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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences) 2018 Vol.36
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    Transformation of Chinese Educational Development Mode: Path Selection and Endogenous Development
    CHU Hongqi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (1): 1-14+159.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.01.001
    Abstract266)   HTML49)    PDF (1319KB)(1161)      
    Educational development mode refers to the methods, means and patterns of promoting educational development. In the 21st century, the dramatic changes in society have triggered the upgrading of educational goals,among which cultivating students' key competencies rather than examination skills is seen as the main goal. The upgraded educational goal has made it imperative to transform educational development mode. This transformation is discussed from the following five aspects:adjusting educational structure, transforming student cultivation mode, transforming educational administration mode, strengthening the construction of teaching force, and improving educational research. The first three aspects involve three paths to transforming development mode, namely structural path, technical path and institutional path. The last two aspects relate to the endogenous development of education, which provides the support of human and intellectual resources for educational development.
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    Autonomy-Support: Transformation of Teaching Styles
    MA Siteng, ZHAO Qian, JIAO Xinran
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (1): 15-21+159.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.01.002
    Abstract275)   HTML125)    PDF (1229KB)(939)      
    According to self-determination theory, teachers' autonomy support refers to teachers' specific teaching styles, which help to reduce the control and pressure of students in support of students' self-development. In this study,autonomy support is addressed from three dimensions:encouraging independent thinking, establishing meaningful relevance, and supporting development of interest. Using the quantitative research method to investigate the status quo of teachers' level of autonymsupport, we explored the influential factors through regression analysis. The findings indicated an overall high level of autonomy support in teaching, but relatively poor performance in development of interest. Different teachers had significantly different scores, depending on their locations, genders and teaching abilities. Besides, teaching efficacy, teaching autonomy, opportunities of professional development and participation in decision-making can significantly affect teachers' level of autonomy support.Finally, this study put forward some suggestions regarding improving teachers' level of autonomy support, such as putting emphasis on teacher professional development, reforming evaluation system, protecting teachers' autonomy.
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    Self-regulated Learning, Cooperative Learning and Inquiry Learning: Transformation of Student Learning Styles
    ZHANG Yaxing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (1): 22-28+160.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.01.003
    Abstract342)   HTML45)    PDF (1144KB)(1101)      
    Self-regulated learning, cooperative learning and inquiry learning are highlighted in the new curriculum reform as the direction of learning styletransformation in China. This study, based on a stratified survey of sampled 440 teachers and 14,406 students, attempted to investigate the status quo and influential factors of learning style transformation in primary and secondary schools. The findings show that, despite the changed learning styles, self-regulated learning and inquiry learning still need to be improved. The transformation of learning styles among girls, lower-graders and urban students are relatively better. In addition, obtained teaching support, teaching autonomy and teaching styles have significant positive effects on learning style transformation, while examination oriented teaching ability has a significant negative effect. Also, mother's education, peer relationship,teacher-student relationship and learning motivation have significant positive impact on learning style transformation. However, higher academic pressure is not conducive to the transformation of learning styles.Therefore, it is necessary to promote teacher professional development, enhance democracy in educational management, improve the relevance of learning activities, and establish a good learning environment.
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    Participatory Democracy: Transformation of School Management Styles
    Xuelian, LI Gang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (1): 29-34+160.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.01.004
    Abstract261)   HTML40)    PDF (1118KB)(666)      
    Participatory democracy is the goal and direction of the transformation of school management styles. This study, based on a survey of 99 principals and 4,890 teachers in 103 schools, considers the status quo and influential factors of the democratic transformation in public primary and secondary schools.The results show that the current democratic participation in school management is kind of surface participation, and there exist such problems as insufficient participation, unequal participation and limited participation.Factors affecting the democratic transformation of school management include hindrance in administration, system, concept and idea. Therefore, it's suggested that education authorities should transform their governing modes by scientific decentralization. Primary and secondary schools should strive to build a sound democratic system by improving the internal governance structures. In addition, principals should change their authoritarian style and establish effective partnership between managers and participants.
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    Shared Governance: Transformation of Educational Administration Modes
    GENG Chao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (1): 35-41+161.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.01.005
    Abstract173)   HTML32)    PDF (1133KB)(564)      
    The educational administrative mode involves the issues of who should be the main subject, which way should be adopted, and what educational affairs need to be addressed. The study finds that in traditional educational administration, the government tends to be the single subject, with the top-down management of the total factor and processes of education. Educational modernization calls for innovation in educational administrative modes, and shared governance should be the direction of the transformation of educational administrative modes. There are three factors that affect the transformation of educational administrative modes:multi-layered administrative contracts which have caused deviated targets in educational administration; non-cooperation among different departments which restricts the educational administrative performance; lack of affiliation and identity in educational participation which limits participant enthusiasm of multi-subjects. To transform the traditional mode of educational administration and better serve education development, we need to expand the consultation and cooperation to ensure the participation of multiple subjects in the basic educational administration from the four aspects of concept establishment, rule-making, organization cultivation and system guarantee.
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    Theoretical Foundation and School Education Cultivation of Core Competencies
    TSAI Ching-tien
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (1): 42-54+161.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.01.006
    Abstract348)   HTML41)    PDF (1249KB)(1257)      
    In this paper, the author articulated the concept of core competencies(key competencies), and explored the importance of theoretical foundation and school education cultivation of core competencies.Based on the three international organisations of UNESCO, OECD and EU, the author conducted an international trend study of core competencies. Then, the author investigated five disciplinary approaches of core competencies as a basis to build a theorectical foundation of core competencies. And finally, the author discussed the importance of school edcucation and curriculum guideline in the cultivation of core competencies.
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    Implementation of Key Competencies: Shift from Classification to Stratification
    ZHONG Baichang, LI Yi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (1): 55-63+161+162.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.01.007
    Abstract237)   HTML35)    PDF (1197KB)(1269)      
    With the increasing popularity of student key competencies and discipline key competencies, key competencies are becoming a wind vane in Chinese educational reform. In this paper, we discussed the key questions of how to grasp its essence and put it into practice. We argued that,on the one hand, the essence of key competencies is a new way to interpret educational objectives in terms of all-round development and lifelong development. On the other hand, the hierarchical structure is a desirable framework to analyze key competencies, as it can integrate the educational theory and practice in support of all-round development and lifelong development.
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    Principles of Student Placement in Elementary School: Beyond Teaching in Accordance with Learners' Aptitude
    LU Xiaodong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (1): 64-76+162.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.01.008
    Abstract213)   HTML33)    PDF (1226KB)(650)      
    Teaching students in accordance with their aptitude is a classical education principle in China. Despite its advantages, there exist such problems as studentstereotypes by their teachers or classmates over the 6-year fixed placement in the same elementary school. Therefore, it's necessary to break up the fixed placement of students beyond the principle of teaching students in accordance with their aptitude. This may introduce new values in schools from eight aspects. First, the entrance examination and interview for kindergarten children to enter the elementary school would be useless and harmful. Second, the Chinese metaphor of Never lose at the starting line could be semantically and practically dispelled. Third, there would be little chance for teachers to label certain students underachievers. Fourth,more authentic, frequent changes could take place in primaryschools, which could enable students to learn in a changing world. Fifth, it is possible for students to get out of the small fixed circle of friends into a large circle of friends in schools.Sixth, teaching resources could be allocated more impartially. Seventh, breaking up the fixed placement of students could liberate the students, who would otherwise be the hostage of their teachers. Finally,parents would have no intention of class choice on their children's behalf.
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    Textbook Use: The Interaction between Teacher and Textbook-Inquiry on Teachers' Use of Maths Textbooks in Chinese Mainland, Hong Kong and Taiwan
    ZHANG Qian, WONG Ngai-Ying, SHI Ou
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (1): 77-84+162+163.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.01.009
    Abstract259)   HTML33)    PDF (1954KB)(949)      
    While the new round of curriculum reform aims at the development of students' key competencies, the challenge is how to change teachers' rigidly unidirectional use of textbooks (following in most cases), so as to meet students' diversified and personalized learning needs. The inter-relationship between teachers and textbooks is defined based on two dimensions:teachers' satisfaction with textbook design and teachers' fidelity in textbook use. In this study, 1 279 mathematic teachers from Chinese mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong SAR were surveyed to investigate teachers' general inter-relationship with textbooks. The results presented three patterns of relationship. For mainland teachers, even though the textbooks fail to meet students' learning needs, they still choose to follow the books. On the other hand, Hong Kong teachers choose to adapt, supplement or even reject textbook content to create their own teaching materials. Finally, Taiwan teachers are satisfied with the quality of their textbooks, therefore they feel there is no need to adjust the textbooks.
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    Education as Human Justice
    LIU Tong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (1): 85-92+163.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.01.010
    Abstract268)   HTML30)    PDF (1148KB)(577)      
    It is far from a self-evident truth that education should be just. The combination of education and justice requires a critical examination. Education means the understanding of the actors. The first understanding of the actors is their infinite richness. Review of the richness is based on the revaluation of educational justice:highlighting the original meaning of education. In the original meaning of education, the two factors of the existing world and the people should be first highlighted as the actors. Authentic education is manifested by the interaction between the people and the world, i.e, appreciating the good, which is the manifestation of human being. That is to say, education means human justice. Achieving educational justice demands world justice, understanding justice and practicing justice.
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    The Essence,Type and Resolution of Value Conflicts in Education
    ZHANG Xiaqing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (1): 93-97+163.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.01.011
    Abstract229)   HTML29)    PDF (1106KB)(567)      
    In an era of pluralism, the prevailing value conflict exists in every aspect of society, like in education. Value conflict refers to conflict in value logic, which includes valuation logic and obligation logic. Thus, value conflict can be divided into three types:valuation logics conflict, obligation logics conflict, and conflict between valuation logic and obligation logic. In theory, value conflict can be resolved either by following a better behavior model or by reinforcing an obligation law. However, value conflict resolution in practice needs a precondition, such as the "good will" and "sense of responsibility" of the actors. Therefore, to resolve the value conflict in education, it's essential to cultivate and promote the "good will" and "sense of responsibility" in education.
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    Education Informatization: From the Version 1.0 to 2.0
    LEI Chaozi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (1): 98-103+164.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.01.012
    Abstract307)   HTML37)    PDF (1118KB)(1341)      
    With the attention and concern of leaders at all levels, the education informatization in China have been achieved remarkable results, especially have been formatting the mechanism and path of education informatization development with Chinese characteristics. At the same time, there are many difficulties and problems in practices, for example, no paying enough attention on it in some districts, not in depth application to teaching, the Innovation practice being not enough.Facing the requirements of the national social development in the new era, we should pay more attention and concerns on creating the new models of teaching and learning, providing services and educational governing. The following three changes should be made from the development of application of educational resources to more extensions than education, from improving the application ability of information technology to the thinking and character of information technology, from the fusion development of education and information technology to the creative development.
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    Evolution Logic and Future Trend of Vocational Education Policy in China
    QI Zhanyong, WANG Jiaxin, AN Yingying
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (1): 104-111+164.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.01.013
    Abstract260)   HTML27)    PDF (1157KB)(769)      
    The vocational education policy in China since 1978 has undergone three stages:adjustment of secondary education structure(1978-1995), exploration of vocational education (1996-2010), and establishment of modern vocational education system (2010). Using different orientation analysis models,the authors argue that the evolution logic in the development of vocational education policy can be summarized as follows:the dynamic mechanism by means of management system adjustment, the policy value orientation of vocational education goals, the process assurance of the implementation of vocational education policy based on specification of people and property, the cultural rules of vocational education policy discourse dominated by economic discourse. Finally, the paper discusses the future trend of vocational education policy. First, the formation mechanism should be changed from "ambiguity of power and duties" to "unified coordination". Second, the value orientation should be changed from "single utility" to "multi orientation". Third, the policy of vocational education should be changed from "lack of supervision"to"strict supervision". Fourth, the policy discourse should be changed from "government-oriented" to "public participation".
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    Relationship between Industry Form and Modern Apprenticeship in China: Empirical Analysis Based on Enterprise Experts' Statements
    PU Haihui, XU Guoqing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (1): 112-118+165.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.01.014
    Abstract154)   HTML26)    PDF (1129KB)(671)      
    In order to comprehend China's industrial demand for modern apprenticeship, expert meeting approach is adopted in this research. Experts from cultural creative industry, high-end manufacturing industry and modern service industry made presentations at the meeting respectively. Based on the in-depth analysis of their statements, we draw the following conclusions. Firstly, whether the industry needs modern apprenticeship is not determined by the industry type or technical level, but influenced by the industry operation mode and manufacturing organization mode. Secondly, the industry's demand for apprenticeship is negatively correlated with the certainty of the products and the standardization level of the manufacturing. Thirdly, the demand of different industries for modern apprenticeship has its own characteristics. Modern apprenticeship in transformed traditional industry puts more emphasis on inheritance and innovation. High-end manufacturing industry attaches more importance to judging and decision making. Resource accumulation is a major concern in modern service industry. Finally, learning from the operation mode of the German industry will be conducive to the pilot reform of China's modern apprenticeship.
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    Three Logical Approaches to Promoting the Open Development of Regional Education
    CHEN Ziji, LIU Yongfu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (1): 119-125+165.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.01.015
    Abstract176)   HTML24)    PDF (1279KB)(697)      
    To promote the open development of regional education, it's important to tackle the problem of internal and external linkage at micro, meso and macro levels through the exchange and sharing of such educational factors as resources, knowledge, technology, information, talent, capital and so on. At the micro level, local educational authorities should strive to reform school cooperation through open development, so as to achieve the linkage between school and its community.At the meso level, it's suggested that interregional linkage model should be built to achieve the linkage among several regions. At the macro level, it's essential to promote the internationalization of regional education to achieve the linkage between home and abroad. To push the open development of regional education,educational administrative departments need to implement the strategy of top-level design, systematic support and overall promotion so that the three logical approaches can produce synergies to promote the development of regional education.
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    Evolution of Adult Education in Britain in the first Half 20th Century: From Working Class Education to Mass Adult Education
    LI Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (1): 126-136+166.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.01.016
    Abstract255)   HTML93)    PDF (1213KB)(678)      
    After the Industry Revolution, emphasis was placed on educating the working class in British adult education, which met their needs for education to a certain extent. From the beginning of 20th century to 1956, British adult education was shaped by the competition among three main actors:Labour Colleges,the Workers' Education Association, University Adult Education. The independent working class education offered by Labour Colleges turned into the training means of Trade Unions' executives while the liberal adult education led by the Workers' Education Association and challenged by university adult education, graduated into mass adult education from working class education. Meanwhile, general higher adult education dominated by the universities, achieved its own institutionalization by competing against the Workers' Education Association and ended up with thriving. The changes in the three forces were closely related to the changes in the British labor movement at the same time. The change of the natureof labor movement directly affected the development of adult education in the first half of the 20th century and it contributed to the evolution of adult education from working class education to mass adult education.
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    Non-Continuity and Heterogeneity: Application of Piecewise Growth Mixture Model in Language Development Study
    LIU Yuan, LIU Hongyun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (1): 137-148+166.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.01.017
    Abstract212)   HTML31)    PDF (1313KB)(765)      
    In recent researches, the piecewise growth mixture model (PGMM) has been used in longitudinal studies to detect the non-continued growing trend and heterogeneous population simultaneously. The present study used the data from Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort (ECLS-K) as an example to illustrate the use of PGMM. An ideal model of PGMN is a two-piece growing model, with the turning point at Grade One, linear trajectory in the first period and quadratic trajectory in the second. The result showed that there should be a crucial turning point in the development of reading ability, with a rapid growing rate from kindergarten to Grade One and then a sharp-decline rate after entering the primary school. Furthermore, a three-class model was selected where the heterogeneous sample-based population was essential in describing the growing pattern. Finally, the result indicated the teachers' assessment of children's behavior was more likely to predict the latent class than that of the parents' with the control of the background effects.
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    Standards and Assessments of Key Competences of Primary and Middle School Students in France: Dialogue between Charles TIJUS and LIN Jing
    Charles TIJUS, LIN Jing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (1): 149-154+167.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.01.018
    Abstract210)   HTML35)    PDF (1121KB)(940)      
    Since the beginning of this century, France has successively issued two versions of Common Base of Knowledge and Skills as legal goals for compulsory education to cultivate key competences of primary and middle school students. To achieve these goals, France has organized an assessment system based on Common Base to assess students' key competences. One type of the assessment is school-based and carried out in three stages to diagnose, feedback and improve students' key competences throughout compulsory education. Another named CEDRE is held regularly by DEPP to monitor the progress of students' level of key competences. This article focuses on the provisions of Common Base, the contents of and approaches to assessment, and the highlights and trends in the innovation of assessment in France. One purpose of the article is to offer reference for the cultivation and development of Chinese students'core literacy.
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (1): 155-158.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.01.019
    Abstract111)   HTML16)    PDF (2756KB)(506)      
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    Developing an Instrument for Measuring Teachers' Implementation of Curriculum Standards
    CUI Yunhuo, ZHOU Wenye, DONG Zehua, ZHANG Jing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (2): 1-13+153.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.02.001
    Abstract202)   HTML124)    PDF (767KB)(947)      
    The curriculum standard is a discipline-specific articulation of talent cultivation, offering a na-tional guideline for teaching as well as an important basis for teachers' teaching. The measurement of teach-ers' implementation of curriculum standards is an evitable requirement for examining the impact of curriculum reforms, analyzing factors of curriculum implementation, and assessing the quality of teaching. It can be di-vided into three dimensions:understanding and motivation, action and strategy, outcome and reflection. Each dimension is subdivided into specific sub-dimensions. Based on the sub-dimensions, a large-scale question-naire is developed. After rigorous sampling, we conducted a set of analyses, including non-rotating principal component analysis, exploratory factor analysis, validity analysis and reliability analysis. The analyses lead to a final questionnaire with strong reliability and validity.
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (2): 14-28.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.02.002
    Abstract172)   HTML84)    PDF (567KB)(964)      
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    Legal Issues Regarding the Governance of Public Universities: An Institutional Perspective of Public Service
    YU An
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (2): 29-37+153.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.02.003
    Abstract158)   HTML39)    PDF (633KB)(513)      
    Rule of law should be a priority in the governance of public universities. Public interest is viewed as the most important attribute in the autonomy of university governance, which should be systematized and codified on the principle of public service in near future. The provision of high education service could be supervised by public-interest administrative litigation. To make up the functional deficiency of university as a civil legal entity, it's necessary to speed up the system construction of public legal entities for public universi-ties. The informal transfer of governance center of the multi-disciplinary university to its faculties undermines the existing legal liability system and it is imperative to limit or eliminate the administrative functions of those faculties as soon as possible. Rights of university teachers with the connotation of public interest should be protected by the social law and administrative law by surmounting the limitation of affiliation to the unit of uni-versity.
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    School Administration by Law: Values, Content and Strategies
    GUAN Baoying
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (2): 38-45+154.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.02.004
    Abstract262)   HTML29)    PDF (517KB)(628)      
    The fulfillment of school administration by law in China lies in the spirit of school administra-tion by law, the scientific connotation of which involves school's legal status, rule of law thinking, legal per-sonality and legal act. The values in rule of law is to achieve the rationality in administration of law, which can be interpreted from the aspects of school administration system, law-based society and law-based govern-ment. School Administration by law is concrete, and its basic contents are reflected in legal sources, legal en-tity, legal rights and duties and legal effects. In the context of rule of law, how to implement school adminis-tration by law is a major concern, which could be addressed by defining school by law, administrating school by law, assessing school by law and benefiting school by law.
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    Legalization of Interest Relationship in China's Private Schools: A Perspective of Financial and Tax Law
    YU Hao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (2): 46-53+154.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.02.005
    Abstract179)   HTML30)    PDF (524KB)(468)      
    The legalization of interest relationship is an important aspect of the legal construction of pri-vate schools, which not only carry public interest, but also pursue private interest. This involves a variety of specific interest relationship, including the relationship with national interest, social public interest and pri-vate interest. Interest is closely connected with law, particularly with the financial and tax law. By confirming the attribution of interest, harmonizing conflicts of interest and promoting the realization of interest, the finan-cial and tax law realizes the legalization of the interest of private schools. While China's current financial and tax law of private schools embodies the cognitive logic of the legalization of finance and taxation, there remain some limitations, which should be overcome through providing equal nonprofit support to both private and public schools, offering preferential taxation policy to the founder of non-profit schools, and affording a hands-off policy to the establishment of for-profit compulsory schools and so on.
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    Good Institution for Modern School Governance
    HU Jinmu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (2): 54-59+154+155.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.02.006
    Abstract151)   HTML27)    PDF (524KB)(573)      
    Every institution has its ethical dimension, which requires reviewing the ethical legitimacy of school structures from the perspective of institutional ethics. Only when an institution is equipped with ethical legitimacy can it be a good one. However, under the influence of instrumental rationality and utilitarianism, efficiency, rather than morality, acts as the criteria for assessing schools. In pursuit of efficiency, schools tend to adopt a control-focused ‘dehumanized’ standardization, causing a ‘demoralizing education’ in school life. To cope with this crisis, people should take into consideration the great value of good institution in school life. Good institution is the best way to protect school life, as it gives human existence higher priority, takes justice spirit as the ethical base, and rational dialogue as the ethical system.
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    Correlations between School Bullying and Mental Health among Middle School Students in Rural China
    GAO Shen, MIN Wenbin, CHANG Fang, SHI Yaojiang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (2): 60-67+155.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.02.007
    Abstract321)   HTML53)    PDF (657KB)(1919)      
    This study aims to explore correlations between school bullying and mental health among mid-dle school students in rural China, provides empirical evidence to enhance psychological status of rural students. Using mental health test (MHT) and individual survey as evaluating tools this study analyzed 8536 rural middle school students. Results showed that about 10% rural middle school students were evaluated at risk for mental health problems, 37% students were reported being bullied. There are significant correlations between mental health and bullying. Findings also suggest that interventions focusing on school bullying in ru-ral middle school may also help reduce mental health problem.
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    Research on Developing the Measurement Model For School Characteristics
    FAN Yongfeng, SONG Naiqing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (2): 68-78+155+156.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.02.008
    Abstract206)   HTML122)    PDF (1040KB)(844)      
    School characteristics is a major concern in school education worldwide. However, there still remains no agreed understanding of it, and there is little research on measurement of school characteristics. Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches, this study employed various research methods, including literature review, questionnaire survey, interview, and some data analysis methods like exploratory factor a-nalysis and structural equation model. It first redefined the concept of school characteristics, and then devel-oped the measurement index system, as well as the measurement scale and model for school characteristics. The measurement model for school characteristics involves three dimensions:adaptability of school philosophy to internal reality and external environment, consistency between practice and theory, the superiority of the effects of school characteristics and their quantitative relation.
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    The Essence and Practice of Analytic Philosophy of Education: From a Personal Teaching Point of View
    DAN Jau-wei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (2): 79-86+156.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.02.009
    Abstract203)   HTML28)    PDF (565KB)(543)      
    This paper starts with the author's reflection on his teaching of Philosophy of Education in un-dergraduate courses. He confesses that his teaching, modelled on analytic philosophy of education, has not been very successful by any standard. He therefore tries to trace out the possible reasons for his failure. The author maintains that the essential characteristics of philosophical activities, characterized by the tackling of fundamental issues, dialogues and arguments, are the main reasons for students' unwillingness to approach philosophy of education. Moreover, he argues that Western philosophy in general, or analytic philosophy in particular is rather difficult for Chinese students. He hence suggests that good works which can manifest the essence of analytic philosophy of education in Chinese should be the main teaching materials for the under-graduate course of Philosophy of Education.
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    What Educational Issues has the Analytic Philosophy of Education Resolved
    CHIEN Cheng-Hsi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (2): 87-100+156+157.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.02.010
    Abstract243)   HTML24)    PDF (836KB)(809)      
    Philosophy of education, influenced by analytic philosophy, experienced a revolution in the 1960s in English-speaking world. Philosophers like Peters, Hirst and Scheffler promoted analytic philosophy of education as a mainstream academic discipline. The author argues that the topics of analytic paradigm in early times, such as practical nature of educational theory, autonomy as aim in education, have implications for the Chinese world. So do the liberal spirit of educational policies concerning political philosophy in later period, advocated by analytic philosophers of education. However, analytic philosophy of education has been criticized by multiculturalism, feminism, postmodernism and post-structuralism. The author holds that analyt-ic paradigm still remains a competitive and influential approach. It's suggested that by investigating numerous literature of analytic paradigm, the Chinese world can expand their horizons, promote the academic level of philosophy of education and inform educational practices.
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    How to Treat the Inherent Defects in Education Policy
    SHAO Zebin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (2): 101-109+157.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.02.011
    Abstract178)   HTML26)    PDF (590KB)(609)      
    There exist inherent defects and deficiencies in education policies, which result from the fol-lowing three constraint conditions:a) the limited ability of education policy to solve problems caused by the subject's limit of rationality; b) the inefficiency of education policy in response to complicated educational problems; c) the fragility of rigid education policy in coping with various problems of educational practice. In dealing with these inevitable defects, practitioners tend to adopt three passive patterns:confrontation, ostensi-ble obedience, and praising profitability. Meanwhile, there are three positive patterns:selective adaption, re-flective adaption, reconstructive adaption. Constructive criticism, constitutive criticism and foundational criti-cism are the three critical ways of education policy for researchers who have non-interest relation to education policy. Recognizing its imperfect feature helps improve education policy in a soberer, easier and more accessi-ble way.
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    The Implication of Education Justice in Teaching Students Based on Their Aptitude
    HE Juling
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (2): 110-116+157.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.02.012
    Abstract410)   HTML27)    PDF (570KB)(671)      
    Teaching students based on their aptitude is not only a teaching principle, but also an educa-tional principle throughout the whole process of education practice. In essence, teaching students based on their aptitude embodies education justice. Teaching students based on their aptitude reflects the legitimacy and justification of the relationship between educators and students. Its fundamental purpose is to achieve what education means to be. The prerequisite of teaching students based on their aptitude is to respect and ac-knowledge the individuality and characteristics of students and to deliver targeted and tailored education based on these differences and characteristics. The fundamental purpose is to ensure every student can start from where they are and become a better self and a true human being with human qualities. Education for this pur-pose is justice education, which is the implication of teaching students based on their aptitude.
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    The Highest State of Teacher Development: Teacher Life Consciousness
    YUE Xinyun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (2): 117-122+158.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.02.013
    Abstract293)   HTML29)    PDF (592KB)(927)      
    Teacher development can be divided into three states according to awareness of educational meaning:craftsman state which considers education as an occupation, proficient state which considers educa-tion as a profession; person state which considers education as an enterprise, that is life consciousness state. Teacher life consciousness is favorable for giving full play to teachers potentials, developing the subjectivity of teachers. Teachers should have the consciousness of thinking life, respecting life and growing life.
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    The Evolution of American Educational Thoughts and its Characteristics
    ZHANG Binxian, CHEN Luxi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (2): 123-132+158.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.02.014
    Abstract259)   HTML123)    PDF (616KB)(918)      
    Understanding the evolution of American education and American educational thoughts cannot just copy the historical understanding of American political history. Based on the evolution of American educa-tion, the research suggests that the history of American education has undergone the four developmental stages of germination, formation, prosperity, and pluralism and the evolution is characterized by multiple subjects, complex contents, widespread controversy and various representations with the striking features of the epoch.
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    Gender Gap Discrimination Power in College Entrance Examination and its Relationship with Gender Ratio of College Admission
    SHAO Zhifang, PANG Weiguo, DUAN Rui
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (2): 133-138+158+159.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.02.015
    Abstract301)   HTML111)    PDF (487KB)(652)      
    Girls in mainland China are getting more offers from universities and colleges than boys in re-cent years. It's believed that the given subjects and contents in College Entrance Examination are important contributing factors. This study attempts to answer the two questions:a) is gender gap discrimination power stable in recent years? b) is gender ratio of college admission determined mainly by gender gap in academic a-chievement? sample 3,160 high school students from Shanghai, Shandong, Zhejiang and Hunan participated in the study. Their scores in Mathematics, Chinese and English, together with the test items of National Col-lege Entrance Examination in the year 2005, 2008, 2011 and 2014 were collected and analyzed. Gender gaps were calculated, and hence the stability of gender gap discrimination power across the years. The results show:a) gender gap discrimination power is not stable; b) many of the academic achievement gender gaps are small; c) gender ratio of college admission is determined mainly by participants' gender ratio and general admission rates.
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    Quality and Equity: the Goal and Path of Global Educational Governance in UNESCO——Discourses between David Atchoarena and Zhang Dan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (2): 139-147+159.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.02.016
    Abstract188)   HTML28)    PDF (912KB)(611)      
    Through the dialogues with David Atchoarena, this paper attempts to explore the goals and path of global education governance of UNESCO in the context of economic globalization and internationaliza-tion of education. Then it tries to answer the questions like how UNESCO organize educational research, and how to coordinate relevant institutions cooperation? How these research findings assist to develop their deci-sion-making? What's the relationship between research mechanisms and decision-making mechanisms, and how these ideas affect each national education policies, etc.
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (2): 148-152.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.02.017
    Abstract83)   HTML10)    PDF (926KB)(399)      
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    Exploration in Reform Context: Improving Gaokao System with Chinese Characteristics
    YUAN Zhenguo
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (3): 1-12+166.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.03.001
    Abstract241)   HTML54)    PDF (1113KB)(1367)      
    Gaokao (National College Entrance Examination) in China has been changing since its resumption in 1977. Guided by the principles of voluntary application and merit-based admission, the Gaokao system with Chinese characteristics values Chinese examination tradition and cultural psychology, as well as celebrates the orientation towards modernization and future. The system has greatly improved through continuous reform explorations, involving the change from the state-level organizing of national examination to the provincial, from Gaokao once a year to twice a year, from paper-based testing and enrollment to computer-based, from one-size-fit-all examined subjects to personalized selection scenario. In addition, the undifferentiated examination has shifted to a differentiated one targeting various types of higher education institutions; and the enrollment policies now focus on applicants' comprehensive qualities rather than their examination results alone.
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    More Emphasis on Science Subjects in Gaokao Reform
    KE Zheng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (3): 13-24+166.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.03.002
    Abstract221)   HTML128)    PDF (1110KB)(939)      
    Some science subjects like physics and chemistry, played an important role in China's early Gaokao system. However, in new Gaokao, the importance of science subjects has been greatly weakened, which has become a great concern. It's understood that China's development has a lot to do with science education. Nowadays,the number of registered students for science examination has decreased significantly. The main reason is that unscientific scoring methods have put those students at a disadvantage. Solutions to this problem are sought by different stake-holders. Based on its analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of these solutions, this paper argues that, considering the current Gaokao's policy framework, three measures should be taken to solve this problem.
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    Scientific Literacy Development in CEE Context: Dilemma and Solution—A Case of CEE Reform in Jiangsu
    JU Qin, ZHANG Lan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (3): 25-32+166+167.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.03.003
    Abstract202)   HTML26)    PDF (1912KB)(857)      
    Scientific literacy, a reflection of national overall strength, is essential for the national implementation of innovation for development. K-12 science education is a main channel to develop scientific literacy, and the college entrance examination (CEE)has a guiding effecton K-12 education. Based on the practice of CEE in Jiangsu province, this article analyzes the utilitarian tendency in the current CEE model, which causes the decreased number of applicants in science subjects, making science courses "marginalized". It then argues that a scientific and fair system of examination and enrollment should be established, including granting colleges and universities the autonomy in enrollment,updating the concept of education and teaching and improving evaluation mechanism. This will help promote the development of scientific literacy and offer some policy implications for the CEE reform.
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    An Analysis of the Jiangsu CEE Scheme Based on Chosen Subjects for CEE in Y City, Jiangsu Province—With Discussing of Zhejiang, Shanghai Comprehensive Reform Pilot Scheme
    ZHANG Tianruo
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (3): 33-40+167.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.03.004
    Abstract232)   HTML26)    PDF (1046KB)(933)      
    Since the pilot reform of the college entrance examination (CEE) in Zhejiang and Shanghai, the decreasing number of students choosing physics subject has become a major concern. Based on the data of the chosen subjects for CEE from 2003 and 2008 in Y city, Jiangsu province,this article analyzes the similar phenomenon caused by the reform of CEE schemes in Jiangsu province, where two different CEE schemes were carried out respectively. The analysis focuses on the deficiency of the two schemes in Jiangsu, revealing the consequent immediate and long-term effects, which can provide some implications for the new reform of CEE.
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    Quality and Equity: A Case Study of the “Trinity” Evaluation and Enrollment in Higher Education Institutions
    LI Yunxing, JIANG Hongyou, LU Chengjia, CHEN Tianyun, ZHANG Zhenliang, LOU Yingwei, LI Weijian
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (3): 41-56+167.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.03.005
    Abstract184)   HTML26)    PDF (2972KB)(757)      
    Focusing on quality and equityin admission, the paper takes Zhejiang Normal University as the research object and compares the performances of the students enrolled through "Trinity" Comprehensive Evaluation in the college entrance examination. The findings show that, despite the gaps between programs and grades, the performance of students enrolled through "Trinity" Evaluation as a whole is better than the reference group in terms of program identity, GPA, participation in the Party and student unions, as well as awards and honors. The data also reveal that "Trinity" Comprehensive Evaluation and enrollment are more favorable to urban students. The paper concludes that "Trinity" Comprehensive Evaluation and enrollment should be employed more cautiously and improved.
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    Comprehensive Quality Evaluation in the New CEE Context: Implication, Implementation and Application
    LIU Zhijun, ZHANG Hongxia, WANG Hongxi, WANG Ping, WANG Hongwei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (3): 57-68+168.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.03.006
    Abstract185)   HTML26)    PDF (2272KB)(712)      
    In the New CEE (college entrance examination)context, the application of the comprehensive quality evaluation in colleges and universities enrollment reflects not just the spirit of the reform, but also the need to promote the reform process. Based on the understanding of comprehensive quality evaluation, this article focuses on why and how the evaluation should and can be used or implemented, what risks are involved, and what guarantee conditions are needed. Then, in a systematic way, it deals with the values and implications, international experiences and practical feasibility, programming and implementation, possible risks and guarantee conditions. In conclusion, the article attempts to respond theoretically and practically to the application of comprehensive quality evaluation in colleges and universities enrollment.
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    Theory, Practice and Prospect of University Comprehensive Assessment Admission: A Case Study of Shanghai New Gaokao
    TIAN Aili, YAN Lingyan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (3): 69-78+168.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.03.007
    Abstract164)   HTML24)    PDF (1089KB)(636)      
    It's required that students' comprehensive quality assessment should be included as a reference in university admission, according to China's new university entrance examination reform. In theory, comprehensive quality means individual's ability to solve complex tasks in specific contexts, which is characterized by integrity, comprehensiveness and individuality. The assessment of students' comprehensive quality should focus on how they solve problems in real life. At the policy level, comprehensive quality is divided into different dimensions and high schools are required to keep a record, which will be used for reference in the admission process. In practice, on the other hand, some universities in Shanghai are exploring how to assess the comprehensive quality by means of university activities, referring to the report by high schools and examination score to improve the reform. To strength capacity-building of admission, universities should strive to improve the professionalism of assessment by providing sufficient resource in support of the admission processes.
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    The Improvement of Percentile Band Score: Experience, Restriction and Possible Direction
    ZHANG Jianshi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (3): 79-86+168+169.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.03.008
    Abstract194)   HTML23)    PDF (1320KB)(1408)      
    The score comparability of different subjects in Gaokao reform has always been a big concern in recent years. Experience in some provinces shows that standard score reform is not a proper solution to this problem because of its technical flaws in the process of score conversion. Percentile band score,despite some restrictions like using total raw score in admission, seems a compromised choice. To some extent,percentile band score, as a kind of simplified standard score, makes it possible to compare the scores of different subjects before adding them together while leaving some negative influence on teaching and learning. However,technically, percentile band score still needs improving given the existing practice of using Gaokao scores.
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    How to Make the Results of Academic Evaluation More Valid: Research on Adjustment Model Based on Latent Variable
    LIU Hui, ZHANG Peng, PAN Jingjing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (3): 87-98+169.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.03.009
    Abstract195)   HTML22)    PDF (2877KB)(797)      
    The validity of Gaokao(Chinese college entrance examination), a selective test of academic evaluation, depends on its identification of the variability of students' transferable ability in problem-solving. However, the raw score in academic evaluation does not reflect the actual level of students' ability, which is a latent variable. In order to make the results of academic evaluation more valid, this study constructs a moderated model based on latent variable by treating a student with full score in ability as a reference. Raw score of a particular question is re-weighed according to the difficulty of the question. The moderated model based on the latent variable was applied to the data analysis of an 11-school-league examination, with a total of 9,008 high school students participating in 10 subjects tests. The results show that:a) the adjusted score is more normal than the raw score; b) the ability score is more stable than the raw score; c) the total score has a high correlation with the ability score; d) individually, there is a big difference between the raw score and the ability score.
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    Colleges and Universities as the Subject in Enrolling Students
    QIN Chunhua
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (3): 99-114+169+170.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.03.010
    Abstract188)   HTML24)    PDF (1198KB)(720)      
    The new system of college entrance examination differs from the old one in that colleges and universities can act as the subject in enrolling students,This change from passive admission to active enrollment enables college admission criteria as a guideline to promote students' healthy growth. If admission agencies in colleges and universities cannot transform their functions and still enroll students based only on scores, the current "exam-oriented training" and "only test scores matter" will likely be further aggravated. And the pre-reform dead hand in admission may lead to more problems with grade assignment, the conversion and comparison of multiple calculation methods, equivalence and so on. On the other hand, if the admission agencies transform their duties by truly implementing the spirit of two basics and one reference, it is likely to achieve the goal of strengthening moral education and that problems like profit-seeking in the pilot reform can also be easily solved.
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    The Ideas, Methods and Effects: An Introduction to the Comprehensive Admissions of Fudan University, 2006-2017
    YOU Chang, WANG Yang, ZHU Xiaochao, SONG Keji, HE Xin, HUANG Xiaoping, CHEN Changan, ZHENG Fangxian, DING Guanghong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (3): 115-124+170.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.03.011
    Abstract180)   HTML27)    PDF (1063KB)(655)      
    Since 2006, Fudan University has been exploring a scientific method of evaluating and enrolling creative candidates to support student development. In the reform context, Fudan is seeking a practicable way of comprehensive admissions, while changing the situation of assessing students based on scores alone. After years of exploration, Fudan has created its own method, combing written examinations, applications and interview. It turns out that the method is both scientific and practicable, and has been introduced into many other universities, which has promoted the reform of undergraduate education. Besides, it serves as a valuable guidance for all-round development in quality education.
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    The Autonomy of College Enrollment: Evolution and Predicament
    LIU Shiqing, CUI Haili
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (3): 125-134+170.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.03.012
    Abstract209)   HTML23)    PDF (1092KB)(714)      
    Since the resumption of college entrance examination forty years ago, the Chinese government has gradually granted some enrollment autonomy to different types of higher education institutions (HEIs)at different levels in the reform of examination and enrollment system. Despite many years of exploration, there are still extensive debates among theorists and practitioners about the nature, content and allocation of college enrollment autonomy. In essence, college enrollment autonomy involves a kind of combined public and private power(right) and in its operation process,the administrative power and academic power of HEIs should be rationally allocated. In enlarging college enrollment autonomy, there exist many problems,such as the interference of educational authority,HEIs' lack of awareness and ability of independent enrollment, misplacement of power allocation, and lack of supervision.In the context of new college entrance examination reform, we should gradually expand the college enrollment autonomy based on China's national conditions, improve the professional ability of HEIs exercising enrollment autonomy, and ensure the proper application of enrollment rights through mechanisms.
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    Innovation and Exploration in the Pilot Reform of Entrance Examination in Zhejiang
    HAN Ping, FANG Hongfeng, REN Xuebao, QIAN Wanjun, WANG Xiaoping
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (3): 158-165+171.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.03.014
    Abstract262)   HTML29)    PDF (1102KB)(794)      
    There used to be unified regulations and requirements in China's K-12 education, as well as enforced school management and efficiency. This has resulted in the relatively single mode of senior high schools, a phenomenon of "the same look of one thousand schools". Most senior high schools tend to pay more attention to intellectual development than moral education,to test scores than students' development, thus neglecting students' individualized needs and leaving little space for students' independent learning. This was why the pilot reform of college entrance examination system was carried out in Zhejiang and Shanghai in 2014. While deepening the curriculum reform of senior high schools in 2012, Zhejiang Province conducted a series of exploration based on the concept of selective education, creating a "Zhejiang Model" for the comprehensive reform of national education.Focusing on the main contents and tasks of Zhejiang college entrance examination reform,this paper further analyzes the difficulties and challenges in Zhejiang's innovative practice and exploration ofthe new college entrance examination.
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    Dual Priority: China's Model for Modernizing Education -For the 40th Anniversary of Reform and Opening up
    YUAN Zhenguo
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (4): 1-17+162.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.04.001
    Abstract284)   HTML55)         
    China has achieved sustained economic growth, thanks to its great policy decision to reform and open up forty years ago. Meanwhile, persistent efforts have been made in China to pursue education mod-ernization. All this has contributed to the unprecedented education development, consolidating a population of nearly 1. 4 billion into a powerful human resource-centered nation and creating favorable interaction with social and economic development. In this study, we sought to answer how these achievements were gained and how the interaction came about. Also, we revealed that the greatest secret to China's education development was its dual priority model (DPM), whereby the government prioritized education development, which in turn fo-cused predominantly on promoting national development. Furthermore, we examined the background, charac-teristics, reasons, and mechanisms of the DPM.
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    Learner-Centered Education for Sustainable Development: The Academic and Policy Implication of Research on China College Student Learning
    SHI Jinghuan, WANG Wen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (4): 18-27+162.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.04.002
    Abstract311)   HTML204)    PDF (762KB)(1086)      
    Quality improvement through learner-centered education is the core of the sustainable develop-ment in higher education. This study is based on a review of some related theories and researches on college student learning and the experience of China College Student Survey (CCSS) over the past decade in educa-tional research and practice. Additionally, a holistic analytical framework of student learning with Chinese characteristics is developed and the policy and academic implications of the study have been discussed in the paper.
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (4): 28-43.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.04.003
    Abstract169)   HTML14)    PDF (627KB)(910)      
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    The Influencing Factors on Global Competency of Youth: Evidence from a Freshman Survey in a Research University
    ZHANG Lei, WEN Wen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (4): 44-52+162+163.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.04.004
    Abstract325)   HTML122)    PDF (666KB)(808)      
    In the era of globalization, it's important for China to cultivate more international talents, es-pecially the international competency of Chinese young people. This research aims to explore the factors af-fecting the teenager's international competency. With over 3,000 freshman from a certain research university as a full sample in a questionnaire survey, OLS linear regression and mediating effect test are used to analyze the influence of family background, employment expectation and experience of senior high school as explana-tory variables on teenagers' international competency. Moreover, this paper attempts to explore whether high-ly competitive middle schools play a mediating role between family background and international competency. According to the results, family background, employment expectation and experience of senior high school significantly affect teenagers' international competency.
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    Reliability of Self-reported Data in College Student Engagement Surveys: Social Desirability Bias in Self-reported Survey
    GUO Fei, ZHAO Lin, LIAN Zhixin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (4): 53-61+163.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.04.005
    Abstract230)   HTML118)    PDF (648KB)(1339)      
    Inspired by learner-centered and evidence-based evaluation in higher education quality assur-ance, investigations on college student experience and engagement become increasingly popular in China. However, with self-reported survey as a major instrument, the quality of data collected in such investigations is vulnerable to bias caused by socially desirable responses. Using data from the China College Student Survey (CCSS) in 2014-2016, the authors found that indicators constructed from student self-reported data on learn-ing activities and perceptions are subject to a social desirability response bias of 5-10%, while the bias in ob-jective information reported in the survey (such as GPA) is negligible. What's more, the higher the students' social desirability level, the larger the bias. It's also found that the size of social desirability bias shows its correlation with the content of the question items and indicators. These findings have methodological signifi-cance for quantitative investigations in social sciences. Further, implications for survey instrument develop-ment are discussed.
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    Education, Background and Policy: The Allocation Mechanism of Minority Students' Access to Higher Education
    HUANG Yuheng, SHI Jinghuan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (4): 62-70+163+164.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.04.006
    Abstract214)   HTML107)    PDF (885KB)(982)      
    Surveys on minority students' access to higher education tend to involve little pre-college ex-perience and policy data. Based on existing theory and data from the China College Student Survey (CCSS, 2011-2016), this study developed a new framework to analyze minority students' access to higher education. Related factors are grouped into three dimensions:family background, pre-college educational experience and educational policy. Using the higher education stratification mobility rate, logistic regression model and the Sheaf Coefficients, the authors found that, with equal opportunity policy in place, pre-college educational ex-periences are the main factors influencing minority students' access to higher education, especially in elite u-niversities enrollment. Moreover, the lower average level of education an ethnic group received, the less bal-anced level of their access to higher education caused by their parents' occupation differentiation. This means that the influence of family background on access to elite university opportunity is still significant. National education policy can effectively balance the access to elite universities in inhabited and non-inhabited areas of minority.
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    Effect of Practice Learning on Vocational Skills Development in Applied Colleges: An Empirical Analysis Based on CCSS 2016 Survey
    DU Yanqiu, SHI Jinghuan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (4): 71-78+164.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.04.007
    Abstract159)   HTML27)    PDF (881KB)(804)      
    In the context of industrial upgrading and institutional transformation, applied colleges attach great importance to practice learning to develop students' vocational skills. Drawing on China College Student Survey (CCSS), this study conducted an empirical analysis of the effect of practice learning on vocational skills development. The findings reveal a significant correlation between practice learning and the dimensions of students' vocational skills. The effect of different links of practice learning on different dimensions of voca-tional skills presents a network structure. Besides, the regression analysis shows that practice learning plays a vital role in general skills and that students' interaction with materials influence their professional quality, ca-reer identity, professional knowledge and skills most.
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    Reconstruction of Educational Justice of Conscience: The Chinese Discourse of Modern Educational Justice
    GAO Wei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (4): 79-87+164.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.04.008
    Abstract208)   HTML23)    PDF (550KB)(665)      
    Educational justice is not only a system construction, but also a reconstruction of life value. Conscience is a core category in Chinese traditional culture, which means both universe noumenon and virtue foundation. As a pursuit of universal justice and public reason, the reconstruction of Chinese educational jus-tice is very important to solve modern educational problems. Reconstruction of justice of conscience is a ra-tional awareness of re-thinking China and a direction of transcending modernity. Essentially, the reconstruc-tion of Chinese educational justice theory is a reconstruction of a given perspective of ethics.
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    Love of Wisdom: A Solution to the Educational Philosophy of Socrates' Love
    LIU Tiefang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (4): 88-94+165.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.04.009
    Abstract186)   HTML23)    PDF (550KB)(856)      
    Love of wisdom can be described as the soul of Socrates' educational practice. The art of ed-ucation is about how to inspire individual's soul and change their addiction to fortune or fame to love of wis-dom. Closeness to beauty through friendly interaction can lead to love of wisdom. In guiding individual's love, education needs to be based on one's aspirations, goes beyond physical body and towards love of soul. Friendship, as a form of life, motivates individual's rising love. And it is the companionship of friendship that activates young people's potential love for knowledge and wisdom. The onward individual's soul is a process where the individual self lives their days to the fullest. "Know yourself", as Socrates held, involves the meaning of "be the master of your own" and grow to a sound and complete "self".
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    Empirical Research on Students' Justice Experience in Compulsory Education: A Report Based on the Database of Internal Fairness of School
    LI Xueliang, YANG Xiaowei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (4): 95-106+165.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.04.010
    Abstract195)   HTML128)    PDF (1278KB)(721)      
    Students' justice experience is an important factor to evaluate the fairness of school education process. This paper explores the current situation and influencing factors of students' justice experience in compulsory education, utilizing the major projects of Internal Fairness of School from the Faculty of Education of East China Normal University. Conclusions are drawn as follows. First, the overall condition of students' justice experience is at the intermediate level, while there is a big difference of students' justice experience between areas, schools, classes and individuals in the process of education. Second, background factors have a certain influence on students' justice experience, but the process factors are the core factors that influence the students' fair experience, of which equal treatment is the key factor. Finally, some suggestions are made to the government, schools and teachers in this paper.
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    What Happens in Scientific Inquiry in Middle School Classroom: An Empirical Study Based on Multiple Cases
    PEI Xinning, LIU Xinyang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (4): 107-121+165+166.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.04.011
    Abstract225)   HTML32)    PDF (872KB)(1466)      
    The emerging forms of science education in the world have challenged the ideas and practice of scientific inquiry. However, scientific inquiry, aiming at developing students' scientific understanding by their engaging in science practice, is still the essential approach to science education for the 21st century. From the socio-cultural perspective of learning, and using a cross-culturally contextual thinking, the authors conduct two interrelated sub-studies to track the instructional process of nine middle school science teachers in city W. The study describes the overall features of their inquiry-based science teaching, and demonstrates the underlying process structure and detailed characteristics. Moreover, the study reveals that science classroom in middle schools has the general structure of scientific inquiry process, and the teacher-led collective dialogic inquiry-session has shown positive effect, but at the expense of students' active experience and autonomy gen-erally. For teachers, partial understanding of scientific inquiry, lack of pedagogical strategies and tools to support students' inquiries, as well as external influences from organized evaluating-class and trainings, could possibly impede them to conduct an authentic inquiry-based science teaching.
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    An Analysis of the Development of Students' Ethics of Responsibility in China
    SU Na, SHAN Yuping
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (4): 122-130+166.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.04.012
    Abstract202)   HTML27)    PDF (721KB)(846)      
    Ethics of responsibility that would emphasize responsibility for the consequences of one's be-havior is absent in current school education. Therefore, it is necessary for schools to strengthen ethics of re-sponsibility education. Based on principles of responsibility, we designed questionnaires to investigate the cur-rent situation of ethics of responsibility education in middle school and high schools from Eastern, Central Chi-na and Western China. Our analysis of the data led us to the four conclusions. First, the overall level of students' responsibility is high. Students' responsibility awareness and behavior are improving grade by grade. However, the level of responsibility, teaching method of responsibility education, and specific approa-ches show significant differences between middle school students, high school students and teachers. Second, internal consistency reliability of the seven dimensions in ethic responsibility is between 0. 8-0. 9. Students tend to undertake responsibilities according to their personal interests. Third, the students' understanding level of future responsibility varies with the academic pressure in different learning phases. Finally, Grade 2 in middle school is the sensitive period for ethics of responsibility education. We therefore suggest that there should be more educational activities, which need to be specific, practical and externally disciplined.
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    An Experimental Study on Performance Pay of Rural Teachers in Northwest China
    CHANG Fang, DANG Yiwei, SHI Yaojiang, LIU Chengfang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (4): 131-141+167.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.04.013
    Abstract237)   HTML36)    PDF (666KB)(751)      
    Quality compulsory education plays a crucial role in the development of rural areas in China. The key to quality education is to motivate teachers and guarantee their welfare and interests. The study is based on a survey of 216 schools in rural areas, involving 350 math teachers and 10,768 students, to examine the effect of performance incentive on education quality. In a randomized intervention trial, 237 mathematics teachers and 7,357 students in the sixth grade participated in the first investigation, and 113 mathematics teachers and 3,411 students of the fifth grade participated in the second investigation. The findings show that percentile incentives based on increased students' performance help to encourage teachers to improve their teaching performance. Their students' academic performance was increased by 0. 10 to 0. 15 standard devia-tion, and below-average students show remarkable improvement. The results suggest the percentile incentives based on students' academic performance effectively promote performance of all students. Finally, we put for-ward strategies to improve teacher performance by percentile incentives, which is expected to encourage teach-ers to address the learning needs of all students.
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    Phenomenon of Disciplinization Impulsion in Higher Education
    YAO Yiran
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (4): 142-149+167.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.04.014
    Abstract208)   HTML20)    PDF (580KB)(662)      
    Disciplinization impulsion refers to the courses or programs, driven by impulsion and appeal, seeking to be recognized as independent disciplines. The impulsion may result from the instinct of organiza-tional expansion and professionals' sense of belonging in the field. On the other hand, it is incurred by the administrative characteristics of China's higher education system. Under the relatively rigid system, disciplin-ization impulsion even leads to the competition among colleges and universities for a higher level of higher ed-ucation. In this context, it is necessary to continue the reform and open policy and stick to the guiding spirit of promoting sustainable development of higher education. In addition, more effective measures should be in place to reduce disciplinization impulsion and promote the healthy development of some weak and marginal disciplines and programs.
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    The Definition of Campus Sexual Harassment and its Legislative Implication
    REN Haitao, SUN Guanhao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (4): 150-157+168.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.04.015
    Abstract617)   HTML27)    PDF (589KB)(1433)      
    The increasing sexual harassment on campus has become a widespread legislative and judicial concern. However, there is still no agreed definition of the term sexual harassment in China's academic com-munity and very little has been studied on sexual harassment on campus, which is unfavorable for the intro-duction of related prevention measures. This article argues that a clear definition of sexual harassment on cam-pus is a necessary prerequisite for effective governance. Besides, it should be distinguished from similar con-cepts likes sexual harassment in the workplace, sex violence on campus, and school sex trading. And the con-notation of sexual harassment on campus should be understood in the narrow sense that the knowledge of cam-pus relationship is the most important. Therefore, it should be required that the harassing person's objective behavior exert a substantial impact on sex and a negative impact on the victim. Finally, it is necessary to fur-ther limit the subjective psychology to achieve an accurate definition of sexual harassment on campus. The le-gal definition of this concept can provide theoretical support for relevant legislation and lay a necessary theoret-ical foundation for effective governance of sexual harassment on campus.
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    Tuition Fee Reforms and International Mobility
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (4): 158-161.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.04.016
    Abstract114)   HTML20)    PDF (815KB)(482)      
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    Review of Educational Institution Change in China (1978-2018): A Text Analysis of Educational Policies and Laws
    FAN Guorui
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (5): 1-19+165.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.05.001
    Abstract272)   HTML37)    PDF (1547KB)(1368)      
    To celebrate the 40th anniversary of reform and opening-up, this paper presents a text analysis to examine the educational institution change and innovation in the setting of the economic, political and social reform in China in the past 40 years. It reviews, summarizes and reflects on the complicated change and innovation process of China's educational institution. The study finds that in the past 40 years of reform and opening-up, the educational institution reform has undergone different stages of development, including the restoration and reconstruction of the educational institution, the comprehensive educational system reform, the experiment of market-based institutional change to promote the educational development, the shift of the educational policy focus from efficiency to equality, and promoting the comprehensive reform in the field of education to accelerate the modernization of the system and capacity of the education governance. This paper is a holistic examination of the change process of China's educational institution, as well as its achievements and pitfalls. This examination helps to offer some implications from a historical perspective for the optimization of the education institution with Chinese characteristics and the new development of China's education in the future.
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    An Empirical Study on Graduates' Employment: Based on 2017 National Survey
    YUE Changjun, BAI Yiping
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (5): 20-32+165+166.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.05.002
    Abstract197)   HTML73)    PDF (1417KB)(975)      
    Based on 2017 placement data from a national survey of 33 higher education institutions in 21 provinces of China, this paper studies the employment of graduates and its influencing factors. The empirical research results show that, first, the overall employment of college graduates in 2017 is relatively stable, with relatively high job-major correlation and job satisfaction. Second, the overall placement rate of college graduates is 84.6%. Compared with the data in 2015, the proportion of graduates who have signed employment agreements is higher, and the proportion of graduates taking advanced studies either domestically or abroad has been significantly increased. Third, when it comes to the locations of employment, graduates still prefer the eastern or other large cities, and enterprises are the most important units employing graduates. Finally, human capital attributes (such as high academic performance, experience of working as a student cadre, a higher degree and career-related certificates) get better return on investment in the labor market. Besides, family background is an important influencing factor, while labor market conditions in different places and industries are also significant determinants of graduates' job-hunting outcomes, starting salary levels and job satisfaction.
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    College Student Internship Participation Patterns and Its Influence on Graduate Employment
    DING Xiaohao, MA Shimei, ZHU Feifei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (5): 33-41+166.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.05.003
    Abstract310)   HTML31)    PDF (1520KB)(678)      
    In the context of the popularization of higher education, the objective of internship for undergraduate students is no longer limited to applying theory and knowledge learned from the classroom, it also serves as a necessary part to get familiar with the environment for future employment. In this study, we divide internship opportunities into two categories. First, uniform internship means that the internship is arranged uniformly by the university; and second, individual internship means that the internship opportunities are obtained by the individual student. Considering the fact that student participation in both types of internship is common, this study attempts to investigate the status of college student participation in both types of internship, as well as its influence on their employment. The outcome of this research helps to understand the relationship between different types of internship and employment.
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    How Noncognitive Development Affects Chinese Undergraduates' First Job Salary?
    ZHU Hong, ZHANG Yuqing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (5): 42-50+166.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.05.004
    Abstract207)   HTML77)    PDF (1421KB)(564)      
    In recent years, noncognitive development has played a more important role in research studies on economics of education. In China there is more and more empirical research regarding how noncognitive development affects individual's salaries. Based on a Chinese National Undergraduate Survey conducted by Graduate School of Education, Peking University, this study examines relations between noncognitive development and salaries of college students' first job. The authors find that both cognitive and noncognitive development play significant roles in college students' first job salaries, but the effects of noncognitive development were more remarkable.
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    How College Education Promotes Intergenerational Mobility: An Empirical Study on the Comparison of Graduates' City of Birth, College and Job
    MA Liping, LIU Yanlin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (5): 51-59+167.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.05.005
    Abstract170)   HTML25)    PDF (2051KB)(636)      
    This paper analyzes how college education promotes intergenerational mobility from the perspective of city level. Using the 2017 national college graduates' employment survey data, it analyzes the direction, rate, level, and influencing factors of college students' intergenerational mobility at city levels of their birth, college and job. The study finds that college education significantly enables students to enter higher-level cities for work than their cities of birth, especially the key universities education and postgraduate education; the lower the level of their birth cities, the higher the proportion and opportunities to enter higher-level cities. Further research reveals that there are mainly two ways in which college education promotes intergenerational mobility:first, college institutions are predominantly located at higher-level cities in China; second, college education increases human capital, which helps college graduates find jobs at higher-level cities.
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    A Trend Study on College Graduates Grass-root Employment: 2003-2017
    JIANG Cheng, ZHANG Sisi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (5): 60-70+167.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.05.006
    Abstract258)   HTML29)    PDF (1359KB)(758)      
    Based on the statistical data of eight sample surveys of college graduates conducted by the Institute of Economics of Education of Peking University in 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2015 and 2017, this study aims to describe the situation and trends of college graduates grass-root employment. It has summarizes seven characteristics and trends of primary employment of college graduates in China, and provides some corresponding policy implications.
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    Extended Compulsory Education and Reforms in Basic Education: Evidence from PISA 2015 Survey
    CHEN Chunjin, GU Xiaoqing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (5): 71-82+167+168.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.05.007
    Abstract197)   HTML36)    PDF (2510KB)(583)      
    Drawing on the test data from Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2015, this paper attempts to examine the impact of extended compulsory education on the development of basic education from an international perspective. Duration of compulsory education is one of the key indicators to measure the development level of compulsory education. Compared with the age of enrollment, the stipulations of the years of compulsory education are quite different. Based on the analysis of survey data, it is found that extending compulsory education to 12 years had the greatest positive effect on students' science, mathematics and reading literacy scores, while admission age at 6 had significant and positive effect on students' literacy. Among the countries and economies whose cumulative expenditure per student is under USD 50,000, higher spending on education is significantly associated with higher student achievement.
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    Three-step Strategy of Integrating Pre-school Year Education into Compulsory Education: A Perspective of Educational Funding
    CUI Haili, HUANG Zhongjing, LI Yichao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (5): 83-93+168.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.05.008
    Abstract285)   HTML35)         
    Based on the assumption of integrating pre-school year education into compulsory education,the paper proposes a three-step strategy to implement this policy. First, the rural areas in the central and western China will take the lead in implementing pre-school compulsory education in 2020. Second, in 2025, midwest regions and rural areas in eastern China will include pre-school year education into compulsory education. And third, pre-school compulsory education will be achieved all over China in 2030. Meanwhile, drawing on the measured results of urban and rural school-age population of preschool education in different provinces in different years,we measure the required educational fund in achieving pre-school year compulsory education at different phrases. The results show that educational fund needed in China will be 276.6 billion yuan, 390.5 billion yuan and 440.2 billion yuan respectively in the three years respectively. Given the implementation of this policy, the educational fund we need will be increased by 10 billion yuan,27 billion yuan and 88 billion yuan respectively.
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    The Modelling of Children as the Original Sin of Pedagogy
    XIANG Xianming
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (5): 94-103+168+169.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.05.009
    Abstract255)   HTML30)    PDF (1372KB)(717)      
    There is a tradition in pedagogy since Herbart that education is understood as a process of shaping children and students. This kind of educational view is built on the theory of the original sin of Christianity, and has a complex relationship between inheritance and participation in the history of the isolation and transformation of children. Behaviorism has provided a strong support for the modelling concept of education in the 20th century, and the two are consistent in denying and reconstructing the subjectivity of children. With the advent of modern information technology and post-figurative culture, and the gradual elimination of the "knowledge gap" between children and adults, the schools, which are established on the modelling concept of education, are finding it hard to deal with the situation. To get out of this dilemma, we must first rethink the Herbart tradition of pedagogy, recognize the subject status of children in theory, and restore education from "shaping" to "nurturing" and "service", from "burning oneself" to "igniting others", from "designing the future for the children" to "helping children to create the future". The so-called modelling of children is the original sin of pedagogy rather than principal crime, implying that this is not a condemnation, but a deep vision of and a theoretical reflection on the problem.
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    Culturally Responsive Curriculum and Pedagogy for Rural Migrant Students: A Perspective of Multicultural Education
    WANG Tao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (5): 104-113+169.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.05.010
    Abstract182)   HTML22)    PDF (1443KB)(584)      
    Rapid urbanization in China has led to the "greatest migration in human history". And it's imperative for the governments, educational institutions, and educators to consider how to support the integration of rural migrants by adjusting and revising both curriculum and teaching to respond to the sociocultural background of rural migrant students and achieve equal education opportunities and quality. This study tries to shed new light on the cultural appropriateness of current curriculum by examining the following questions. What is the cultural difference between rurality and urbanity? What kinds of cultural factors influence the urbanization of human and society? What kinds of cultural differences do rural migrant students experience? How should we respond to cultural background and differences in curriculum and pedagogy? Based on literature review and teaching examples, this study examines the rural-urban cultural differences, and introduces the theories and strategies of culturally responsive curriculum and pedagogy.
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    An Empirical Study on the Physical Exercise Behavior of Graduate Students
    XIA Xiangwei, HUANG Jinling, LIU Dan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (5): 114-128+169+170.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.05.011
    Abstract270)   HTML36)    PDF (1654KB)(874)      
    This paper addresses the new problems and challenges of the physical exercise and graduate students' health. It deals with an investigation and evaluation among 8,208 graduate students from 171 universities, including the universities on the list of "Double First-Class" project. By using the quantitative and qualitative methods, the authors analyze the physical exercise behavior of the graduate students in the following aspects:behavioral intentions (attitude and will), features (stage partition, mode, motivation, knowledge, activation level and obstacle factor) and exterior resources (software and hardware). The results show that for the graduate students, the situation of the physical exercise is not optimistic. The positive attitude and will do not enhance physical exercise behavior. The activation level of physical exercise is low, which cannot contribute to the health of graduate students. Also, the universities have not attached much importance to the physical exercise of graduate students. In conclusion, suggestions are made to improve the physical exercise behavior and students' health, and universities should pay more attention to the problems of the physical exercise and health.
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    Valuing Teachers' Working Conditions: Adjusting Personnel Cost by Compensating Wage Differentials of Teaching Staf
    MA Hongmei, LEI Wanpeng, QIAN Jia
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (5): 129-137+170.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.05.012
    Abstract177)   HTML26)    PDF (2103KB)(530)      
    The paper offers a theoretical framework for approximating geographic cost of teacher index (GCTI) by taking into account of (un) desirabilities of teachers' working conditions. Hedonic price theory serves as the theoretical underpinning for interpreting of earning function in poor and remote neighborhoods. It argues that compensating wage differentials can be estimated and adjusted by numbers of teachers recruited within each geographic region, then aggregated at higher administrative levels. Also, GCTI provides both conceptual framework and empirical strategy for financing education service of comparable quality across different geographic spaces. In addition, the GCTI-weighted formula makes it technically feasible to evaluate current policies targeting at providing equal accesses to quality education for residents dwelling in hard-to-teach areas.
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    Value-added Evaluation of Preservice Primary School Teachers' Training
    ZHANG Zhiquan, YIN Jie
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (5): 138-147+170+171.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.05.013
    Abstract172)   HTML26)    PDF (1352KB)(611)      
    China's implementation of the "excellent teacher" project aims to cultivate high-quality teachers. The implementation of the project needs effective and scientific monitoring and evaluating mechanism. The traditional evaluation which focused on the selection of excellent teachers is difficult to monitor the developing process and the overall change of the students. However, value-added evaluation, as the measurement and evaluation of the evaluating object's change or enhancement over a period of time can be used to monitor and evaluate student teacher's development. This research tries to find out the problems in the student teacher's developing process. It concludes with some suggestions on promoting the quality of teacher training.
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    Legal Interpretation of Japan's History Textbook Issues: An Example of Ienaga Textbook Review Case
    ZHAN Zhongle, HUANG Yuxiao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (5): 148-160+171.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.05.014
    Abstract194)   HTML97)    PDF (1452KB)(667)      
    As the longest public law lawsuit in the world, Ienaga textbook case solved the complex history textbook issues in legal ways, and it is typical of "legal settlement of political issues". The case involves a series of cross-cutting issues of constitution, administrative law and educational law, providing good material for the study of comparative law. During the trial of the court, the plaintiff and the defendant had a heated debate over the legal issues, such as the ownership of educational rights, the relationship between the system of textbook authorization and the right to education, academic freedom and freedom of expression, the judicial review method of discretion in the field of education, the application of the principle of due process in the administrative procedure, rule for avoiding constitutional questions, special benefits of suit. Still, there are a series of problems that need to be clarified in the research of public law and educational law in China. The jurisprudence embodied in Ienaga textbook case can provide some reference for us.
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (5): 161-164.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.05.015
    Abstract125)   HTML8)    PDF (2230KB)(427)      
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    The Modern Dimension of Technology and Educational Values
    GU Jianjun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (6): 1-18+154.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.06.001
    Abstract195)   HTML35)    PDF (1486KB)(606)      
    The rapid development of modern technology not only fully demonstrates its magical power to the world, but opens its encyclopedic in the inner world. The emerging perspectives of technology, such as "technology as artificial things", "technology as a process", "technology as knowledge", " technology as will", "technology as ideology", have constantly adapted and updated people's understanding of the dimension of technology. From the modern dimension of technology, we can grasp it from the aspects of material, human nature, activity,knowledge and so on. In China, the technical education at all levels should reexamine the modern dimension of technology and reconstruct the system of educational values, so as to improve students' technical literacy comprehensively, meet the national strategical needs and realize the educational reform that matches the new round of technological revolution.
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    The Tacit Dimension of Technology Knowledge and its Pragmatic Knowing
    XU Jinlei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (6): 19-28+154.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.06.002
    Abstract222)   HTML75)    PDF (1343KB)(521)      
    This paper explores the knowledge essence of technology from the perspective of thick epistemology and analyzes the importance of revealing the technology knowledge characteristics from the tacit dimension. Perspective of tacit epistemology, together with the characteristics of technology knowledge itself, can provide strategies and methods for the tacit knowing of technology and its pragmatic knowing through the analysis of the technology tacit knowledge's cognitive characteristics of embodiment, knowledge by acquaintance and dynamic awareness. Situation and practice are the right settings for the tacit knowing of technology. Sensory and experience are the awareness path for the tacit knowing of technology. Examples and integrity are the pattern recognition for the tacit knowing of technology. Demonstration and exercise are the prior strategy for the tacit knowing of technology.
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    Investigation and Research on Students' Technological Literacy in Compulsory Education in Eight Provinces and Cities in China
    ZHANG Yanyan, GU Jianjun, XU Weijiong, LU Yefeng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (6): 29-41+154+155.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.06.003
    Abstract172)   HTML183)    PDF (2843KB)(601)      
    In modern society, many countries have established their K-12 technology education system to cultivate students' technological literacy. A questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the status quo of students' technological literacy in primary and secondary schools from eight provinces in China. SPSS 21.0 software was used for data statistics and analysis. The survey shows that the Chinese students' technological literacy in compulsory education is not satisfactory. For example, students' understanding of technology has a certain degree of concreteness; students have few opportunities to enter technical places and their technical ability is generally weak. This means students' technological literacy falls behind the technology-oriented social development and educational development. Based on the international experience of technology education in primary and secondary schools, this paper suggests that the concept of "building a strong technological country from a baby" be established; technical course be offered to promote technological literacy; and the integration of technical courses with other subjects be strengthened.
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    The Design of a Technological Literacy Assessment Framework: Based on Ideas of International Frameworks for Chinese Basic Education
    ZHUANG Tengteng, XIE Chen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (6): 42-53+155.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.06.004
    Abstract144)   HTML22)    PDF (3125KB)(809)      
    Assessment of technological literacy remains an urgent issue to be addressed in technology education. Typical instruments such as PISA science literacy framework, NAEP science and technology literacy framework, TIMSS framework are widely used internationally. Through an analysis of the frameworks, this paper summarizes the ideas pertaining to technology-related literacy framework design, common connotations and their applications. It then sketches a preliminary technological literacy framework applicable to Chinese secondary and primary education. The pilot study, based on a large sample, reveals that the major dimensions of the instrument developed possess acceptable to good reliability and validity.
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    Childhood Never Disappearing: Towards a Modern Education that Supports Autonomy
    Dietrich BENNER, GU Juan, PENG Zhengmei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (6): 54-60+155+156.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.06.005
    Abstract151)   HTML30)    PDF (1320KB)(560)      
    In premodern societies, childhood was dominated by the certainty of adulthood. According to Rousseau, it was only in modern societies that we lost this certainty and "we don't know what nature allows us to become". Future has now become something with fundamental uncertainty and openness, not only for children themselves but also for adults. Therefore, modern democracy allows adults to negotiate future; education must be correspondingly supportive to children, recognize their uncertain plasticity and promote their autonomy. The existence of childhood is a necessary and empirical hypothesis. Announcing the disappearance of childhood or adulthood has no empirical proof and is therefore meaningless. The essential problem is how to give children educational and social support in order to develop their autonomy.
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    On the Difference of the Phenomenological Paradigm and Positivism Paradigm of Educational Research
    JIANG Yong, LIU Jiawei, DAI Naien
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (6): 61-68+156.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.06.006
    Abstract194)   HTML25)    PDF (1321KB)(679)      
    Pedagogy, with its distinctive cultural characteristics and attributes of discipline, is not only a social science, but also a spiritual science. This paper explores the differences between the phenomenological educational research and the educational research of positivism from the theoretical perspective of seeing and thinking. "Seeing" the "probability" theory and "ductility" theory help distinguish the essential difference between "essence intuition" and objective gaze. After comparing the technical orientation and spiritual growth orientation of thinking, the authors elaborate the thinking path of education research under the guidance of phenomenological theory. And from the triple structure of ego-cogito-cogitatum, the authors argue that phenomenological paradigm focuses on the subject's thinking of existence and thinking of freedom, which will strengthen its own non-reflective self-consciousness and eventually pull off from the objectification vision of the wrong path.
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    A Study of Herbart's Theory of Charakterbildung: Interaction between Pedagogy and Ethic
    PENG Tao, LIN Ling
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (6): 69-76+156+157.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.06.007
    Abstract244)   HTML30)    PDF (1725KB)(518)      
    Herbart regarded morality as the "whole purpose" of human, and moral education is realized through character formation. Herbart overcame Kant's dualism of character, regarded human character as an educable character, and established educational action and moral judgment on an aesthetic causality. Through these two efforts, Herbart developed the moral judgment concepts of the ethic. On the other hand, he constructed a systematic educational theory to explain how the practical concepts influence education and pointed out the ways to achieve morality through education. In this way, Herbart formed a mutual and interacting relationship between educational action and practical ideas at the perceptual-aesthetic level in his theory about the formation of adolescents' character.
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    Marx Reconstructed the Theoretical Framework of Educational Justice Theory
    SHU Zhiding
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (6): 77-84+157.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.06.008
    Abstract191)   HTML117)    PDF (1310KB)(417)      
    Faced with different educational justice theories, it's essential that we study Marx's theory of educational justice in order to choose and use it to guide the education practice. Although Marx did not write articles and works on educational justice, he devoted himself to studying the law of social development and created the theory of all-round development of human being. This is the pre-conditional thought of educational justice theory. A clear boundary between Marx's theory of educational justice and other educational justice theories is presented in this paper. It involves the premise of educational justice, the evaluation of educational justice and path to the realization of educational justice.
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    New Education Think-tank with Chinese Characteristics: Its Role and Construction Path
    SHEN Guochang, CHENG Gongqun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (6): 85-92+157.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.06.009
    Abstract185)   HTML22)    PDF (1313KB)(430)      
    As an important component of new think-tank with Chinese characteristics, education think-tank plays an important role in the national education decision-making and promoting education reform and development. The new education think-tank is not only a think-tank for educational decision-making and educational reform, but also a commentator for educational policy and a guide for educational practice. Furthermore, it serves as an evaluator of educational development, a high-end talent pool, a contact for educational exchange, and a source of positive public opinion. Also, plays the role of counseling advice, theoretical innovation, leading practice, personnel training, data storage, media guidance and so on. Therefore, it's essential to clarify the construction path and operating mechanism of the new education think-tank.
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    Research on the Nature of Science of Chinese Aesthetic Education
    ZHENG Yun, XU Linxiang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (6): 93-99+158.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.06.010
    Abstract238)   HTML20)    PDF (1389KB)(620)      
    It's based on the following understanding that the science of Chinese aesthetic education is established as an independent discipline. Firstly, as the object for research of science of Chinese aesthetic education, the Chinese aesthetic education, whether at the static or dynamic level, has potential, both academically and educationally, to be a subject. Secondly, the science of Chinese aesthetic education has the element of "dis-embedding" of modern discipline system, and its knowledge system presents unique academic logic of modernity. The science of Chinese aesthetic education is not only a subject, but also an effective way to cultivate students' Chinese core literacy.
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    The Correlation of Expenditure on School Level and Students' Academic Performance: Based on the Empirical Study in Western Poor Rural China
    LI Lili, GUAN Hongyu, Scott ROZELLE
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (6): 100-106+158.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.06.011
    Abstract158)   HTML26)    PDF (1313KB)(548)      
    As a means to alleviate poverty, the Chinese government has been investing in education by increasing financial resources for schools. However, scholarship on the relationship between school resources and student academic performance has not reached a consensus. This study examines the relationship between school-level expenditures, a key aspect of school resources, and student academic performance Using data collected in 94 rural primary school in designated poverty areas of western rural China, the empirical study found that school expenditures on students and teachers account for only 12% of total expenditures, while expenditures on school administration is as high as 72%. Expenditures on students and teachers ("software") is positively correlated with student academic performance. However, expenditures on school administration ("hardware") were negatively correlated with academic performance. These findings have strong implications for the structure of school spending and rural education.
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    The Emergence and Development of Research on Teacher Practical Knowledge
    WEI Ge, CHEN Xiangming
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (6): 107-117+158+159.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.06.012
    Abstract204)   HTML90)    PDF (1624KB)(628)      
    What kinds of knowledge discourses and social contexts make research possible on teacher practical knowledge as an independent field? This article, from the perspective of sociology of knowledge in the methodology of history of ideas, scrutinizes the research on teacher practical knowledge in the past half century. The fundamental appeal of this research field is to pursue the legitimation of teaching as a profession. Social-political discourses and academic-technic discourses affected the emergence and development of various approaches to researching teacher practical knowledge. Educationists' transitional understandings of teaching and education enriched the inner dimensions of teacher practical knowledge. The research focus of teacher practical knowledge changed from observable professional practices to professional knowledge structures, and then to teacher ethic and morality as essentials for teacher profession. Through depicting the complex genealogy of research on teacher practical knowledge, this article is significant for understanding the historical mapping of teacher professionalization.
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    The Origin of Independent Colleges as a Unique Organizational Form of Higher Education
    WANG Fuwei, YAN Fengqiao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (6): 118-134+159.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.06.013
    Abstract178)   HTML20)    PDF (1484KB)(343)      
    The article, employing population ecology rationale and institutional logic, examined the origin of independent colleges as a unique organizational form of higher education in China. The rise of independent colleges was due to the interplay among the following factors. Firstly, the imbalance between supply and demand and the shortage of funds in Chinese higher education were the typical resource constraints. Secondly, the diffusion of market mechanism in the economic sphere provided the cognitive inspiration of the ideas and methods. Thirdly, the public-benefit nature of education prevented completely educational marketization. Finally, the specific building blocks were from the decentralization reform of public higher education and the efforts of breaking through the marginalized status from private higher education. Then, that it's diffusing across the country and getting the approval of central government is mainly caused by the policy of the expansion of higher education admission and the investment shift of the business.
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    Compulsory Education Legislation in Germany: Legislator, Content and Characteristics-A Case Study of State Laws
    HU Jinsong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (6): 135-143+159+160.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.06.014
    Abstract223)   HTML119)    PDF (1337KB)(527)      
    The legislative power of compulsory education in Germany belongs to the state. The legislative body includes the state parliament and the state government. The effective legal sources of compulsory education in Germany include not only the school law or the compulsory education law enacted by the legislature, but also the compulsory education regulations issued by the state governments under the authorization of the school law. The compulsory education law mainly regulates the object of compulsory education, the age and duration of compulsory education, the type and form of compulsory education, and the legal responsibility of compulsory education. Germany's compulsory education law focuses on the adjustment of behavior, the setting of obligations, and the standard procedures.
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    The Frontier Research on Mathematical Register in Mathematics Learning: An Interview with Louise Wilkinson
    ZHAO Lingyun, LI Muhui, Louise WILKINSON
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (6): 144-149+160.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.06.015
    Abstract184)   HTML22)    PDF (1302KB)(476)      
    In this interview, Professor Louise Wilkinson, an internationally renowned expert in mathematical linguistics, analyzed the frontiers of mathematical register in mathematics learning. Mathematics has its unique professional language system. It is a very important ability for students to give correct and reasonable expression in the context of mathematics. It includes not only the oral language, but also the written language. Mathematics learning is a system based on multivariate representation, so teachers should provide with students with sufficient opportunities to use their own mathematical register in teaching, and these expressions offer teachers some insights into the students' understanding of mathematics.
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2018, 36 (6): 150-153.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2018.06.016
    Abstract118)   HTML12)    PDF (2611KB)(470)      
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