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    Starting Line Competition: An Analysis of the First Time for Primary and Secondary School Students to Participate in Extracurricular Tutoring—— An Empirical Study Supporting the Implementation of the “Double Reduction” Policy
    Haiping Xue, Huanhuan Shi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (2): 71-89.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.006
    Abstract1362)   HTML173)    PDF (1060KB)(1408)      

    The effective implementation of the “Double Reducation” policy needs to accurately identify the deep-seated reasons why students choose to participate in extracurricular tutoring. Studying the time when primary and secondary school students participate in extracurricular tutoring for the first time can provide an empirical basis for relieving the extracurricular tutoring needs of parents and students. Based on the data of the 2017 China Institute for Educational Finance Research-Household Survey (CIEFR-HS 2017), this paper uses the method of survival analysis to describe primary and secondary school students’ first-time participation in extracurricular tutoring, and discusses the impact of family socio-economic background on the survival time of students’ first-time participation in extracurricular tutoring. This paper finds that, first, most of the primary and secondary school students in China have participated in extracurricular tutoring, and many of them have participated in extracurricular tutoring relatively early. Second, the time of primary and secondary school students who participate in extracurricular tutoring of subjects for the first time is significantly earlier than that of interest classes, and the difference is more prominent with the increase of grade. Third, there is a significant difference in the first time students from urban and rural and different social classes participate in extracurricular tutoring, but the difference gradually reduces with the increase of school period. Fourth, family socio-economic status has a significant positive impact on the time of students’ first participation in extracurricular tutoring. Students with better family socio-economic backgrounds are more likely to participate in extracurricular tutoring earlier, but this difference decreases with the increase of students’ learning period. In the context of “Double Reduction” policy, it is suggested that the government should continue to improve the quality of elementary education to meet the needs of parents and students for individualized education. Besides, it's important to provide academic counseling for disadvantaged students with poor academic performance, and provide subsidies for the students of vulnerable groups with poor academic performance. Also, it’s important to guide parents to choose extracurricular tutoring rationally, as well as objectively and dialectically examine the impact of extracurricular tutoring on the development of students.

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    Determining Sample Size in Qualitative Research: Saturation, its Conceptualization, Operationalization and Relevant Debates
    Ailei Xie, Jiayi Chen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2021, 39 (12): 15-27.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.12.002
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    Saturation has become an important criterion to judge the quality of qualitative research and explain the rationality of sample size. This paper systematically and critically reviews the literature and introduces three types of saturation: theoretical saturation, thematical saturation and data saturation and points out that researchers should consider their own overall research design to decide which model to adopt. The paper also introduces three ways to record the process of saturation. Among them, the structural coding book is more suitable for recording deductive thematical saturation and data saturation. There are two types of saturation tables which are more suitable for recording a prior thematical saturation. The conceptual depth scale is particularly suitable for recording theoretical saturation. This paper points out that saturation is a process rather than an event. Quality rather than quantity is the key to understand saturation. Saturation itself should be a concrete methodology practice. Researchers should pay attention to the concept of saturation and make a clear statement of the process of achieving saturation, which can help to improve the standardization, transparency, quality and recognition of qualitative research.

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    Report on Chinese Adolescence’s Development of Social and Emotional Skills
    Zhenguo Yuan, Zhongjing Huang, Jingjuan Li, Jing Zhang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2021, 39 (9): 1-32.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.09.001
    Abstract694)   HTML1123)    PDF (2707KB)(852)      

    This report analyzes the Suzhou data in the SSES main study on 10-year-old and 15-year-old students’ social and emotional skills. The results show that 10-year-old students score higher on all 15 social and emotional skills than 15-year-old students. Among 10-year-old students, girls score higher on cooperation, empathy, sociability, persistence, and tolerance than boys. Except for tolerance, among 15-year-old students, boys score higher on other social and emotional skills than girls. Optimism is by far the most closely related ability to life satisfaction and psychological well-being, followed by energy and trust. Stress resilience and optimism are most closely related to students’ test anxiety. In general, sense of school belonging and teacher-student relationship are positively correlated with all 15 social and emotional skills, in particular with optimism, curiosity and cooperation. In contrast, school bullying is negatively correlated with all 15 social and emotional skills, in particular with emotion regulation (optimism, emotional control and stress resilience).

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    Principles, Procedures and Programs of Latent Class Models
    Zhonglin Wen, Jinyan Xie, Huihui Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (1): 1-15.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.01.001
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    The models used in Latent Class Analysis and Latent Profile Analysis are collectively referred to as latent class models, a kind of statistical methods of classifying individuals according to their different response patterns in observation indicators, so as to identify population heterogeneity. It has attracted increasing attention from applied researchers in the fields of pedagogy, psychology, and other social science disciplines. However, it is not easy for most education researchers to understand the existing Chinese literature on the statistical principles and analytical procedures of such models. This paper systematically introduces the basic knowledge, statistical principles, analytical procedures and Mplus programs of latent class models, and clarifies various methods and selection strategies involved in the subsequent analysis of these models. It would help applied researchers enhance their understanding of the principles and methods of the latent class models, and promote the application of these models to educational research.

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    What are the Changes in the Employment Situation of Chinese College Graduates in the Context of the 2021 Epidemic: An Empirical Study Based on National Survey Data in 2021 and 2020
    Tao Li, Nuan Sun, Zhihui Wu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (2): 100-113.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.02.008
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    The “Comprehensive Investigation of Employment Situation of College Graduates in China During the Epidemic Period” conducted the second round of surveys in 34 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities across the country for two and a half months from June to August 2021. Compared with the first round of survey in 2020, the following findings were found. (a) Nearly 50 percent of graduates signed a monthly salary of 3,001-5,000 yuan after tax. (b) The overall matching rate of job positions and majors increased significantly. (c) Employment satisfaction remained high but declined slightly, and (d) the rate of considering leaving had increased slightly. In 2021, unemployed graduates felt that the impact of epidemic factors on employment had significantly reduced. Their intentions of employment within the government system were obvious. Those who failed in civil service examinations and higher education had strong willing to retake the examinations. Different from the situation of employed graduates, the “salary package” exceeding the “place of work” became a significant employment factor for unemployed graduates. At the same time, the gap between expected salary and actual salary was widening. The ranking of employment expectations for private enterprises had dropped significantly. In the survey sample, employers’ recruitment plans were shrinking, but rates were rising. The salary levels were increasing, as well as the recruitment standards. The satisfaction of college graduates with the employment guidance work of the college remained good, which was the same as in 2020. Through logistic regression analysis, it was found that the variables include gender, household registration, family economic status, school type, school level, subject type, subject level, personal education, academic performance, entrepreneurial willingness etc., had significant differences in the impact of different categories on employment. The same as in 2020, men have a significant employment advantage over women. This employment advantage existed in the comparison of economically non-difficult families with economically difficult families as well. Meanwhile, employment advantage was showed in the comparative between colleges of science and engineering and finance and agriculture and forestry colleges, national "Double Tops" universities and higher vocational college, humanities and social sciences, national double first-class disciplines and ordinary disciplines, master’s degrees and bachelor’s degrees. The graduates from top 20 percent of professional rankings had more advantage than the 20-60 percent and bottom 40 percent graduates. Difference from 2020, the findings show that rural household registration graduates have a higher employment probability than urban household registration graduates, current graduates from medical colleges and normal colleges had a higher employment probability than colleges of science and engineering graduates, the employment probability of undergraduate graduates was lower than that of college graduates, and the employment probability of agricultural medicine was higher than that of humanities.

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    Adapting, Remixing and Emerging: The Function and Essence of the Second Bachelor’s Degree Education in the New Era
    Xiaodong Lu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (10): 1-16.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.10.001
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    In the higher education structural system, in the “world”, and in the dual time vision of personal and public time, the second bachelor’s degree education is indispensable. The three key words of its function and essence are adapting, remixing and emerging. The important function of the second bachelor’s degree education in the new era is to quickly respond to the demand for talents and human resources from the changes in the market and industrial structure, and to provide learning opportunities for individual/Dasein with emerging learning motivations to enhance their adaptability; to supplement students enrollment to “unpopular” majors; cultivating top-notch creative talents based on remixing to increase the probability of “emerging” and enhance the country’s momentum for innovation and development. At the same time, the second bachelor’s degree education also provides a repair for the current teaching reforms that are still lagging behind in some colleges and universities. The classifications of remixing provide framework guidelines for the curriculum construction, enrollment qualifications and teaching of the second bachelor’s degree major. In the dual time vision of personal time and public time, the individual/Dasein recognizes himself, locates himself, projects himself with understanding of the world and the earth, and new learning motivation emerges unpredictably and unplannedly in the field within the worldliness and worlding of the world. The second bachelor’s degree education and other learning opportunities together promote the emerging and sheltering of diversity, richness and innovation.

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    Artificial Intelligence Curriculum Guidelines for Primary and Secondary Schools
    Jiang Bo Penner:, Dai Juan Core Members:, Zhou Aimin , Dong Xiaoyong , Liu Xiaoyu , Hong Daocheng Participants:, Jiang Fei , Zheng Longwei , Zhao Jiabao , Zhang Hengyuan , Liu Yalin , Yuan Zhenguo Consultant:
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (3): 121-134.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.013
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    Artificial intelligence (AI) education in primary and secondary schools has just started in China. Lack of unified curriculum standards, we still face many difficulties in the curriculum nature and objectives, textbooks development, and academic evaluation. To address this issue, East China Normal University and Shanghai Artificial Intelligence Laboratory jointly developed the Artificial Intelligence Curriculum Guidelines for Primary and Secondary Schools. The proposed guidelines has six parts including course nature and basic concept, core competency and curriculum objectives, course structure, course content and requirements, academic evaluation standards and implementation suggestions. We aim to construct a scientific and open curriculum guidelines for AI education in primary and secondary schools and simultaneously provide a reference for the construction of an AI education system in China.

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    Factors Influencing Chinese Returnees’ Employment Quality: Empirical Analysis Based on Ordinal Logistic Regression and ISM Model
    Yunyun Liu, Yinghua Ye
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2021, 39 (12): 42-58.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.12.004
    Abstract317)   HTML63)    PDF (1042KB)(592)      

    With the “new generation returnees” of the post-80s and post-90s returning to China for development, their employment quality have attracted widespread attention. The paper takes socio-demographic background, education abroad, job search at home into account and analyzes how their contained factors affect Chinese returnees’ employment quality (objective side and subjective side). 203 Chinese returnees who returned to China within three years participated in this study and filled out a questionnaire. Based on ordinal logistic regression, the study found that return time, form of study abroad, area of study abroad, length of study abroad, degree, job search intensity, number of interviews, area of the working and sector type affect objective employment quality (i.e., average monthly income), while one child or not, degree, return time, form of study abroad, re-entry adaption, the time of getting the first job, number of interviews, number of offers, area of the working, sector type as well as objective employment quality affect subjective employment quality (i.e., job–person fit match, job satisfaction as well as turnover intention). In addition, by forming a multi-level directional relationship with Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM), the paper found that socio-demographic and part of the educational experience abroad play an underlying role in the employment quality model; educational outcome abroad (such as degree and re-entry adaption, etc.) are indirect factor at the middle level; job search at home is directly related to the quality of job employment. The results are analyzed and recommendations to promote high-quality job quality are made.

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    The Crisis of Educational Psychology: Its Challenge and Positioning
    Yun Dai David
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (11): 4-24.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.11.002
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    Educational psychology as a branch of psychology has a history of more than one hundred years. However, it is still very young as an independent discipline. Internally, it lacks central concerns of its own, a coherent conceptual system, and a distinct methodology. Externally, it faces new challenges brought up by the increasing division of disciplines. In the context of the 21st century, it is increasingly difficult to view educational psychology as a sub-discipline of psychology and ignore its nature as “design science” and “human science”. Repositioning educational psychology entails distinguishing itself from other psychological sciences by establishing distinct central concerns, especially by re-examining its epistemology and methodology. The traditional logic of mechanical reductionism has to be replaced by an organismic logic of emergence that is based on the plasticity, openness, choice, and growth of human beings. At the same time, educational psychology has to draw inspiration from “design science” in its exploration of possibilities and optimality of learning and growth, while psychological and behavioral evidence provides the viability and constraints for such practices.

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    A Study on Grade 7-12 Students’ Online Learning Performance with their Parental Involvement: Investigation and Research Report I on Online Teaching in Primary and Secondary Schools in Jiangsu Province
    Mei Cao, Xiaoyue Zhu, Shusheng Shen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (4): 16-28.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.04.002
    Abstract434)   HTML270)    PDF (850KB)(586)      

    K-12 students were pushed to the forefront of online learning with their widely-involved parents by the Covid-19 pandemic. There is a public concern about their learning performance, adaptability and parental influences. This study is based on the large-scale online teaching survey authorized by Jiangsu Education Department. Several descriptive or exploratory statistical analysis were carried out on 449,650 valid student questionnaires. It's found that with the parental involvement in online learning, students had satisfying learning involvement and acceptable goal attainment, but their learning psychology was not so good, though there were certain demographic differences. Homework guidance and good learning environment are two important parental factors that affect learning outcomes, also positively predicting learning involvement. Besides, parent-child communication atmosphere and family expectations both influence learning involvement. Learning psychology is positively affected by homework guidance, learning environment, parent-child atmosphere and family expectations. There are five typical online learners through cluster analysis, whose characteristics reflect different family parenting styles. The research suggests that in the post-epidemic era blended learning has to pay attention to several aspects such as home-school collaboration, learning psychological intervention, and online learning interaction.

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    How Natural Language Processing Technology Empowers the AIED: The Perspective of AI Scientist
    Bo Zhang, Ruihai Dong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (9): 19-31.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.09.003
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    Natural language processing (NLP) is one of the most important research branches of artificial intelligence (AI). With the boosting of computer performance and the construction of large-scale corpora in the last decade, NLP technology has made great progress and has been widely applied in various areas, especially in the field of education. Specifically, in this paper, we investigate the present research and the trends of NLP technology, and how NLP promotes the development of artificial intelligence in education (AIED) through studying and analyzing publications, reports, and speeches, etc. from eminent domestic and international AI specialists. We are aiming to explore the direction and trend of AIED in the future.

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    The Elites with Poor and Humble Families:Cultural Reproduction and Resistance in Elite Universities
    Tong Xiao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (3): 57-74.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.03.006
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    School is not only a place for education, but also an important territory for cultural production and social insight. Through the mixed research paradigm, a five-stage stratified random sampling of 1, 013 rural students was conducted. The two-year follow-up survey recorded the resistance strategies of 18 rural students in elite universities and their transition from students to teachers. The research finds that: in the face of the arbitrariness of “General Culture” in elite universities, the sense of justice and value embodied in “study” is constantly impacted. In the interaction of life experience and dominant structure, students carries out more oriented cultural production around the ethical possibility space of rural “Duty Sense”. When students become teachers and assume the function of “relaisecram” of social reproduction, accompanied by the dangerous leap from “morality” to “rationality” of its survival ethics, "Duty Sense" is once again transferred into the ideology of the school through the civilizing power between social succession, and become the symbol of their conversion to the system.

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    Research on Learning Affective Computing in Online Education: From the Perspective of Multi-source Data Fusion
    Xuesong Zhai, Jiaqi Xu, Yonggu Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (9): 32-44.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.09.004
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    Learning affection is an essential factor affecting learning performance, perception, and higher-order thinking ability. Existing research on learning affective computing is mainly based on a small sample analysis of heavyweight physiological feedback technology. There is a lack of learning affective computing research in online courses. In the online course environment, the data sources for learning affective computing are relatively limited, mainly based on a single facial expression data. On the other hand, learners are often under insufficient supervision in online learning scenarios. The body posture is more random, so it is very likely to affect the extraction of facial features. However, this study believes that the pose of online learners also has affective characteristics and is also a key source of affective information. Therefore, we try to fuse the learner’s posture data into the facial expression data, build a multi-source data fusion deep learning affective calculation model, and make up for the facial recognition defects caused by the learner’s posture change. Also, we perform collaborative analysis multi-source affective data to realize data cross verification and mutual compensation. The research concludes that it is an effective method for online learning affective calculation to build a dataset containing 7,878 facial expressions and posture images of online learners constructed through training, and use the convolutional neural networks and decision fusion methods to integrate learner posture data into facial expression data.The accuracy of affections recognition increases 3%, compared with a single facial expression recognition. In theory, this research provides a model basis for the effectiveness of multi-source data fusion in learners’ affective computing. In practice, it provides an effective technical path to learning affective computing in an online education environment.

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    The Technical Report on OECD Study on Social and Emotional Skills of Chinese Adolescence
    Jing Zhang, Yipeng Tang, Jiajun Guo, Zhifang Shao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2021, 39 (9): 109-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.09.007
    Abstract420)   HTML555)    PDF (780KB)(530)      

    This technical report presents the analysis of Suzhou data in the SSES main study and the assessment of psychometric properties of items and scales that involve a series of iterative modelling and analysis steps. These steps included the calculation of Alpha and Omega to evalute the subscales’ relibiabilities; the application of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to evaluate constructs; multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) to review measurement equivalence across groups (age cohorts and gender groups); and using the Item Response Theory (IRT) and Generalised Partial Credit Model (GPCM) to scale items and generate scores for study participants.

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    Causal Inference, Scientific Evidence, and Educational Research: Discussion on the Educational Research of Nobel Laureates in Economics in 2021
    Bin Huang, Bo Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (4): 1-15.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.04.001
    Abstract290)   HTML239)    PDF (987KB)(528)      

    In recent thirty years, causal inference method has become the mainstream method of quantitative research in social science and has been widely used in the field of education. In 2021, the Nobel Economics Prize was awarded to David Card, Joshua D. Angrist, and Guido W. Imbens for their contributions to promoting the development of causal inference methods. Taking the causal inference research of the three economists in the field of education as the starting point, firstly, this paper discusses the dual attributes of educational research, which have both humanistic care and scientific rationality, and expounds the significance of obtaining effective causal evidence in promoting the development of educational science research. Secondly, this paper introduces in detail the important research findings made by the three Nobel Prize winners in the aspects of Return to Education, the effect of Small Class Teaching, and the effect of school investment on the development of students’ cognitive ability. Lastly, this paper discusses the existing problems and future improvement direction of educational causal studies in China.

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    A Conceptual Framework of Higher-order Thinking
    Shufeng Ma, Xiangdong Yang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (11): 58-68.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.11.005
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    Higher-order thinking is a key competence for individuals to adapt to external environments and cope with future challenges. The theory of constructivism argues that people do not passively receive information from the environment, but actively construct knowledge to update their mental models. In authentic learning contexts, higher-order thinking manifests as the ability to identify the connection between prior knowledge and external information, transfer background knowledge to a new situation, and solve complex problems that do not have definite answers. Higher-order thinking is not a single thought process, but a complex cognitive process in which multiple mental operations coordinately work together. The conceptual framework of higher-order thinking incorporates the analysis of problem situations, the identification and formation of the relationship between old and new knowledge, the synthesis of information from different dimensions, the creation of new knowledge, and the monitoring, management and adjustment of the thinking process. The conceptual framework explains how the five cognitive components influence each other and synergistically regulate the process of cognitive development. The framework provides a new theoretical perspective for interpreting higher-order thinking, and lays a theoretical foundation for in-depth research on the developmental mechanism of higher-order thinking.

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    Twenty Years of New Education Initiative: Review, Summary and Prospect
    Yongxin Zhu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2021, 39 (11): 1-44.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.11.001
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    Since the beginning of the new century, New Education Initiative has clung to various value criteria such as persisting idealism, in-depth field consciousness, cooperative attitude of living together, and compassionate public welfare. Taking teacher growth as the logical starting point, “Ten Actions” incorporating building a scholarly campus and related courses as the path, and helping members of the new education community “live a happy life full of education” as the goal, New Education Experiment has undergone fruitful exploration. In the past two decades, some educational philosophy and actions proposed by New Education Initiative including “teacher growth model” and “creating a scholarly campus” have played a vital role in promoting teacher professional development, building a society with reading atmosphere, and facilitating mutual education among families, schools, communities and governments. They have also made positive contributions to giving impetus to the combination of educational theory and practice, combating educational alienation, returning to the essence of education, and improving the regional education ecology on a large scale. Looking forward to the future, we will continue to consummate the curriculum system, build up trial future learning centres, explore the teacher training system, strive to make New Education Initiative as a banner of quality-oriented education and become a new school of education rooted in China.

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    Compilation and Comparative Research of China’s Education Index Based on the Framework of Human Development Index
    Dong Ren, Jie Zhang, Gaigai Cao, Yizhou Mao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2021, 39 (11): 100-114.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.11.006
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    The education index under the framework of the human development index (HDI) is one of the three sub-indexes of the human development index compiled by the United Nations Development Programme. It is widely used in the comparative study of the international educational development level. According to the latest compilation method of education index under HDI framework, the paper calculates China’s education index from 1990 to 2018, and makes relevant international comparative analysis and comparative analysis of domestic regions. Calculation and analysis found that: vertically, China’s educational development has achieved remarkable results; horizontal comparison found that China’s education development still has a long way to go. Analysis of various regions in China found that the low level of education development in the western region is the main reason for the low level of education development in China. This paper puts forward some policy suggestions.

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    Engaging with Others: The Report on the Study on Social and Emotional Skills of Chinese Adolescents (V)
    Zhongjing Huang, Qian Wang, Huanchun Chen, Xingyuan Gao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2021, 39 (9): 93-108.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.09.006
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    This study uses the data from the OECD youth social and emotional skills assessment in Suzhou, China as the data source to present one dimension of the social and emotional skills survey about engaging with others. The results show that there is a significant medium correlation between engaging with others and other dimensions of social and emotional skills. There are significant differences in engaging with others among students of different ages, genders, schools and regions. Also, students’ engaging with others is significantly affected by students’ safe feelings and peer relationship, family background, teachers and school factors. Engaging with others has a significant impact on the life outcome variables of different groups of students. Therefore, the research results deliver some implications. First, intimate peer relationship is essential for improving students’ engaging with others. Second, harmonious teacher-student relationship is an important guarantee to promote students’ engaging with others. Third, good school atmosphere is the key to improving students’ engaging with others. Finally, positive family education is an important foundation for developing students’ engaging with others.

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    Research on the Construction of High-quality Early Childhood Education Indicators System in China
    Liyan Huo, Qiangqiang Sun, Zhengyu Long
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2022, 40 (1): 1-18.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2022.01.001
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    This study uses the thinking method of “four beams and eight pillars”, draws on the structural logic of the CIPP evaluation model and follows the five-step research path of sequential evidence-based to analyze the status quo, international comparison, theoretical formulation, empirical construction and policy suggestions of China’s early childhood education indicators system. First, it selected the current Chinese early childhood education texts that have great influence in China to conduct content analysis to structurally describe the status quo of China’s early childhood education indicators system. Then it analyzed the structural problems of China’s current early childhood education indicators system by juxtaposing and comparing the structural framework and specific indicators in both domestic and international early childhood education indicators system. Subsequently, it conceived the structural framework and specific contents of the high-quality early childhood education indicators system including four first-level indicators of background, input, process and outcome, 13 second-level indicators and 55 third-level indicators. Then, based on empirical research, it constructed the “four beams and eight pillars” and key indicators of the new era China’s high-quality early childhood education indicators system, which includes four first-level indicators (value quality, condition quality, process quality, and outcome quality), eight second-level indicators (value orientation, social background, system and mechanism, resource allocation, care and education, management of kindergartens, popularization and universal benefit, safety and high quality) and 57 third-level indicators. Finally, it put forward five policy recommendations for the construction of China’s high-quality early childhood education indicators system. First, actively construct a structural framework to impove overall attention to systemic quality. Second, pay special attention to background factors to ensure priority attention to value quality.Third, pay attention continuously to input factors to ensure long-term attention to condition quality. Fourth, put emphasis strongly on process factors to ensure focus on process quality. Fifth, rationally strengthen the output factors to ensure comprehensive attention to the outcome quality.

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