华东师范大学学报(教育科学版) ›› 2014, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (1): 103-110.doi:

• 教育史 • 上一篇    下一篇

赋权女性:晚清民国女子教科书的启蒙诉求

吴小鸥,李想   

  1. 1.宁波大学教师教育学院,浙江 宁波 315211;2.北京师范大学哲学与社会学学院,北京 100875
  • 出版日期:2014-03-20 发布日期:2014-04-14
  • 通讯作者: 吴小鸥:宁波大学教师教育学院教授,博士,主要从事中国百年教科书研究。 李想:北京师范大学哲学与社会学学院2011级社会工作专业本科生,主要从事社会学研究。
  • 作者简介:吴小鸥:宁波大学教师教育学院教授,博士,主要从事中国百年教科书研究。 李想:北京师范大学哲学与社会学学院2011级社会工作专业本科生,主要从事社会学研究。
  • 基金资助:

    全国教育科学“十一五”规划教育部重点课题“百年中国教科书启蒙诉求研究”(DAA100187)及浙江省哲学社会科学规划一般课题“浙江知识分子与中国近现代教科书发展研究”(编号:12JCJY14YB)的研究成果。

Empowerment of Women:Enlightenment Aspirations in Women's Textbooks of the Late Qing Dynasty and Republican China

Wuxiaoou& Lixiang   

  1. 1.College of Teacher Education, NingBo University , ZheJiang NingBo,315211 2.College of Philosophy & Sociology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
  • Online:2014-03-20 Published:2014-04-14
  • Contact: Wuxiaoou& Lixiang
  • About author:Wuxiaoou& Lixiang

摘要: 1904-1915年是晚清民国时期女子教科书编(译)撰的高峰期,但数量与种类不多,且科目不齐。小学女子教科书集中在清末民初编纂,以修身、国文、尺牍、家事、算术学科为主,中学女子教科书集中在民初编译,以算术、代数、几何、化学、物理、生理、矿物、动物、植物等学科为主。女子教科书的启蒙诉求集中表现为对女子教育享有权、自主发展权、工作参与权、身心健康权的赋权增能,超越了当时社会上一些先进知识分子关于女子及女子教育的思想。由于编撰者均为男性,女子教科书呈现的是符合男子社会文化标准的理想女性形象,关注女子存在于新时代的社会功能并进行着“良母贤妻”的温驯。虽然女子教科书表现为一种他者赋权而不是立足于女性生命本体的自我赋权,但教科书能从天赋人权的角度竭力倡导女子全新人生范式的构建以及全新的“国民之母”及“女国民”身份认同,历史意义和价值都是十分巨大,为幽暗时空的中国社会增添了一抹绚丽的色彩。

关键词: 晚清民国, 女子, 教科书, 赋权, 启蒙

Abstract: The compilation of women's textbooks of the late Qing Dynasty and Republican China saw its peak from 1904 to 1915, but it lacked in numbers and kinds with incomplete subjects. Textbooks for girls in primary schools were mainly complied in the late Qing Dynasty and republican China,including morality, Chinese, calligraphy, housewifery, arithmetic as major subjects. Textbooks for girls in middle schools were mainly complied in the early Republican China,including arithmetic , algebra, geometry, chemistry, physics, physiology, mineralogy, zoology, botany as major subjects. Enlightenment aspirations in Women’s textbooks shows that women were empowered the rights to receive education, seek self- development, get employed and keep health mentally and physically and extends beyond what advanced intellectuals thought about women and women's education. For compiled by males, women’s textbook presents the ideal image of women in line with social and cultural standards of a male’s world which concerns women's social function in the new era and a docile training of a "good wife and a good mother". Although rights are empowered rather than self-empowering, women’s textbooks has been of massive historical significance and value based on that they advocate a new paradigm for life and stresses a different identity with a "national mother" and "female national " from the perspective of natural rights of women, which has illuminated the dark times of Chinese society.

Key words: the Late Qing and Republican China, women, textbooks, empowerment, enlightenment