pedagogy and law studies. Meanwhile, the research of education law studies has made great achievements, and qualitative research methods are used to review and summarize the development of China’s education law. But in general, the study of education law still lacks a systematic quantitative analysis. For example, a textual description is subject to the influence of personal subjective experience, thus leading to improper classification and summary, which makes it difficult to dig out the dynamic relationship between research themes. Based on 1409 papers of CNKI database from 1985 to 2015, this study, using Bicomb and Spss, attempts to analyze the coword visualization of research focus in China’s education law studies through knowledge mapping. It identifies highfrequency keywords, creates a coword matrix of highfrequency keywords and conducts a cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling. The results show that the research focus of education law studies involves six fields: the legal status of higher learning institutions and legal relationship and legal remedy, the autonomy of higher learning institutions, education by law and the system of education law, education of the legal institution among university students and their legal consciousness, student injury accidents and legal obligations, and right to compulsory education. In addition, our study shows the general trend of researches on legal education (ten more and ten less) in the past 30 years. There have been more qualitative researches but less innovative methods; more researches on substantive laws but less on procedural laws; more on education legal affairs but less on education jurisprudence; more on statute but less on act; more generalized but less disciplinary perspective; more single discipline researches but less interdisciplinary researches; more on legal systems but less rule of law; more on legal text elaboration but less on legal creation; more macro researches but less microscopic; more administrative researches but less on internal corporate governance. Therefore, more research work needs to be done in the procedural law, education jurisprudence, education legal case, discipline vision, rule by education law and so on, so as to enrich the research areas of education law and highlight the relatively independent discipline status of education law.

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    The Synergy of Educational Administrative Law Enforcement:Patterns, Limitations and Strategies  ——a Case of Recent Reform Initiatives
    GAO Hang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (3): 91-99.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.03.011
    Abstract190)   HTML25)    PDF (563KB)(1141)      

    The relationship between education and politics, economy, science and technology is complex, supportive and restrictive. In the period of social transition, the transfer of the decentralized educational administrative law enforcement(EALE)not only makes the environment of EALE more complicated but also makes its agents more diversified. All this requires a highly coordinated mechanism. Thus, the ongoing reform of the system of EALE launched by Ministry of Education, China puts emphasis on enhancing the synergy of EALE and establishing an efficient EALE system. The policy documents state some strategies from the following aspects: distribution of administrative powers, arrangement of law enforcement agencies, and capacitybuilding of law enforcement. In order to improve the synergy of EALE, it is very essential to examine and analyze the existing patterns and its shortages. The synergy of EALE occurs at two levels: the inner synergy in the educational administrative system and the crosssector synergy. The practice pattern of the inner synergy pays more attention to the hierarchical synergy and the synergy between the inner agencies; to the reform of inner comprehensive EALE; to the building of special functional offices and affiliated institutions; and to the administrative agency itself or the power delegated by the superior. However, there are some problems in the inner synergy, such as limited staffing, vague power allocation, legislation barriers, flawed crossregional synergy. On the other hand, the practice pattern of the crosssector synergy focuses on the reform of joint law enforcement and the synergy between different administrative departments. Also, there are some shortages in the crosssector synergy, including insufficient synergy between different government departments, improper synergy between governments and nongovernment organizations, etc. In the future, it is imperative to improve the synergy of EALE from the following six aspects: reinforcing the toplevel design and institutional supply, allocating powers rationally, combining EALE with education supervision, exploring the reform of crosssector comprehensive administrative law enforcement, making the best of the local organizations and cooperating with nongovernment organizations.

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    Study on the Relationship between Academic Procrastination and Academic Selfefficacy of Junior Middle School Students
    CHEN Qiuzhu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (3): 100-106.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.03.012
    Abstract252)   HTML33)    PDF (487KB)(2111)      

    Study on the relationship between academic procrastination and academic selfefficacy of junior middle school students will not only help better understand the influence mechanism but also help improve the learning and mental health of junior middle school students. Using Academic Procrastination Questionnaire for Junior Middle School Students and Academic Selfefficacy Questionnaire, along with cluster random sampling, this study selected 500 junior middle school students from two junior middle schools in X City. The findings reveal that: first, as a whole, the academic procrastination among junior middle school students was below average level. Academic procrastination among junior middle school students is characterized by their low performance, slow learning behavior, and lack of learning plans, as well as the least possibilities of bad state of learning. Second, their learning behavior selfefficacy was superior to their learning ability selfefficacy. Third, there was significant negative correlation between academic procrastination and academic selfefficacy. Fourth, in selfefficacy to learning ability (SELA), two main factor effects were significant, lack of implementation plans and inadequate implementation, and in case of inadequate implementation, the lack of planning and the poor state of interaction were significant. Fifth, four main factor effects of academic procrastination were significantly different in selfefficacy to learning behavior (SELB). There were significant differences in interaction between inadequate implementation and lack of planning, inadequate implementation and poor performance, lack of planning and behavior of hysteresis, lack of planning and poor state. Conclusions drawn from this study are as follows: first, the academic procrastination of junior middle school students mainly embodied the insufficiency of learning performance and slow learning behavior. As a whole, the academic procrastination among junior middle school students was better, but special attention should be paid to the lack of learning plans. Second, learning behavior selfefficacy was superior to their learning ability selfefficacy. Third, there was significant negative correlation between the academic procrastination and academic selfefficacy. Fourth, junior high school students’ SELA was mainly affected by such factors as lack of performance and lack of planning. Fifth, junior high school students’ SELB was greatly influenced by the four factors and their interaction of academic procrastination.

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    Education of International Students in China: Origin,Process and Significance
    LI Peng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (3): 107-112.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.03.013
    Abstract217)   HTML24)    PDF (517KB)(1289)      

    Education of International Students in China is an important part of the education in new China, which has helped deepen mutual understanding and communication between China and the outside world. Today, great achievements have been made in the education of international students studying in China, which dates from the early 1950s, when China first received foreign students studying in China. However, previous studies on this issue are far from the needs of practice and no formal academic paper was published on this process. Based on historical and document analysis, this article examines the origin, process and significance of the education of foreign students in China in the 1950s. It is divided into three parts. The first part discusses the practical considerations and preparations to receive foreign students. In the early years since the founding of new China, the then central government launched the “onesided” diplomatic strategy, and the diplomatic relations were limited to the Soviet Union and some socialist countries of Eastern Europe. Before its educational exchanges with the Soviet Union, China had established educational and cultural exchanges with Eastern European countries. And by the end of 1950, bilateral educational and cultural exchange system and the supporting measures had been created, which laid a good foundation for Eastern European students studying in China. The second part focuses on the study and daily life of foreign students. Due to the differences both in culture and understanding of studying in China, the foreign students were not accustomed to their study when they first arrived. For example, they came to study in China at different time, so their study lacked a unified teaching plan. In addition, some students were eager for quick success and they were not satisfied with the political and moral lessons arranged by the Chinese government, though these disagreements were finally settled through negotiation. The third part deals with the ways of teaching the foreign students through multiple channels and approaches, in particular through onetoone guidance by instructors, oneonone coaching by student assistants and oneonone help by peers. These measures helped the foreign students overcome their language barriers in the shortest time before they were able to enter the selected courses in colleges and universities. To sum up, the education of international students in China in the 1950s had great implication for the development of a new system of studying abroad in China. Meanwhile, receiving foreign students studying in China also puts forward new tasks and requirements for teaching Chinese as a foreign language.

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    Six Scholars’Discussion on Building the Discipline of History of Education
    ZHANG Bin-xian et al.
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (4): 1-14.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.02.001
    Abstract86)   HTML36)    PDF (605KB)(842)      
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    Academic Support for the History of Educational Body
    LI Yanli;ZHOU Hongyu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (4): 15-22.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.04.002
    Abstract156)   HTML126)    PDF (531KB)(1139)      

    The history of educational body, based on the history of the body, examines the body changes of education participants and their influence on education and society, which reflects the return to the origin of education history and to the pursuit of life care for the education participants. Of course, the history of educational body, as an emerging research focus, does not occur overnight. It reflects the need and the pursuit of the study of educational history, which concerns people’s life experiences, promoted by the existing achievements and theories of the philosophy, history, education, sociology, psychology and anthropology. Some underlying disciplines like the philosophy of the body, the body history, physical education science research provide solid theoretical support for the research of the history of educational body. Meanwhile, their attention to and discussion on the body are helpful to clarify the nature and attributes of body in the research on the history of educational body. Based on this, it’s essential to form a comprehensive understanding of the participants, beyond the binary opposition mode of body and spirit. The discussion on body in those disciplines helps to clarify the need that education participants should return to the center of educational activities in the research of the educational body. Besides, the body is no longer limited to the flesh from the perspective of biology and medicine, but a physical and spiritual unity which carries abundant social meaning and understanding of the world. This epistemology resulting from these disciplines has contributed to the development of the history of educational body, which in turn led to the basic ideas behind the focus on the education participants’ body and their life. All this has provided a basis for the analysis of the feeling and experience in education. In addition, it helps to explore the rich social significance for education participants’ body and social and other interaction. Also, such body types as the division of time, space, state of gender, and the state of consumption in these disciplines as well as the research on the body appendages, physical senses and emotions, body disease, the application of fieldwork, ethnography and the research methods, are helpful to researchers in writing the history of educational body. This can help better determine the research framework, enrich the research methods, and pay more attention to the real feeling of the research participants. Taking the body as the foundation, researchers can return to the life care for education participants, and eventually writes the history of education for the presence of people and the human body. In short, as a new field of research, the research of the history of educational body, drawing on the relevant research resource such as philosophy, history, education, anthropology, aesthetics and sociology, will offer some guidance for those who work on history of educational body.

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    From Discipline to Attempt at Liberation: Transformation of Body Education in the Late Qing Dynasty from the Perspective of Hormonology
    LI Zhong;QI Tingting;HAO Jie
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (4): 23-28.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.04.003
    Abstract197)   HTML33)    PDF (619KB)(1069)      

    Human’s physical body is greatly valued in Chinese traditional culture and there accumulated abundant resources of body education. However, the physical body mainly became a display of people’s spiritual virtue, due to the fact that human being was deemed as the existence of virtue in the context of Chinese traditional culture. Human body was highly disciplined with the popularity of etiquette culture, the penetration of power, as well as the tame of social customs and educational tradition. Thus, the body became the practice of etiquette, power, social customs and educational tradition, and fell victim to maintaining the social order. Dominated by etiquettes and manners, scholars and students firmly adhered to social customs and allow their physical bodies to be tightly bound by the rule of ritual. As a result, their bodies could not be fully utilized and were getting weaker and weaker. While the ritual was exercised as a moderate way to dominate human body, the act of shaving man’s hair and wearing braid would be a violent manifestation. Besides, under the influence of power, the Han people’s head was transformed into the Manchu people’s head, and men were used to having their tails shaved, which was popular in the Qing Empire. In addition, foot binding, as a social custom, was a principal way to discipline female’s body, which caused severe distortion of their feet and directly affected female’s body health as well as their action capacity. In particular, educational tradition emphasizing reading, memorizing, and punishment was monotonous and dull. Corporal punishment was widely used as a teaching method. The lack of P.E. class, the prohibition of playing games, and the poor sanitary conditions resulted in students’ weak and vulnerable bodies, which was the root cause of the decline of Qing Dynasty. Stimulated by the foreign culture, the Chinese people in the late Qing Dynasty began to gain a new understanding of human being, and human being was redefined, that is, human being was not merely the existence of virtue, but freedom, equality, and empowerment, as well as a rational being (with knowledge, skill, intelligence and reason as the core elements). Both virtue and rationality were attached to human’s body. Only then was human body seen as important as virtue and rationality. The body under the discipline of etiquette culture, social custom, and educational tradition began to get liberated. The cramming education of instilling book knowledge was replaced by the combination of the transition of book knowledge and handson activities; empirical knowledge was valued; students’ bodies were less bounded; and gymnastics became the principal means of human body liberation. In this sense, the liberation of human body began, though the degree was preliminary in the late Qing Dynasty. The extent to which people emphasized body was closely related to the extent of their understanding of human being. Human body would be overlooked if human being was merely understood as the existence of spirit, and thus harmonious development of body and mind would be a fantasy rather than a reality. It should be noted that in Chinese education today there widely exist health problems caused by the cramming education for examination. In conclusion, the problem of body education in the late Qing Dynasty is not only a historical issue, but more importantly, a reality concern.

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    Research on Body Shaping of the Pupils in Modern China
    WEI Ke
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (4): 29-35.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.04.004
    Abstract196)   HTML119)    PDF (645KB)(972)      

    Chinese education in the past century has undergone a series of major transformation. Most previous studies discussed the transformation either from the aspects of ideas, systems and culture, or from the aspects of specialized subjects, such as science education, Chinese education, history education, physical education and health education, etc. Such research tends to overlook the value and subjectivity of human in education. The research on education history from the perspective of body is a new trend in the field of academic research in recent years. It can change the status quo of fragmentation, highlight the subjectivity of human, and expand the research on the history of Education. Along with both domestic strife and foreign aggression, the national crisis compelled some enlightened people like Liang Qi chao and Yan Fu put forward the thought of “building a strong country to protect the Chinese”. Among them, Cai’e, a then well known general, emphasized the importance of education for the shaping of the national body and put forward the idea of military nationalism education. This had a tremendous impact on the transformation of modern education. The focus of “Saving the nation” was on the transformation of national characteristics, especially the national body. And education played an important role in transforming the national body. As the most basic part of national education, the elementary school education is the most important part of the national body shaping. In this paper, body shaping mainly referred to the educational activities required to shape the standardized body image based on certain standard for ideal personality. The premise of body shaping is man’s being unaccom plished. The main targets of shaping were the primary school students. Body shaping emphasized the concurrent development of the external shaping and self cultivation, mainly including the shaping of behavioral habits of health, physical education, etiquette, order and so on. The body shaping of the pupils consisted of the external shaping and the self cultivation. As the Gui mao school system promulgated during the late Qing Dynasty in 1904, the government exercised its control of the enactment of body shaping. Some journals, especially educational journals, such as Educational Review, the Chinese Education Circles and other publications, published a large number of pictures of the primary school students, disseminating the ideas and values among the pupils. Meanwhile, the schools laid down some guidelines to direct the behavior of students, and the school staff came up with the implementation details. The pupils’ diaries showed that they had a comprehensive understanding of their body and that they tried to improve their health by physical activities. They believed their own body connected to the country. When it came to physical punishment, they stressed self reflection and self admonishing. The process of pupils’ body shaping in modern China has the following main characteristics: internalization rather than externalization, multiple driving forces, a trend of particularization, etc. In short, the pupils’ body shaping made great contributions to the transformation of modern education in modern China.

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    Alienation, Resistance and Revelation: A Dream of the Red Chamber and Female Body Education in the Ming and Qing Dynasties
    YU Yang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (4): 36-40.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.04.005
    Abstract249)   HTML34)    PDF (593KB)(922)      

    Research on the history of educational activities requires researchers to pay more attention to the common people and multiple sources of historical documents. As a classic novel,A Dream of the Red Chamber has been used as the research text of history, as well as one of the important material for studying the history of education, e.g. body history during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. This article attempts to study female body education through combining the official historical documents of the Ming and Qing Dynasties and A Dream of the Red Chamber. Results show that in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, though men favored talented women, they could not escape from the influence of deep rooted feudal ethics. In terms of female education, Confucian ethics is full of contradictions. On the one hand, intellectual men disliked foolish women; on the other hand, women were not supposed to read many books, but to restrain their body and behaviors. This made women depressed about receiving education. Influenced by the traditional Confucianism, female body education gradually developed into that of the nobleness and humbleness, and thus legally prescribed. Female body education in this period tended to pursue the gentle and quiet state of body as noble, while the active state of the body as humble. At the same time, female body education emphasized the ethical structures through the relationship between superior and subordinate, father and son, husband and wife, and that a woman's body belonged to her husband or son. As a result, female body education was mandatory under strict legal control. The authorities published many textbooks for women, and women's words and deeds were limited to men’s requirements in the form of mandatory laws. The alienation of female body education is not just about the discipline of social ideology under male’s surveillance, rather, the female themselves transformed the education into a kind of selfsurveillance. This invisible surveillance and discourse could gradually erode and change the female group, reducing them to obedient group. In the official historical documents, we see death in women, most of whom committed suicide in the name of love. However, A Dream of the Red Chamber revealed the true cause of women’s death, which reflected their fight against female body education. The novel may help us return to the fundamental problem of women's liberation, that is, to regain the body’s self consciousness. In this sense, A Dream of the Red Chamber is the enlightenment of female body education in the Ming and Qing dynasties.

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    Body as a Metaphor: Hair cutting in Schools in Republican China
    ZHOU Hongyu;ZHOU Na
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (4): 41-47.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.04.006
    Abstract200)   HTML29)    PDF (510KB)(1498)      

    In Republican China, construction of human body was a vehicle of displacing and displaying social anxieties, and the Chinese body encountered intensive and continuous configuration (Huang jinlin, 2006, P.3). Schools in Republican China, as an enclosed space, organized along with Republican China, are of importance to regulate bodies. Human body gives a privileged access to the research of history of education in Republican China. In this paper, we will examine the conflicts and struggles between school authorities and girls around “girls’ hair”, which occurred in the early Republican China. Republican China experienced a series of conflicts and struggles around girls’ hair in school. It is interesting to find a more traditional view on girls’ hair cutting or hair perm prevailed, while forbidding feet binding and liberating breast were seen as a rebellion against body repression. Based on literature review, we analyze the possible reasons behind it. In the early 20th century, inspired by national liberation movement, as well as democratic revolution movement and international feminist movement, women’s self consciousness in China was awakened. Women’s pursuit of liberation evoked the anxiety of men, who, for a long time, monitored the discourse on what image of women should be. The right of self determination of hair was considered as a protest against male domination, hence the conflicts and struggles between girls and schools. That girls’ hair cutting or hair perm was not an endowed symbol of modernity was another reason. In Republican China, women were imbued with “nationalist universality in a masculinist discourse” (Tani Barlow, 1996, pp. 58). While girls’ hair cutting or hair perm even in modern western countries met with opposition, the image of modern women which the progressive intellectual class (overwhelmingly male) constructed, who put all modern western experiences as reference, did not involve hair cutting or hair perm. Furthermore, in the article Figuring Modernity: The New Woman and the Modern Girl in Republican China, Sarahe Stevens proposed that there were two images of woman in Republican China, the figure of the New Woman and the figure of Modern Girl, and these two images reflected opposite views of modernity, the former stood for the nation and its quest for modernity and the latter was described as the expression of modernity visually, represented fears for the modern nation and the drawback of modernity. This paper explores the factors which contributed to the construction of girls’ hair in school in Republican China, that is, the issue of modernity and nation, the pursuit of women’s liberation and being fashionable.

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    Emotion and Affect in Research on History of Education
    Noah W. Sobe
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (4): 48-51.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.04.007
    Abstract188)   HTML105)    PDF (430KB)(1221)      

    This article discusses the historiography of emotions in the history of education with an emphasis on some emerging approaches and promising directions in the field in the last decade. The first section of the article deals with the paradigm shift of emotional regulation treated by historians of education. For much of the twentieth century, a “hydraulic” conceptualization of emotions as liquids and pressures that “build up” and must be accommodated dominated the ways historians address emotions. Therefore, emotional regulation has long been a theme in educational history of emotions, much of which can be characterized by a “governmentality studies”. And studies of emotional behavior in schools have typically focused on the affective behaviors. The second section offers an introduction of the concept of affect and the emergence of affective histories. An affective turn had been popular since the late 1890s, which had considerable effect on humanities, historical studies in particular. Though the examinationof social norms and desired affective behaviors remain at the core of much research in the history of education, historians of education are increasingly contextualizing their work in a broader history of affect. Affect is not reduced to emotion. The article argues that affective turn can help understand the history of education from three key aspects. The final section explores the effect of the latest studies on consciousness and choice making in current neuroscienceas well as an increased attention to practices of embodiment can have on the history of education. Focus on the body can be seen as a bridge between the studies of affect and those of emotional regulation. To grapple with the problems with the historical study of human body, this paper argues that we need to move from affective histories to histories of the emotions. In developing a better understanding of the body rather than considering it as organism/self/subject, it’s necessary to explore the developments in cognitive neuroscience and psychology concerninghow human brain works. What we are beginning to learn about the similarities and differences in how the brain relates to its own body and how it relates to the outside world, together with our understanding of how humans make choices, help to have a profound impact on historical studies. For historians of education working on the history of emotion and affect, a new understanding of human consciousness will have an effect on how we understand human agency.

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    Access to Top Universities and its Regional Disparity:2008-2015
    CAO Yan;ZHANG Ruijuan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (4): 52-65.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.04.008
    Abstract170)   HTML27)    PDF (1074KB)(1672)      

    In recent years, access to top universities and its regional disparity have become a major concern. With government initiatives launched to improve the quality of higher education through building world class universities, the research focus is shifting from access to higher education to access to high quality top universities. This paper first defines the criteria for top universities in China. According to three Chinese universities rankings and four international universities rankings from 2011 to 2015, 34 Chinese universities are regarded as top universities in China. In addition, considering several factors in the enrollment procedures in college entrance examinations, this paper employs the Principle Component Analysis method to construct the index of the access to top universities. Based on province level descriptive statistics analysis of the access index from both longitudinal trends and horizontal regional differences, three empirical results were produced. First, the access to the 34 top universities has been increasing year by year at a moderate race, i.e. by about 4.57%. It is true that an increasing quota has been allocated to west China. However, as more and more students from west China participate in the college entrance examination, the increased access to top universities was attenuated. Therefore, the effectiveness of quota policy on bridging the regional gap is relatively weak. Moreover, as the relevant compensatory policies target some provinces in the middle and western area, provinces in other area, like Guangdong, Hainan, Chongqing and Sichuan, have less support from the central government. Compared with the increasing number of students entering for the college entrance exam, the access to top universities in these provinces is decreasing. Secondly, while in 2015 the regional disparity was reduced, it has been greater in the other years. The phenomenon is most obvious in east China, where the widening gaps in school age population, the number of examinees and enrollment quotas have aggravated the regional disparity. In terms of the access to top universities throughout the years, cities like Shanghai, Beijing and Tianjin have their comparative advantages, while in some other provinces like Guangdong and Hainan, the access is reducing. Finally, using a fixed effect model, this paper continues to explore the factors that might influence the access index. Results show that, when controlling provincial endowment, though quota reallocation policy may have significant positive effect on the access to the top universities, it contributes little to reducing the access inequality in different provinces. Rather, the economic development becomes the key factor in explaining the variance of access. Therefore, with the widening inequality of the economic development in different provinces, the inequality of opportunity might be greater as well.

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    An empirical analysis of the current construction of integrity culture in Chinese education system
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (4): 66-70.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.04.009
    Abstract80)   HTML25)    PDF (577KB)(605)      

    Based on the analysis of a national survey (2,957sampls), the research team gained a clear understanding of the current situation and summarized the success and the existing problems from four aspects (concept, system, support and behavior). An indepth analysis was conducted on how to improve the integrity culture of education system in China. The second paper focuses on the nature of integrity culture in education, which involves morality, fairness and rule of law.

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    Productivity by standardized fund management to improve the innovation’s growing: International Comparison in budget management
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (4): 71-74.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.04.010
    Abstract105)   HTML29)    PDF (443KB)(842)      

    How to activate research productivity by standardized fund management is discussed in the fifth paper. China's development is driven by innovation rather than by elements, and the importance of funding scientific researches and innovation is growing. However, the dilemma is how to deal with rigid fund regulations and the flexible innovation excitation. Based on international experience, the authors propose that the key solution is not only to strengthen budget management and follow the rules of scientific research, but also to establish a new system to facilitate the scientific researches and innovation.

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    The nature of integrity culture in education
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (4): 75-78.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.04.011
    Abstract174)   HTML32)    PDF (412KB)(785)      
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    The Risk of prevention  the integrity and the governance of modern universities
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (4): 79-84.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.04.012
    Abstract120)   HTML28)    PDF (482KB)(716)      
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    The goal of constructing an integrity culture in universities
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (4): 85-88.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.04.013
    Abstract124)   HTML27)    PDF (423KB)(799)      
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    The Status Quo and Future Trends of International Curriculum Studies
    GAO Zhenyu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (4): 89-97.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.04.014
    Abstract235)   HTML31)    PDF (1114KB)(1186)      

    The primary objective of curriculum studies in China today is to revive its world leading status in the early 1920s and 1930s, and to have East West curriculum dialogues based on equality and reciprocity. To achieve this, it is necessary to have a comprehensive understanding of the curriculum studies at the global level. Employing a knowledge mapping software Citespace III, this paper tries to offer a systematic review of the collected SSCI essays on different curriculum themes from the database of WoS (Web of Science), conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis from several dimensions (state and institution, keywords, cited reference, theoretical framework and research method) and then reveal the evolution process, characteristics of curriculum research in the past decade as well as its future trends. The study shows that most authors of the published original articles on curriculum are from the USA, Australia and European countries (such as Britain, Sweden and Holland), though some authors from Asian and African countries are trying to catch up with their western counterparts. As to the research focus, international curriculum scholars attempt to reexamine the complex conflicts and implications concerning curriculum from economic, political, cultural, racial and gender perspectives at the macro level. At the micro level, they are interested in the lived experiences, identity and caring for the individual teachers and students in subject teaching and curriculum policy making process. These scholars have also begun to use varied qualitative research methodologies instead of traditional quantitative research dominated paradigm, such as case study, narrative inquiry, ethnographic study, discourse analysis and historical inquiry. They emphasize the building of collaborative relationship between the researcher and the research objects. What's more, they have created a number of original curriculum theories or discourses, contributing to developing curriculum studies into an independent academic discipline. Therefore, to promote the internationalization of curriculum research in China, curriculum scholars are encouraged to accomplish the following tasks. First, it’s essential to establish some critical writing communities at different geographical levels. They can not only turn to international peers for consultation and even invite them to participate in our research process, but also establish sustainable research partnership with foreign institutions through attending or co sponsoring international curriculum conferences (such as the Division B sessions in AERA, the IAACS and AAACS conferences). Second, it's necessary to develop more diversified perspectives or discourses to understand the curriculum in Chinese context, and pay more attention to the multiple identities (such as gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status), lived experiences and positive strengths of Chinese teachers and students in educational arenas. Third, we should conduct more research studies by using different quantitative and qualitative methodologies, in addition to the traditional philosophical research methods which are currently the mainstream in our curriculum research field. Besides, we should enhance the consciousness of collaborating with research objects (especially the young children) and develop more effective strategies to make this collaboration happen. Finally and also most importantly, curriculum researchers should devote themselves to the localization and reconstruction of western curriculum theories and practical experiences, and on this basis create native and valuable theoretical systems of curriculum informed by our traditional wisdoms (such as Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism).

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    The Methodology and Practices of Mixed Methods Research:Consensuses, Controversies and Reflection
    LI Gang;WANG Honglei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (4): 98-105.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.04.015
    Abstract300)   HTML44)    PDF (761KB)(2869)      

    Mixed methods research (MMR) is a kind of research that combines the elements of both quantitative and qualitative approaches, which not only combines different specific methods but also attempts to integrate theunderlying philosophies and theories. MMR was introduced in the late of 1950s,and became a distinctive methodology with the development of its underlying theoriesand applied processesduring the Paradigm War in the 1980s. Since the 1990s, MMR has developed into a relatively complete methodology as well as a popular research design. Advocates harshly criticize the viewpoint that different paradigms and methodsare notcompatible. They argue that: a) MMR reveals the continuity of paradigmsin that different paradigms do not oppose completely;b) even if different paradigms might beincompatible, specific methods still can be mixed; c) MMR has complementary advantages over quantitative or qualitative research. Thecriticisms provide space for the development of MMR. Moreover, pragmatism, as a widely acceptedparadigm, provides MMR with anunderlying philosophy. However, many researchers question the selection of pragmatism as the paradigm of MMR, as pragmatism seems to be a perfect excuse for researchers to escape reflectingits underlying philosophy. In practice, researchers should first respond to why they choose the design of MMR (DMMR). In particular, they should clarify the process and function of the integration.The integration tends tooccurwhere the qualitative research and the quantitative research joinor when researchers attempt to reach the conclusions from different parts. It can promote the research or mutual attestation, complementation or innovative conclusions. Based on the sequence,and status of the qualitativeand quantitative research as well as the process and function of integration,DMMR can be divided intothree categories: parallel design, quantitative qualitative sequence design, and qualitative quantitative sequence design. Researchers may reorganize the three designs according toparticularresearch questions and research conditions. Currently, researchers still have to face the problems with data collection and analysis, data translation, conclusion integration, and the judgment of inference quality when they choose DMMR. In addition, they should first prove the rationality of the choice of MMR and provide a panoramic research process and conclusion in the articles. Finally, an investigation is conductedon35 MMRsfrom 330 educational doctoral dissertations, which reveals that few researchers prove the rationality of DMMR or try to integrate the conclusions from different approaches. Thedoctoral candidates seem to choose MMR because MMR has become a fashion, not that they need to integrate different solutions to their research questions more efficiently. In sum, Chinese researchers should pay more attention to addressing MMR in a moresystematic way.

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    Pedagogical Review on Educational Performance Management
    ZHOU Bin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (4): 106-111.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2016.04.016
    Abstract177)   HTML34)    PDF (442KB)(938)      

    with the development of public education, collective education gradually replaced individual education. On the one hand, although the model of education is collective education, we always think that collective education should stick to the spirit of individual education; one the other hand, for the sake of more opportunities of education and high quality education, we wish collective education pursue the effectiveness and fairness of education which are two major issues in the current education development. Educational performance management is an useful management model to make collective education more effective. In the collective education, the investment and contribution of teachers become fuzzy, so teachers have no motivation to devote more investment to collective education because they are not sure that they can get contribution enough according with the investment. So, educational performance evaluation is the premise of the reconstruction of the dynamic mechanism of teachers. With the construction of the educational performance management system, we should have a scientific assessment of teacher’s investment and contribution, but also need to respect the teacher’s professional autonomy and follow the inherent law of the development of education. If we only pay attention to the result of measurable teacher’s investment and contribution, teachers will avoid devoting the unmeasurable investment and contribution. In the educational performance standard setting, we need to consider the students’ learning achievement, also must consider complex relationship between the teachers’ teaching investment and students’ learning achievement. If we pay more attention to the students’ learning achievement, teachers will only cultivate the students’ learning achievement at the present. So, students should lost the opportunity to grow up in distance. Of course, the educational performance management is not all the school management. if we want to make good use of educational performance management, we must think about it under the eyesight of whole school management system. Education is complex, education and school management is complex too. In response to complex problems in education, we should develop more extensive management tools, so we can not only enhance the efficiency of school but also improve the quality of education.

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    Abstracts and Keywords of Major Articles
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (4): 112-121.  
    Abstract90)   HTML39)    PDF (233KB)(568)      
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2016, 34 (4): 123-123.  
    Abstract111)   HTML31)    PDF (321KB)(552)      
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