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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences) 2019 Vol.37
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    The Posthuman Condition and Chinese Educational Practice: Philosophical Reflections on Education in the Age of Artificial Intelligence
    WU Guanjun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (1): 1-15+164.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.01.001
    Abstract168)   HTML55)    PDF (1682KB)(558)      
    Through a comprehensible analysis of the causes of anxieties on education in contemporary China, this paper locates its deepest cause at the development of artificial intelligence, which rapidly increases the risk of the "investment on education". Education faces two prospects in the coming posthuman condition:either the end of education, or the lifelong education. The latter does not merely refer to the educational practice outside school education, but also two radicals renewals of educational practice:first, the posthumanist framework of actor-network replacing the linear framework of progressivism and representationalism; second, the intra-actions between all actors including non-humans replacing the one-way disciplinary indoctrination from adults to children. The posthuman condition also provides us with the opportunity to rethink education:is education merely a humanist enterprise? This paper concludes with a re-interpretation of pre-Qin educational thought through a Deleuzean approach.
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    Curriculum Design for Entrepreneurship Education and its Efficiency Evaluation: A Case Study of the MOOC Course in Zhejiang University
    XU Xiaozhou, YE Yinhua
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (1): 16-22+164.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.01.002
    Abstract148)   HTML142)    PDF (1526KB)(388)      
    Efficiency of entrepreneurial curriculum is the key to improving the quality of entrepreneurship education. Taking MOOC Course Introduction to Entrepreneurship in Zhejiang University as a sample, this research seeks to analyze the efficiency of MOOC course for entrepreneurship education. There are totally 1,111 student participants in the experiment and questionnaire, centering on the process evaluation and impact assessment of entrepreneurial curriculum. The findings suggest that students make positive remarks on the process evaluation of MOOC curriculum, which greatly changes students' entrepreneurial cognition, emotion and intention. However, there are some problems needed to be addressed. In the future, instructional design of entrepreneurship education curriculum shall be further optimized from the perspective of teaching content and teaching methods. Teacher-student interaction mechanism and student-student interaction mechanism should be improved. Besides, the crucial curriculum assessment would be more scientific and the teaching efficiency could be enhanced with a more consummated curriculum assessment mechanism in combination with reasonably allocated process evaluation and outcome assessment.
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    Generative Logic and Construction Paths of Entrepreneurship Curriculum Ecological System in Universities and Colleges
    ZANG Lingling, MEI Weihui
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (1): 23-29+165.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.01.003
    Abstract84)   HTML41)    PDF (1788KB)(349)      
    Influenced by economic and social reform and entrepreneurship education, construction of entrepreneurship curriculum ecological system in universities and colleges takes quality improvement as a core mission to promote curricula transformation and upgrading. The endogenous system of entrepreneurship curriculum should shift from external expansion to connotation so that curricula quality can be improved from subjectivity structure and indemnificatory structure. The support system of entrepreneurship curriculum should transform from other organization to self-organization and give full play to the internal drive of each support system to form a mutual cycle of benefit and win-win results.
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    The Influence of Information Feature and Regulatory Orientation on Undergraduates' Entrepreneurial Risk Decisions
    ZHANG Min, WANG Minmin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (1): 30-36+165.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.01.004
    Abstract82)   HTML40)    PDF (1582KB)(367)      
    Undergraduates' entrepreneurial risk decisions can be influenced by individual psychological regulatory focus and external information feature. Prevention-oriented undergraduates have the tendency to mitigate risks, while promotion-oriented undergraduates tend to face risks. Under fuzzy representation, undergraduates have the preference for mitigating risks, while they tend to face the risks under precise representation. External information feature and individual physical regulatory orientation interactively affect risk decisions. Entrepreneurship education in higher education institutions should focus on individual psychological diversity and information feature diversity, improving effectiveness of entrepreneurship education.
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    Constructing University Entrepreneurial Support System: Experience from Columbia University
    YANG Ting, YIN Xiangyi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (1): 37-45+165+166.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.01.005
    Abstract93)   HTML41)    PDF (1687KB)(392)      
    How to implement entrepreneurial support strategy is a systematic project for a university. It requires the cooperation and support of different departments within the university as well as the complementary and combined efforts of the university and the external resources. Through cooperation, Columbia University adopts an all-encompassing entrepreneurial support strategy, focusing on the cultivation of entrepreneurial human capital and the incubation guarantee in the process of entrepreneurship. Besides, the university actively integrates into the New York City entrepreneurial ecosystem. To cultivate entrepreneurial human capital, Columbia seeks to raise the entrepreneurial awareness of the students and faculty and improve their entrepreneurial ability. And the incubation guarantee focuses on the support of various elements of the entrepreneurial process. All these form the university entrepreneurial support system.
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    Development of Entrepreneurship Education in South Korean Higher Education Institutions and Its Implications for China
    SHI Yongchuan, WANG Jiatong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (1): 46-54+166.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.01.006
    Abstract103)   HTML39)    PDF (2547KB)(372)      
    Entrepreneurship education in South Korean higher education institutions since the 1980s has marched into high-quality development, which is driven by government-led guidance, industry-university collaboration and self-reform promotion. In the past 40 years of cultivation, it has designed three entrepreneurship education models with its own feature in knowledge teaching, resource developing and achievement transforming. Its social practice education is based on Entrepreneurship Support Center; its specialized education is guided by entrepreneurship discipline development and ecological entrepreneurship education is dependent on industry-university collaboration. Higher education institutions in China can learn from the entrepreneurship education in South Korea by attaching importance to integration of production and education, with the optimization of entrepreneurship education development system, as well as establishing inclusive evaluation and transformation mechanism towards entrepreneurship education achievements.
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    On Disciplinary Key Competences: Towards Subject Education in Information Era
    ZHANG Hua
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (1): 55-65+166+167.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.01.007
    Abstract165)   HTML140)    PDF (1495KB)(582)      
    Disciplinary key competences are high-order abilities and humanistic abilities in disciplines, with disciplinary understanding or thinking as their core. They are the basic goals of subject education in information era. They essentially embody the fundamental change of disciplinary epistemology:from fact-basedness to understanding-orientation. The first meaning of subject education in information era is to choose few and important disciplinary core ideas, construct dynamic relationships among them, change curriculum structure from the type of "coverage of disciplinary facts" to the one of "understanding disciplinary ideas", and root all the disciplinary core ideas into real problematic situations so that students can continuously investigate the ideas and deepen their disciplinary understanding progressively across their ages or grades. The second meaning of subject education in information era is to help students learn disciplines through disciplinary practices, and experience the birth of disciplinary knowledge, so that they can understand the nature of disciplines and develop the practical abilities of disciplines. The important feature of the new subject education is the dual-directions of disciplinary world and life world, disciplinary practice and life practice. The urgent task for the reform of Chinese subject education is to give up "the view of indirect experience" and "the view of basic knowledge and skills", and introduce "the vision of direct experience" and "the vision of key competences".
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    Significance and Value of Rural Textbooks for Rural Vitalization Strategy
    SHI Ou, ZHOU Meiyun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (1): 66-71+167.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.01.008
    Abstract94)   HTML37)    PDF (1501KB)(327)      
    Rural textbooks, starting from the beginning of the 20th century, reflected the development of Chinese society, especially the rural society over the century, documented the special contribution to preserving local culture and inspiring patriotism. In the 21th century, rural textbooks are in trouble in reality. Rural textbooks, as a proper name and textbooks themselves, tend to decline, reflecting the gradually worsening rural problems. Therefore, the 19th CPC National Congress proposed the rural vitalization strategy, which is a huge systematic project and rural education can play important roles. Rural textbook is the core of rural education. Rural textbooks can preserve, inherit and identify the declining rural culture; inspire students' spirit of loving their hometown and motherland; strengthening rural youth's barren spiritual home. To vitalize rural areas, we need to restart and develop rural textbooks to improve their quality.
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    The Poetics and Politics of Expository Text: An Alternative Interpretation of the Empirical Research in Education
    KANG Yongjiu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (1): 72-82+167+168.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.01.009
    Abstract102)   HTML39)    PDF (1485KB)(306)      
    In schoolbooks, expository text is supposed to objectively describe how things work, in order to equip readers with scientific knowledge and methods to understand things scientifically. But in fact expository text contains something richer. Any exposition is based on the expositor's own perspective. What's more, the world we exposit is not a natural existence, exposition itself creates the world to a large extent, and thus all objective expositions are based on subjective construction, the world itself is essentially a symbolic one. No one can teach expository text well without understanding this point, otherwise students would be left to exposit the world objectively, ignoring themselves, or theory and thought, and believing that the world is a natural reality beyond human's will. This could eventually make people enmeshed in the web of their own overcautious spinning.
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    The Effects of Administrative Support on Faculty Research Productivity: An Analysis of Chinese Academy of Sciences
    HA Wei, YU Jiaxin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (1): 83-94+168.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.01.010
    Abstract119)   HTML36)    PDF (3242KB)(350)      
    In order to build the national innovation system, research institutions and universities need to improve their research productivity. Existing research focus on the characteristics of the researchers themselves, and few studies examine the effects of support staff. We use data from the statistical yearbook of the Chinese Academy of Sciences to examine the effects of support staff (administrative cadres and workers) on scientific research productivity through the method of dynamic panel system GMM. Our study finds that the effects of support staff on scientific research output (international and domestic publications) have an inverted u-shape. Compared with the research findings, the number of support staff employed by CAS is still insufficient. More attention should be given to the appropriate number of ratio of support staff to research staff in the future.
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    The Tension between Humanism and Instrumental Rationality: Value Orientation and Policy Practice of International Organization in Global Educational Governance
    SHEN Wei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (1): 95-102+168+169.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.01.011
    Abstract109)   HTML117)    PDF (1601KB)(311)      
    International organizations play an increasingly important role in global educational governance. It is necessary to clarify the path, content and rationale some main international organizations take in educational governance to achieve Education 2030. International organizations seem to be multilateral collaboration reinforced by international dialogues, communication and cooperation. And there is always the tension between humanism and instrumental rationality in its operation. Thus, in global educational governance, international organizations should be based on systemic design and implementation, and motivate local government to promote human development.
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    A Study on Teacher Salary and Teacher Turnover Intention in Rural Primary and Secondary Schools
    DU Ping, XIE Yao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (1): 103-115+169.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.01.012
    Abstract168)   HTML100)    PDF (658KB)(653)      

    In rural backwards areas teacher recruitment and retention remains a major problem in many countries. In order to improve the overall quality of rural teachers, the Chinese government has issued a number of important policy documents to attract, retain and encourage outstanding teachers in recent years. Among them, teacher's salary is an important policy tool, and its effect remains to be observed. In this paper, we used questionnaire survey data from five counties in Liaoning, Yunnan, Guizhou, Chongqing and Guangxi Provinces in 2016, and using investment model and compensatory wage difference theory to explore the relationship between teachers' salary and their turnover intention in rural primary and secondary schools. The results show that about 20% of the rural teachers tended to leave. The average salary of rural teachers in five counties was lower than that of urban employees in the same period. Teachers' salary level is the primary factor that affects teachers' turnover intention, and existing rural teachers' subsidies (153 yuan monthly) are too low to retain teacher. Non-monetary factors, such as students' group characteristics and teacher professional development activities, also have significant impact on teacher turnover intention. Male and unmarried teachers are more likely to leave. Also, the related policies of retaining rural teachers are discussed.

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    People-centered Evaluation: Transformation of Educational Fairness in the New Era
    CHENG Tianjun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (1): 116-123+169+170.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.01.013
    Abstract194)   HTML45)    PDF (1466KB)(422)      
    Educational fairness varies historically in its manifestation and governance in different times. In the new era, the main contradiction in education has become the one between the eager expectation of the masses to receive high quality education and the serious shortage and uneven development of education. This transformation requires a new idea of education fairness that is people-centered and beyond the traditional view of education equity based on economic development or political rights. New educational fairness advocates new education development concept which focuses on the sustainable development and educational quality. It adheres to the new view of educational justice, which recognizes human dignity; and a new view of educational fairness evaluation which aims to enhance people's sense of educational fairness.
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    Road to “Counterattacks” of Rural Students at Universities: An Empirical Study Based on Beijing College Students Panel Survey
    WU Qiuxiang, CUI Sheng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (1): 124-136+170.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.01.014
    Abstract137)   HTML99)    PDF (2102KB)(405)      
    Going to college is an important way for rural students to change their destiny. However, as a vulnerable student group, how can rural students change their lives through higher education and narrow the gap with their urban peers? Based on the "Beijing College Students Panel Survey", this article attempts to give an answer by examining enrollment, growth at university, and employment development in a dynamic research perspective. The study finds that rural students have notable disadvantages in family background, which significantly affects their national college entrance examination scores and creates a gap when they enter the colleges. However, rural students have higher academic performance than urban students through their hard work. Therefore they obtain competitive employment results with urban students. This is achieved through rural students' hard-work, greater efforts and accumulated human capital, which make up for the disadvantages in family background. The study suggests that colleges and universities should help them through "counterattacks" of life by addressing the over-exiting mentality, focusing on the non-cognitive development, providing developmental financial funding, as well as employment guidance for rural students.
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    Structured Instruction in Higher Education
    MA Luting
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (1): 137-145+170.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.01.015
    Abstract109)   HTML36)    PDF (1469KB)(357)      
    Towards the development of diversified higher education, it is imperative to explore the education modes in support of quality improvement. The mode of structured education is the result of combining psychology, experience from home and abroad with future needs. It is based on the competence structure beyond knowledge structure, supported by knowledge, skills and thinking. With theory and practiced combined together, the education mode is to establish a four-level curriculum system, which involves developing thinking skills as well as teaching knowledge. Using fuzzy evaluation as a tool, this education mode will construct an competence-oriented instruction model.
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    Zhang Ruifan's Contribution to the Discipline Construction of Educational History
    HUANG Shuguang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (1): 146-151+171.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.01.016
    Abstract140)   HTML40)    PDF (1434KB)(514)      
    Throughout his long professional career, Mr. Zhang Ruifan, a historian of education, developed his own unique learning and teaching style, and devoted to the basic research of educational history in a rigorous and pragmatic manner. He was a pioneer in educational history, leading the development of the discipline. In particular, he succeeded in creating the academic pattern of comparative research on educational history in China and abroad, making outstanding contribution to the construction of education discipline.
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    The Legislative Core of Lifelong Education in China: Protecting Citizens' Learning Right
    LAN Lan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (1): 152-159+171.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.01.017
    Abstract131)   HTML36)    PDF (1458KB)(302)      
    The right to receive education has been included in the constitution. With the development of education and the advent of lifelong education era, learning as an important human right came into being and it's required that citizens' freedom of learning should be protected throughout their life. The ultimate goal of learning society is to protect citizens' right to learn, bridge the gap between different social classes to meet people's learning needs, especially the vulnerable groups. Protecting learning rights is the core of lifelong education legislation, which should be rights-based, while adhering to the principle of equal opportunity, choice and compensation.
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (1): 160-163.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.01.018
    Abstract104)   HTML24)    PDF (2652KB)(408)      
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    The Limitation of Interest: Discussion Based on John Dewey's Perplexity
    Liu Yunshan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (2): 1-17.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.02.001
    Abstract126)   HTML53)    PDF (913KB)(687)      
    The issue of interest is the major concern that Dewey and pragmatism strived to maintain in between of the stereotyped dogmatism and the romance of the new education, which combined objective and subjective, practice and thinking, potential and reality to cultivate children's character. However, the practice of progressivism education fell into the "internal negativism" of social improvement. How can the abstract dualistic principles be transformed into simple and feasible education? This is not only Dewey's perplexity but also the problem with education reform ever since. In this study, the author placed Dewey's text in the academic context, the ideological source of progressive education and the development of practice. Also, in the context of social reforms, the author analyzed the intricate relationship between educational theory and educational practice, social improvement, discussed ideological criticism, scientific experiments, social reformations, and explored the possibility and limitation of its implementation in education.
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    On John Dewey and China's Educational Reform
    Zhang Hua
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (2): 18-28.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.02.002
    Abstract198)   HTML241)    PDF (649KB)(860)      
    John Dewey's historic visit to China during the period of May Fourth Movement in 1919 greatly promoted the democratization of Chinese society and education. He himself participated in the reform of new school system and new curriculum, and the New Education Movement. When China encountered the key moment of two historic themes Enlightenment and Salvation, Dewey's choices were:laying Enlightenment as the eternal aim, striving for Salvation, thinking like the Chinese people, and seeking eastern democracy of education. Confronting the fierce conflicts between conservatism and radicalism, Dewey chose "the third philosophy", which phenomenally promoted the development of Chinese liberalism. Dewey's thought of democracy and educational philosophy has inherent connection to the 100 years' historic development of Chinese educational reform. Dewey is still "alive" in today's China. The significance of creative interpretation of Dewey is to realize the ideals of eastern Enlightenment and eastern democracy of education in China of the information age.
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    Faces of Democracy: Chinese Translation of Dewey's Democracy and Education
    Feng Jiayu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (2): 29-36.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.02.003
    Abstract138)   HTML39)    PDF (614KB)(524)      
    In the past hundred years,Chinese scholars have translated the booktitle of Dewey's Democracy and Education into almost ten different versions, which resulted in many faces of Dewey's democractic education thought. From the popular Chinese version "ping min zhu yi yu jiao yu"in the 1910s-1920s to "min ben zhu yi yu jiao yu" in the 1930s and "min zhu zhu yi yu jiao yu" in the 1940s till now,the Chinese translation of Dewey's Democracy and Education has been changing under the influence of social transformation in different times,in response to social development. Generally speaking, the translating and dissemination process of Democracy and Education in the past century is not only creating a more and more lifelike repetition of Dewey's text thought,but re-creating a stronger interpretation with the changing social contexts of time and space. In the new era, Dewey's Democracy and Education still needs to be translated into a transformative interpretation to adapt to the new change of the times and reveal its contemporary implications.
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    A Foreign Lever: Dewey in China's Education Reform in the 1920s
    Zhong Jianwei, Tu Yue
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (2): 37-44.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.02.004
    Abstract191)   HTML58)    PDF (564KB)(524)      
    One hundred years ago, Hu Shi and others wanted to initiate China's new education reform with the help of Dewey. Dewey's visit to China brought forth the discourse of pragmatistic pedagogy penetrated into the context of China's education reform. The interest in Dewey's educational thought promoted the folk educational reform activities in China, which resulted in some significant events of educational reform and experiment. Dewey heat lasted in China for five or six years. After that, Dewey heat quickly subsided. On the occasion of Dewey's centennial visit to China, it can be seen that the rise and fall of Dewey heat has always been accompanied by the misunderstanding and misuse of Dewey's thought.
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    John Dewey and Confucius in Dialogue: 1919-2019
    Leonard Waks
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (2): 45-52.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.02.005
    Abstract167)   HTML41)    PDF (566KB)(677)      
    In 1919, when Dewey arrived in China, the time was not ripe for a dialogue on equal terms between his ideas and those from Confucian tradition. Dewey's reputation was on the rise; Confucianism was in sharp decline. Dewey was welcomed with open arms by China's leading intellectuals, while a popular slogan of the day proclaimed " Down with Confucius!" Today, by contrast, China is a great world power, and the Confucian tradition is once again ascending. It is now time to place Dewey and Confucius in dialogue, and to investigate how each can contribute to educational revitalization. In this paper I argue that the Confucian ideal of moral self-cultivation can supplement Dewey's educational program, while Dewey's active learning strategies can fill a gap in Confucian learning in science and technology, fields that occupied Dewey in his lectures in China.
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    How China Shaped Dewey's Ideas of Cultural Diversity and Democracy
    James Zhixiang Yang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (2): 53-58.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.02.006
    Abstract180)   HTML36)    PDF (630KB)(495)      
    From 1919 to 1921, at the invitation of a group of Chinese scholars, John Dewey intensively traveled and lectured in China. During his two-year trip, Dewey contributed over 200 lectures on the diversity of topics in China. Since he left for the U.S, his speeches were translated and published by his Chinese devotees as the book titled Five Major Lectures from John Dewey. During the Republican period in Chinese history, in particular throughout the 1920s and the 1930s, Dewey's educational philosophy had a tremendous influence on Chinese education. It is important to note that educational encounter between China and John Dewey is an evolving process of two-way cultural communication. When Chinese educational reformers embraced Dewey's legacy wholeheartedly, in return Dewey's perception of cultural diversity and democracy had been shaped by his understanding of the May Fourth Movement.
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    John Dewey's Experience in China (1919-1921): How China Changed Dewey
    Shane Ralston
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (2): 59-62.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.02.007
    Abstract170)   HTML47)    PDF (446KB)(602)      
    In the early 1920s, to call John Dewey an internationalist would be to state the obvious. He had travelled to Japan, Russia, Mexico, Turkey and China. Of all these places, he stayed in China the longest-two years and two months (May 1919 to July 1921)-and wrote the most about his experiences there. Unfortunately, too much of the literature addresses how Dewey influenced China. What the author focuses on in this article is how China influenced Dewey instead. Specifically, he explains how Dewey conceived experience-offering an account of his so-called "metaphysics of experience"-in order to then appreciate how Dewey appreciated his own China experience.
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    Criticism on Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
    Feng Youmei, Li Yi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (2): 63-72.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.02.008
    Abstract262)   HTML46)    PDF (572KB)(989)      
    Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives has been criticized frequently, but most of the criticism focuses on the perspective of pedagogy, rather than a holistic vision or insight. This paper attempts to offer comprehensive criticism from four aspects:taxonomy, pedagogy, psychology and epistemology. From taxonomy angle, the generation mechanism of "category" is not given, so it can only be called the "classification framework", not "taxonomy". From the aspect of education, the person who should have been developed as a whole is cut into a number of independent parts (fields), causing misunderstanding in theory and misleading in teaching practice. From psychological angle, its superficial depiction fails to touch the very nature of learners' development. From the aspect of epistemology, the epistemological basis of cognitive psychology, which serves as the direct theoretical basis of Bloom's taxonomy, is very confusing, lack of self-consciousness to explore the essence of cognition philosophically. This does not inherit the core thought of the high-level genetic epistemology, which is the root of all the above problems.
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    The Modernity of University Discipline and Its Transcendence
    Cui Yanqiang, Quan Peipei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (2): 73-80.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.02.009
    Abstract142)   HTML31)    PDF (543KB)(458)      
    Discipline, the basic component of human knowledge system, is the result of the continuous development of scientific knowledge and the deepening division of disciplines. With the advent of modernity, research universities, modern university systems, and discipline systems have been established. As a product of modernity, discipline has a variety of functions. Meanwhile, the development of disciplines is confronted with such realistic dilemmas as the stratification of organizational structure of disciplines, cataloguing of the discipline professional management, utilitarianism of production of disciplines knowledge, standardization of personnel training, the symbolization of disciplines and professional diplomas, and the quantification of discipline evaluation. Therefore, to achieve high-level governance and sustainable development of the discipline, it is urgent to adjust the organization system, break down the barriers, improve the management system, and optimize the evaluation system.
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    Functional Classification of Expenditure: New Development in Research Tools for Educational Finance
    Tian Zhilei, Huang Chunhan, Zhao Junting
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (2): 81-93.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.02.010
    Abstract95)   HTML30)    PDF (768KB)(416)      
    Since 2014, based on the tools created by the China Institute for Educational Finance Research, some counties have launched pilot reforms on the classifications of expenditures by function. In this paper, the author presents three aspects of work:a) compare the setting of the subjects in the United States and China, and put forward the balance of fineness, accuracy, and cost as the basic principles for future adjustment of subjects; b) taking the design of small-scale rural school funding mechanism as an example, explore the value of functional classification for the formulation of educational policies. At present, a school with 101-150 people is the most difficult to operate, and the public funding mechanism for small-scale schools needs to be adjusted accordingly; c) take education production research as an example to explore the value of classifications of expenditures by function for academic research. There is a positive statistical relationship between school-based curriculum expenditures, support service expenditures, and school academic performance. The effectiveness of unified teaching, school management, and education technology expenditures needs to be examined. The classifications of expenditures by function will provide a new paradigm for the related research on education production.
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    The Effect of Education and Training on Migrant Workers' Citizenization in a Non-Monetization Benefit Perspective: Evidence from Suzhou City
    Cui Yuping, Wu Ying
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (2): 94-107.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.02.011
    Abstract111)   HTML29)    PDF (645KB)(475)      
    In the process of new urbanization, education and training have brought migrant workers not only monetary benefits such as an increase in income, but also non-monetized benefits such as the promotion of the level of citizenization. Based on the self-designed questionnaire and data collected among migrant workers working in Suzhou City, this paper constructs the evaluation index system of migrant workers' citizenization, and verifies the positive effect of education and training on the creation of non-monetized benefit by improving the level of migrant workers' citizenization. The study draws the following four conclusions. First, migrant workers' citizenization can be measured from four dimensions of citizenization willingness, economic life condition, social relations, and political participation. Second, migrant workers' citizenization is in the moderate upward level, but there are great differences between the four dimensions. Third, school education has a positive effect on the citizenization of migrant workers, which excludes the dimension of political participation. And only the migrant workers who have received high school education or above will improve their citizenization level with the increase of education. Fourth, training has also a significant positive effect on the citizenization of migrant workers. And the number of training has significant positive effects on the citizenization. Training cycle and effect have significant positive effects on the citizenization, which excludes the dimension of political participation, and the positive effect of training effect is the strongest.
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    The Mechanism of Training Transfer Promotion in School-based Training: A Moderated Mediation Model
    Song Huan, Wang Heng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (2): 108-115.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.02.012
    Abstract138)   HTML33)    PDF (792KB)(514)      
    Transfer of training is an important indicator of the effect of school-based training. Through the SEM analysis of a training transfer model using a sample of 817 teachers who have participated in school-based training, we found several results. The influence of training transfer design on training transfer result is not direct but through the chain mediating role of "learning outcome→transfer motivation". Teachers' self-efficacy positively moderated the effect of learning outcome on transfer motivation while teachers' stress from heavy workload negatively moderated it. In conclusion, the authors suggest it's necessary to put emphasis on transfer motivation so as to facilitate transformative learning, and the increase of teachers' self-efficacy and the decrease of teachers stress from heavy workload is an entry point to enhance teachers' transfer motivation. Moreover, "transfer motivation" needs to be included as a dimension of the assessment of school-based training.
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    Targeted Poverty Alleviation System of Compulsory Education in Contiguous Destitute Areas: Based on Talcott Parsons's Social Theory
    Li Fang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (2): 116-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.02.013
    Abstract165)   HTML25)    PDF (1093KB)(487)      
    Parsons's social theory and AGIL model provide an important framework for analyzing the targeted poverty alleviation system of compulsory education in contiguous destitute areas. In fact, a sound targeted poverty alleviation system of compulsory education in contiguous destitute areas is not in place in China, and the "AGIL model" does not function as expected. Namely, the system design fails to adapt to the external environment of contiguous destitute areas(A).The targeted goal is not clear enough, owing to the misunderstanding of education and lack of self-awareness among the public (G).The targeted poverty alleviation system of compulsory education is not integrated(I). Lack of incentive mechanism to promote projects (L). Therefore, it's necessary to create an "AGIL" model for the system. This involves adapting to the external environment, establishing a demand-oriented system framework of targeted poverty alleviation, setting clear development goals and policies, and effectively integrating resources to promote the implementation in a coherent and orderly supportive system.
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    Rural Construction and Rural Education: An Integrated Model for Targeted Poverty Alleviation of Vocational Education and Rural Revitalization Strategy
    Zhu Chengchen, Yan Guangfen, Zhu Dequan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (2): 127-135.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.02.014
    Abstract158)   HTML28)    PDF (511KB)(580)      
    In China, the revitalization of rural vocational education should be the core of the rural revitalization and construction. From the perspective Targeted Poverty Alleviation (TPA) of vocational education, this study deals with the vision and reality in Chinese rural vocational education and five proposed strategies. Based on the idea of the integration of general education, vocational education and adult education, and the combination of agriculture, technology and education, the study proposes a comprehensive secondary school model. This model would help prepare rural students with solid knowledge and skills when they graduate, to ensure other students are competent in farming and other jobs. Furthermore, the model also reflects the idea of "generalized vocational education" and "vocationalized general education", the idea of comprehensive based education and lifelong vocational education.
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    The Main Characteristics of American Research University Governance Process and Its Cultural Basis
    Liu Aisheng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (2): 136-143.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.02.015
    Abstract137)   HTML20)    PDF (772KB)(479)      
    In order to understand the characteristics of American research universities governance process, we not only need to concern the distribution of power, but also focus on the governance level. In general, the governance process of American research university possess the characteristics of polity, ambiguity and the rule of law, which is closely related to American social culture of individualism (community tradition), weak uncertainty avoidance and "the human nature is evil" respectively. In order to achieve effective university governance, besides perfecting governance structure, the university should consider the behavior features of university decision makers under specific culture context.
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    Dissemination and Reflection of Wolfgang Brezinka's Meta-Pedagogy in China
    Hou Huaiyin, Xu Lili
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (2): 144-150.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.02.016
    Abstract154)   HTML116)    PDF (539KB)(466)      
    Wolfgang Brezinka's meta-pedagogy emerged in Germany in the 1970s. Its introduction into China resulted from the promotion of pedagogical consciousness in pedagogy and the enhancement of subject consciousness. Since its introduction into China in 1993, the dissemination of contents, influences, subjects and features showed different characteristics in different stages. This dissemination requires a full understanding of the original text, and for the construction of China pedagogy, it also requires a rational critical reflection and creative exploration.
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    Between Economics and Education: Orientation and Trend of Vocational Education——Dialogue on the Development of Vocational Education between Lu Suju and Terada Moriki
    Lu Suju, Terada Moriki
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (2): 151-156.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.02.017
    Abstract145)   HTML23)    PDF (535KB)(512)      
    How to effectively coordinate the economic and educational functions, reasonably determine the basic positioning and future direction of vocational education arouses great interest both in China and Japan academia. Through the comparison of vocational education development and realistic dilemmas between China and Japan, this paper presents the following findings. While there are phase variations in vocational education development in the two countries, both pay attention to the common direction——advanced vocational education and vocational career education. From the four-dimensional analysis framework of vocational education system, the government-led diversified cooperation relationship construction and the key competence oriented target and course structure are rooted in Confucianism culture education as the main evaluation criteria of east Asian countries in vocational education. It presents common characteristics whose vocational education is based on qualifications framework in European and American countries, which provides reference for China to solve practical problems.
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (2): 157-159.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.02.018
    Abstract70)   HTML12)    PDF (854KB)(376)      
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    Challenges and Possible Solutions for Children 0-3 Years Old in Poor Rural China
    Yue Ai, Cai Jianhua, Bai Yu, Tang Lei, Shi Yaojiang, Luo Renfu, Scott Rozelle
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (3): 1-16.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.03.001
    Abstract193)   HTML128)    PDF (691KB)(880)      
    Brain development during the first 1000 days of life is critical and has the greatest return to investment. This paper describes the challenges for cognitive, language and social emotional development, as well as health, for children 0-3 years old in rural China. Based on the result of randomized control trials on early childhood development, we also offer some possible solutions to address these challenges. We find that almost half of the children surveyed in rural China are at risk for cognitive delays, and the risk of delay increases over time. The reason behind this is that caregivers in poor rural areas overall do not engage in interactive parenting practices; they are also at risk for depression and do not engage in proper feeding practices. Only 13 percent of the caregivers tell stories to their children using story books. In addition, 23.5 percent of caregivers experience depression. Most of the caregivers also lack knowledge of proper feeding practices for young children. Based on these findings, this study proposes that policy makers implement home visiting programs, establish early childhood development centers and develop other policy solutions to address these problems. It's hoped that the government can consider the circumstances of rural children and increase investment in early childhood development, which can help solve the high rates of developmental delays among rural children and promote human capital development.
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    Status and Determinants of Early Childhood CognitiveDevelopment in Poor Rural China
    Li Ying Jia Miqi Zheng Wenting Tang Lei Bai Yu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (3): 17-32.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.03.002
    Abstract196)   HTML123)    PDF (640KB)(822)      

    With the rapid aging population and economic globalization, cognitive capital has become critical for sustainable economic development in China. Early childhood cognitive development has a lasting impact later in life, which is vital to China's national development. The current study used the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development Ⅲ to study a sample of children in impoverished areas of western China. We used this data to describe the status of early childhood development in China and analyze determinants of cognitive development during early childhood. The results show that cognitive developmental delays are common among rural children in underdeveloped areas. The proportion of children showing developmental delays is 40% and above. It also reveals significant rural-urban differences, with urban children tending to show higher levels of cognitive development (The proportion of children showing developmental delays is 25.53% in urban areas and 43.78% in rural areas). Our findings also show that parenting behavior and parenting knowledge of caregivers are closely related to the level of infants' cognitive development. However, when controlling for Hukou type, the relationship between parenting behavior and cognitive development becomes insignificant. We believe this may be due to the difference between urban and rural areas in both the "quality and quantity" of parenting behaviors. To bridge this gap, it's suggested that the Chinese government not only strengthen and improve public policies and service systems for the development of children aged 0-3, but also invest in education and parenting training to ensure that caregivers pay more attention to cultivating awareness, knowledge, and good behavior in their children. All this can help to effectively improve the status of children's early cognitive development in rural areas.

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    Trend and Risk Factors of Early Childhood Social Emotional Development: Based on the Survey Findings from Poor Rural China
    Li Shanshan, Wang Boya, Chen Peng, Tang Lei, Shi Yaojiang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (3): 33-46.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.03.003
    Abstract123)   HTML88)    PDF (649KB)(490)      
    The overall improved quality of the population is a critical factor of sustained economic development. It is of great significance to improve the level of social emotional development of infants in rural China. Social emotion, as an important component of early childhood development, is the basis for human capital development. In this study, which focuses on the social-emotional development of children in rural China, infants 6-24 months old were randomly selected. Using Age and Stages Questionnaires:Social-Emotion, we study the current and future development and factors affecting the development of infants' social emotion in poor rural China. The results show that 44.18% of the infants have social emotional developmental delays in baseline, and the proportion of children with such delays increases to 63.38% in the following-up data. The level of social emotional development of girls is better than that of boys. We also discovered that mothers played an important role in promoting social emotional development of infants both in baseline and following-up survey. In addition, good parenting behavior plays an important role in promoting the social development of infants. In order to promote the development of infants and young children in poor rural areas, the government needs to increase investment in early childhood development, disseminate relevant information in rural areas to increase awareness, fundamentally change parenting in rural areas, provide more local employment opportunities for mothers in rural areas, and ultimately promote the healthy development of infants' social emotion. Finally, it is advisable to strengthen the assessment of early childhood development projects and explore an intervention model suitable for families in rural China.
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    Status and Determinants of Early Childhood Language Development in Poverty Areas in Western China
    Wang Boya Li Shanshan Yue Ai LI Ying Shi Yaojiang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (3): 47-57.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.03.004
    Abstract172)   HTML114)    PDF (571KB)(512)      

    Language acquisition is a key component of early childhood development (ECD) during the first three years of a child's life, when most brain development occurs. Speech and language development are good indicators of overall cognitive development, academic performance, education level, work performance and physical, mental health, and non-cognitive ability in the future. The current study selected a sample of children in impoverished areas of Northwest China and used the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development Ⅲ to measure the level of early childhood language development. It also examined the relevance of other language scales to the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development Ⅲ in order to find a cost-effective scale to measure early childhood language development. The early language development delay risks were common among 6-36 months sample children, and 57% of the sample infants had language development delay. Moreover, there was a significant gap between the rural and urban area. Gender, premature birth, economic conditions and Hukou type were the risk factors which were related to early childhood language development. Besides, parenting knowledge and parenting behavior were significantly positively correlated with early childhood language development.We also found that both Putonghua Communicative Development Inventory-Short Form and Age & stage Questionnaires-3 (communication) had significantly positive correlations with Bayley-Ⅲ language domain.

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    Current Status and Influencing Factors of Infant Anemia in Poor Rural Areas of Western China
    Nie Jingchun Yang Jie Zhang Lifang Li Ying Yang Jiuyou
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (3): 58-69.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.03.005
    Abstract135)   HTML21)    PDF (1112KB)(405)      

    This study analyzed the occurrence and influencing factors of iron deficiency anemia among 4,722 infants aged 6-37 months from poor rural areas of Western China. The data show that infant anemia is still a high incidence problem in poor rural areas of Western China, with an average of 44.4% of infants suffering from anemia. For infants aged 6-12 months, the anemia rate is even as high as 49.7%, but mainly mild anemia. The anemia status of infants and young children did not improve with the age of month, yet showed a slight upward trend in different years. Research suggests that anemia at 6-12 months of age is significantly correlated with their subsequent development. All of these facts indicate that interventions are needed to improve anemia of infants and young children in poor rural areas of Western China. The analysis of influencing factors shows that the most important factor is the feeding behavior of the caregivers. We should actively seek and establish effective channels to provide nutritional and health knowledge to infant and child's caregivers, provide social support for infant and child feeding environment, and improve the feeding behavior of caregivers, so as to promote the healthy growth of infants and children.

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    An Empirical Study on the Status of Rural Parenting Behavior and its Influence in Poor Rural China
    Bai Yu, Zheng Lijuan, Liu Buyao, Yang Ning, Chen Peng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (3): 70-83.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.03.006
    Abstract169)   HTML107)    PDF (617KB)(651)      
    Human capital is an important driving force for economic development. Early infant development is crucial to the improvement of human capital. Using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development I (BSID I) and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Ⅲ (BSID Ⅲ), as well as measures of family environment, we examined rates of developmental delays among 3,991 children aged 0-3 years old and the parenting practice of their caregivers in rural areas of three provinces in China. We used OLS analysis to examine the relationship between parental behavior and developmental delays. Our analysis shows the following results. First, there is a general lack of positive parenting behavior in rural infant and young children. The proportion of parent-child interactions (e.g. storytelling, singing, reading) was less than 40%, and the incidence of negative parenting behaviors (e.g. shouting or roaring or taking away toys while disciplining the child) was more than 40%. Second, whether the mother is the primary caregiver, mother's age, mother's education level and family asset value significantly are significantly correlated with parenting behaviors. Third, rural infants show high rates of developmental delay. 41% of infants in the total sample have cognitive delays, 58% have language delays, 29% have motor delays, and 58% have social emotional delays. These delays are negatively correlated with positive parenting behaviors and positively correlated with negative parenting behaviors. Based on these findings, primary caregivers for infants should adopt positive parenting behaviors and engage in parent-child interaction activities with infants to provide a high-quality parenting environment. Also, policy makers should increase investment in early development for infants in poor rural areas of China.
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    An Empirical Study on the Status and Determinants of Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices in Poor Rural Areas of China
    Tang Lei Luo Xia Li Ying Nie Jingchun Yang Jiyou Liu Han
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (3): 84-96.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.03.007
    Abstract202)   HTML23)    PDF (826KB)(505)      

    The early years of children's life is the most critical period that determines their health and ability development, and will have lasting effects on their survival, growth, development, human capital accumulation and adulthood income levels. In this study, we used baseline and follow-up survey data of 1,802 children aged 6-30 months old and their families from rural areas of Qinba Mountain, and analyzed the status and determinants of the feeding practices of primary caregivers of the sample children by descriptive analysis and a logistic regression model. We found that rural caregivers in the Qinba mountain stopped breastfeeding too early and relied too much on formula feeding. Regarding the complementary feeding, the proportion of the children who achieved the minimum food diversity in the sample area was 36%, which is lower than the average value of rural areas in other East Asian and Pacific countries (56.7%), but much higher than the average value of rural areas in Africa and South Asia (14.1%-23.7%). One possible reason for the poor feeding practices is that the rural caregivers lacked reliable sources of knowledge and information. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between feeding practices and caregivers' education levels. It is thus a necessary and important research direction to explore the ways to provide knowledge and guidance on children's feeding practices for rural caregivers, especially those with lower education levels.

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    Effects of Caregiver Depression on Parenting Behaviors in Poor Rural China
    Yang Jie Jiang Qi Yue Ai Tang Lei Nie Jingchun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (3): 97-106.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.03.008
    Abstract174)   HTML114)    PDF (670KB)(445)      

    Depression is a common psychological disorder among caregivers of young children, which can adversely affect their parenting behavior and disrupt healthy early child development. In order to assess the prevalence of caregiver depression and analyze its effects on parenting behavior, we conducted a large-scale survey with 1,798 caregivers with children aged 6-24 months in China's Qinba Mountain region. Participants were asked to complete both the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) as well as household surveys describing their socioeconomic backgrounds and caregiving behaviors. We had three main findings. First, the overall depression rate of caregivers is 22.90%, with depression among grandmothers as the principal caregivers 10.11% higher than that of mothers as principal caregivers. Second, the education level and family assets of caregivers were significantly negatively correlated with depression, and the age of caregivers was significantly positively correlated with depression. Children who were male, older, or had lagging language development were also significantly more likely to have caregivers who had depression. Third, caregiver depression significantly reduced positive parenting behaviors and increased negative parenting behaviors. Our results confirm the high prevalence of caregiver depression and its effects on caregiver behaviors, which may have significant consequences on early child development in China. Thus, policies and strategies comprehensively addressing the varied socioeconomic risk factors for caregiver depression, especially age and education, are needed.

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    Current Situation Analysis and Strategy Suggestions for Early Child Development in China
    Cui Yujie, Zhang Yunting, Zhao Jin, Zhang Zichen, Wang Xuelai, Huang Xiaona, Li Guohong, Jiang Fan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (3): 107-117.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.03.009
    Abstract197)   HTML107)    PDF (1318KB)(522)      
    Children in China at present are beginning a new stage, from survival to development, driven by the economic growth and social development. As there is a common understanding of the concept of early child development (ECD), we analyzed the current situation of ECD in China based on the national conditions and international experiences. Great progress in several fields of ECD has been made, including policy support, service system and projects. The number of high-risk children has fallen sharply and gaps in health indicators have been bridged between western and eastern China in the past few years. However, imbalance of development between urban and rural children still exists, especially in poor areas. Compared to the developed countries, there are several gaps of ECD in China, like family nurturing. It's suggested that, in the future, working orientation of ECD should be clarified and the service system, including coordination, financing, incentives and information construction, should be improved in order to promote ECD in China.
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    Benefit-Cost Calculations of Government Investment into Early Childhood Development in Rural China
    Wang Lei, Xian Yue, Zhang Siqi, Bai Yu, Dorien Emmers, Menno Pradhan, Scott Rozelle
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (3): 118-128.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.03.010
    Abstract148)   HTML119)    PDF (575KB)(672)      
    One of the primary goals of Early Childhood Development (ECD) initiatives is to prepare children for their eventual participation in elementary school and beyond. It is well known that a large share of ECD's benefits is realized through higher enrollment, less dropout and higher performance. Governments in low and middle-income countries, however, often do not know the value of such investments and are seeking knowledge of the returns to state-supported ECD programs. This paper uses a World Bank-produced ECD calculator to estimate the economic benefits of early child development (ECD) programs in China. According to our findings, which utilize high quality data that are shown in the paper supported by academic research or government source of information, the returns to investment in economic terms are high. We find that the benefit-cost ratio is from 4.2 to 8.4. Such returns are shown to be higher than many other government-supported initiatives and are equally as high as those found in many other countries.
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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (3): 129-133.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.03.011
    Abstract127)   HTML12)    PDF (839KB)(625)      
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    Home Visiting Program and Public Policies for the Early Childhood Development: Lessons from Brazil
    Osmar Terra, TANG Lei, LI Ying, ZHENG Wenting, SHI Yaojiang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (3): 134-148.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.03.012
    Abstract161)   HTML113)    PDF (2091KB)(392)      
    The beginning of living systems sets the stage for every aspect of an organism's internal and external functioning throughout the lifespan and is the period when the brain has the greatest plasticity. Early childhood investments have the highest individual and social returns compared to later investments. Countries around the world have recognized the importance of establishing public policies for early childhood development (ECD). Among the middle-income countries, Brazil is one of the pioneers in such policies. Brazilian government launched a pioneering ECD program, PIM program, followed by a national ECD program, the Happy Child Program, and has set up a dedicated government department to fund and promote the program. This paper summarizes the lessons learned from Brazilian government's 15 years of experience in ECD projects, particularly its experiences in the home-visiting and the cross-sectoral collaboration. Specifically, there are three pillars for the program. First, the alliance of national and local governments. Such alliances are based on specific local characteristics and needs, with the long-term technical and financial support from the state, and through coordination of actions. The cross-sectoral collaboration strengthens the program by promoting the exchange and dissemination of successful experiences in specific areas. Second, community participation is critical. Community involvement promotes family involvement, awareness of the importance of ECD, and a network of joint efforts. Third, the family is the core element of the successful implementation of ECD projects.
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    Early Childhood Development Program: Practice and Policy Promotion in Latin America
    Norbort Schady, Xian Yue, Wang Lei, Bai Yu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (3): 149-156.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.03.013
    Abstract142)   HTML96)    PDF (1755KB)(465)      
    The first 1,000 days are crucial for brain development and the investment in this period of time has the greatest return relative to other life stages. In Latin American countries such as Mexico and Peru, although children's health and nutrition have greatly improved, they have not sufficiently developed in terms of cognition, language and social-emotional, and there has been a high rate of delay in early childhood development (ECD). In order to solve this problem, Latin American countries have been making continuous efforts to promote the early childhood development, such as the "Home Visit Program". Based on the experience of ECD programs conducted in Latin American countries (Jamaica Project, which was a pilot ECD program, and Peru SAF Project, which was a model of ECD policy promotion), this paper makes a in-depth analysis of the impact evaluation of ECD program and provides some revelation for Chinese government to make ECD polices in rural China.
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    Investments in Human Capital in Early Childhood: Economic Theory, Data, and Implications for the Design of Parenting Program
    Flavio Cunha, Li Shanshan, Wang Boya, Jiang Qi, Yue Ai
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (3): 157-163.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.03.014
    Abstract129)   HTML112)    PDF (483KB)(546)      
    Investments in early childhood have significant economic benefits in the future labor market. This paper tries to find out the ways to improve family investment in early childhood development by analyzing the characteristics of human capital formation and reasons why families may not adequately invest in early childhood development. It also introduces the background, intervention methods and effects of the Lena Initiative for Early Childhood Development. Based on the results of existing investment projects, it's hoped that the Chinese government can further increase its investment in the field of early childhood development, promote the comprehensive development of children, and foster the human capital development of children in poor rural areas.
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    Promoting Early Childhood Development: From Individual to Society
    Gary Darmstadt, Yang Jie, Nie Jingchun, An Qi, Liu Kai, Shi Yaojiang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (3): 164-172.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.03.015
    Abstract179)   HTML111)    PDF (1262KB)(534)      
    A number of research results show that early childhood development has a long-term impact on individual physical development, brain development, mental health, and even affects the health and well-being of the next generation. Data show that nearly 250 million children in low and middle-income countries around the world are at risk-in extreme poverty or underdevelopment -and that their development is key to economic growth, social equity and the well-being of all people. Nursing during pregnancy and lactation, popularization of feeding knowledge, implementation of responsive nursing care and attention to mental health can effectively improve the nutrition and health status of pregnant women and infants. This paper, first deals with the early childhood brain development rules and the risk involved, then systematically describes the effective early childhood development intervention from the aspect of content of the intervention, government involvement and intervention cost effectiveness. In conclusion, it points out the importance of government involvement in early childhood development, thus providing new inspiration for future research.
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    Facing Information Technology, What can Education Theory Do?
    Li Zhengtao, Luo Yi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (4): 1-12.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.04.001
    Abstract152)   HTML195)    PDF (1348KB)(504)      
    Exploring the relationship between information technology and education theory has generated interactive questioning:What has information technology changed for pedagogical theory? What can education theory do for information technology? Information technology has brought changes to the theory of education. In the shallow sense, it is characterized by the formation of a diversified way of existence, a multi-dimensional representation and a variety of modes of communication. In the deep sense, it is characterized by a new value scale, a wider theoretical boundary, a new theoretical production mechanism and a change in the way the theoretical subject survives. In turn, the theory of education can provide theory and principles, and by returning to concept origin, value origin and origin of way of thinking, take responsibility and contributes to the development of educational technology, thus making a difference.
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    Imaginative Pedagogical Theory in the Era of Information Technology: A Perspective of Knowledge Production and Theory Reconstruction
    Li Dong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (4): 13-24.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.04.002
    Abstract165)   HTML323)    PDF (604KB)(388)      
    The development of pedagogical theory shoulders the dual mission of "meeting the needs of the times" and "taking disciplinary responsibility". By redefining space-time structure, work philosophy and technical logic, information technology has outlined a brand-new picture of the times. The crisis and reflexive appeal of pedagogical theory in the new era call for imaginative pedagogical theory in many aspects. It is imperative that pedagogists today make their due response. Pedagogical theory has witnessed the changes of knowledge production, such as right transfer and self-determination legislation, border expansion and cross-border reorganization, order reconstruction and integration creation". And a new pattern of pedagogical theory is created, including the three reconstruction dimensions of transfer of problem domain, shift of subjectivity and transfer of methodology. In the age of information technology, the "utopian" imagination of pedagogical theory will clarify the existing tenet of pedagogical discipline, namely, pedagogy involves knowledge infatuated with others' growth; clarifying the mission of pedagogical scholars, that is, everyone should be his own methodologist and finally ushering in the peak of pedagogical theory, and sending out the echo of "why geniuses come in groups".
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    Appeals of “Internet + Education” to the Development of Education Theories
    Guo Shaoqing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (4): 25-37.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.04.003
    Abstract172)   HTML106)    PDF (1158KB)(483)      
    This paper discusses the evolution of "Internet+Education Application Software system", and introduces the concept of knowledge sharing, knowledge generation and interaction, precise personalization, and intelligent educational application software system. It also presents six cases where Internet education promotes innovation and development, like intelligence sharing, transformation of learning styles and teaching organization. Taking subversive technology as the driving force of social reform, it's suggested that a smart society is one in which machine intelligence and human intelligence are integrated. Besides, this paper argues that learning environmental engineering should be listed as a secondary discipline of pedagogy, and educational management should involve the construction of monitoring and warning, intervention and regulation, and accurate decision-making theory and method system. In particular, class teaching system will be replaced by dynamic learning organization, and the traditional educational structure will be diversified. In conclusion, it points out t the future integration of virtual and real schools without boundaries, the challenge of the accurate portrait of learners to evaluation and the pursuit of the inheritance, development and innovation of pedagogy theory.
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    Classification of Disciplines and Improved Quality of Quantitative Research of Education
    Du Yuhong, Zang Lin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (4): 38-46.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.04.004
    Abstract156)   HTML103)    PDF (504KB)(326)      
    Quantitative research of education as one of the most important paradigm develops very fast in China. However, its quality and reliability are being questioned. In order to figure out how to improve the quality of quantitative research of education, this article explores the classification of disciplines, and defines education as a comprehensive practical discipline. After analyzing the mission of quantitative research of education in the context of the classification of disciplines, the author discusses the problems with quantitative research of education in China and introduces the experience of economics in handling the relevant issue. Finally, the authors put forward some strategies to improve the quality of quantitative research of education.
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    The Development of Curriculum Theory in the Era of Information Technology
    Jin Yule, Zhang Mingkai, Meng Xianyun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (4): 47-56.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.04.005
    Abstract144)   HTML192)    PDF (568KB)(344)      
    Information technology profoundly affects the development of curriculum theory. On the one hand, the development of curriculum theory is challenged by information technology, such as transformation of knowledge from static determination to interactive creation, cognition leap from substantive thinking to intelligent thinking, and reconstruction of social environment from local influence to overall change. On the other hand, the new social environment, knowledge form reform and thinking modes offer the opportunities created by information technology to promote the development of curriculum theory. Therefore, in the information technology era, it's important to establish new concepts, including humanization of essence of curriculum, diversification of values, dynamic development of design, electronization of teaching materials, as well as platform-based implementation, networked evaluation and synergy of management. Also, new researches need to be done in the following areas:development of online courses, creation of electronic curriculum resources, integration of classrooms and information technology, ethical issues of the development of curriculum theory driven by information technology, and the scale of the development of information technology.
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    Structure of Educational Ideas:From the Perspective of Education Ontology
    Liu Qingchang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (4): 57-71.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.04.006
    Abstract147)   HTML94)    PDF (604KB)(288)      
    The occurrence of educational ideas is associated with the conscious awareness of human values and life care. The values and consciousness of life care enabling educational behavior should be the prelude to the occurrence of educational ideas. Once this conscious consciousness flows strongly in the direction of reality, educational ideas will appear naturally. This occurrence is believed to be a presentation of human education consciousness, where real education history begins. From the perspective of content, educational ideas are made up of three parts:educational consciousness and intention, educational emotion and will, and educational conception and design; Educational ideas involve three levels:dependent on the situation, driven by affection, and conceptual consciousness. Together, they form a diurnal structure of educational ideas. The educational idea is an objective existence and has reached the level of conceptual consciousness. In theory, it is necessary to combine educational ideas with educational behavior. On the one hand, they echo the educational theory and educational practice at the more basic level, and on the other hand, it is helpful for people to comb the content of "thinking" in education from the source.
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    Research Methods of Classroom Teaching from the Perspective of Humanities and Social Sciences
    Wang Jian
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (4): 72-83.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.04.007
    Abstract151)   HTML101)    PDF (529KB)(358)      
    Research methods of humanities and social science are influenced by three kinds of ideas:functionalism, interpretivism and structuralism. Functionalim stresses the objectivity, targets teaching phenomena and explore its cause and effect, thus forming a set of research methods and rules, which are used to analyze and explain teaching phenomena. Interpretivism focuses on subjectivity of cultural significance behind social phenomena, seeing teaching activity as cultural and spiritual. For example, knowledge acquisition, skill mastery and cultivation of attitudes and values are all attributed to learning to be, thus forming a set of teaching research methods and rules named "classroom-graphy"-observation, interview, description, explanation. Structuralism tried to emphasize on the duality between agent subject and social object, which plays a neutral role in functionalism and interpretivism. In its view, teaching is the interaction between teacher-student agents and teaching resources-rules objects, forming teaching structure duality. So it is possible to probe into the teaching research method rules through observing the interaction between subjects and objects. The research methods and rules of classroom teaching, on the one hand, are influenced and restricted by social science; on the other hand, they contribute to the case study of concrete discipline of humanities and social science.
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    Quality Evaluation Needed for “The Higher-level Talent-cultivating System”: A Philosophical Reflection Based on Ranking Evaluation
    Zhang Xuewen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (4): 84-93.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.04.008
    Abstract155)   HTML165)    PDF (607KB)(347)      
    In the last decade, various ranking evaluation of higher education quality has emerged, causing a lot of controversy. In philosophy methodology, the controversy over the evaluation of higher education quality is influenced by the naturalistic positivism and the humanistic anti-positivism. The confrontation of the popular "two cultures" in the west in the middle of the 20th century basically reflects the interaction between the two academic cultures. In order to understand and guide the evaluation of higher education correctly, it's essential to understand the basic functions and core concepts of higher education, and study the relationship between knowledge innovation, dissemination and transfer in modern universities. In addition, it's important to master the mechanism of "the research-teaching-study nexus" as a double helix group in modern research universities, and seek to build a higher-level talent-cultivating system, together with a scientific evaluation of higher education quality with Chinese characteristics.
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    Class-based Teaching:A Multilevel Analysis of the Effects of Interpersonal Perception on Student Learning Interest
    Li Miaoyun, Song Naiqing, Sheng Yaqi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (4): 94-103.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.04.009
    Abstract169)   HTML123)    PDF (1012KB)(395)      
    As an important factor influencing student learning interest, classroom interpersonal perception is helpful to explore the development of student learning interest from the perspective of class teaching. With a sample of 1,048 students in Grade 4-6 from Chongqing districts, a multilevel structural equation model was employed to examine the impact of classroom interpersonal perception on student learning interest both from the student level and class level simultaneously. The perception involves four dimensions:teacher engagement, student-teacher relationship, peer collaboration and peer engagement. Results indicated that students' perception of teacher engagement and student-teacher relationship showed significant positive effects on the individual students, whereas students' perception in student engagement and peer collaboration showed significant positive effects both on individual students and the whole class. Therefore, class-based teaching should be strengthened to develop student learning interest by improving the effects of student factors at the class-level, which helps to transform the views in student interest development.
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    Structure, Level and Types of Curriculum Implementation by Primary School CPA Teachers
    Li Xiaohong, Jiang Xiaohui, Li Yujiao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (4): 104-115.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.04.010
    Abstract182)   HTML83)    PDF (1449KB)(422)      
    Using an empirical approach, this study investigated the structure, level and types of curriculum implementation by Comprehensive Practical Activity(CPA) teachers. The results showed that the curriculum implementation by CPA teachers has a stable structure with the four dimensions of curriculum understanding, curriculum execution, curriculum assessment, and curriculum sharing. As a whole, the CPA teachers' curriculum implementation was a refined implementation, which was the fifth of the seven levels. In addition, the study indicated that there were significant differences in the level of curriculum implementation between full-time and part-time CPA teachers, as well as teachers with different professional levels, qualification titles, teaching years, continuity and integrity. Moreover, cluster analysis revealed that the CPA teachers' curriculum implementation could be divided into four types:cooperative sharing, active adjustment, smooth implementation and mechanical execution, among which, smooth implementation is the most common.
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    The Focus and Trends of International Blended Learning Research: An Empirical Analysis Based on Mapping Knowledge Domain
    Ma Jing, Zhou Qian
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (4): 116-128.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.04.011
    Abstract178)   HTML28)    PDF (1114KB)(495)      
    With the development of informatization in education, blended learning has become an important form of teaching and learning in higher education. Based on the visual analysis of 3,454 papers from WOS (2000-2017) by Citespace software, this study explores the hot topics and frontier domains of international blended learning research in the new century through drawing the knowledge mapping. The results show that hot topics of international blended learning research focus on achievement, mathematical thinking, undergraduate student learning, scenario-based learning, and self-reflection. Environment development, instructional design as well as implementation and application have been regarded as the frontier topics. Other frontier domains include research on innovation in blended learning. Finally, countries and institutes which are focusing on blended learning research are analyzed.
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    Teacher's Differentiated Behavior:A Ten-year Observation of S County's Policy of “School Union and Mobile Teaching”
    Lei Wanpeng, Wang Haowen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (4): 129-141.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.04.012
    Abstract132)   HTML22)    PDF (1090KB)(378)      
    Under the county-based school management system, effective implementation of education policy depends on rational cognition, sincere participation and full support from front-line teachers. Based on the 10-year study of the "School Union and Mobile Teaching" policy of S County in Hubei Province, it's found that the intertwined connection between various formal and informal institutions constitutes a real institutional situation and constraints that affect the flow of front-line teachers. As rational actors, front-line teachers often deconstruct educational policies based on their own situations and make choices to maximize their interest, and participate in the implementation of the policy in a different identity. The differences in teachers' responsibility in policy implementation have led to shifted policy goals, and many public teachers have become bystanders of policies. Given regional differences, urban-rural differences, and inter-school differences, it is important to capture information on how teachers "do policy". Only by understanding the real needs and behavioral expressions of teachers in specific situations can we understand the complexity of the implementation process of educational policies, and thus provide valuable information for constructing effective teacher incentives and improving the effectiveness of policy implementation.
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    The Concept of Educational Discipline
    Ren Haitao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (4): 142-153.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.04.013
    Abstract260)   HTML114)    PDF (604KB)(448)      
    The upper concept of educational discipline is administrative discipline and the studying of administrative discipline is a necessary prerequisite for the analysis of the concept of educational discipline. The concept of educational discipline consists of eight elements. There are several significant differences between educational discipline and discipline, corporal punishment or disguised corporal punishment, sanction and admonition. There should be a detailed distinction between these concepts in legislation in the future. In order to give full play to the positive role of educational discipline system, the future educational legislation should stipulate the concept, type, setting, applicable principle and procedure and elements of improper behavior.
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    The Moderating Effect of Hope on Suicide Behavior Among College Students
    Zhu Hong, Yang Xiangdong, Wu Ran
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (4): 154-163.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.04.014
    Abstract177)   HTML181)    PDF (1555KB)(358)      
    Understanding suicide behaviors and associated protective factors among college students bears important implications for prevention and clinical practices. Based upon a large dataset from college students, the current study investigated the role of hope in college student suicide behaviors within the interpersonal theory of suicide (IPTS). Results showed that IPTS could be used as a theoretical framework for interpreting suicide behaviors among Chinese college students as the latent variable models derived from the theory fitted the data well. Perceived burdensomeness (PB) and thwarted belongingness (TB), both individually and jointly, predicted student suicide behaviors significantly, so did the acquired capability of suicide (ACS), especially the component of the lowered fear of death (LFD). There were two types of moderating effects of hope in suicide behaviors of college students. High hope buffered the effects of PT and TB on suicide behaviors of college students, whereas no hope, or hopelessness, catalyzed the corresponding effects. These moderating effects became increasingly stronger as the mental status of the individual became worse. The implications of such findings for prevention and clinical practices were discussed.
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    The “American Way” and “Wisconsin Experience” in History of Education Research Paradigm:A Conversation between
    Zhu He, Gao Ling, William Reese
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (4): 164-167.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.04.015
    Abstract157)   HTML116)    PDF (454KB)(351)      
    This conversation with Professor William Reese on the one hand combed the development of research paradigm of American history of education, and its significant change in the 1960s in explaining the social role of schools; on the other hand, the conversation revealed the Wisconsin experience in promoting the innovation of research paradigm in history of education, that is, education and history had a close cooperation in curriculum, research and degree. The current research paradigm in history of American education is to use the generalized view of humanities and social sciences to solve educational problems; it is never limited to any particular research paradigm or the identity of any subject. This provides reference for the development of history of education in China.
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    From De jure to De facto: An Analysis of Effective University Governance
    Li Liguo
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (5): 1-16.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.001
    Abstract161)   HTML200)    PDF (1255KB)(441)      
    The equilibrium of university organizations is influenced by external environment and internal forces. Internally, it is both rational bureaucracy and politics, which makes the university governance ambiguous and complex. Higher education institutions are subject to external environment (especially government and market) and internal factors and must maintain a certain degree of autonomy. At the same time, they are subject to internal control and must maintain a certain degree of openness. The "de facto" state is that in the triangular model, there are academic-oriented, market-oriented and government-oriented models. The "de jure" state is the balance between the internal and external forces of the academic, government and market. University governance, under the combined effect of internal and external forces, maintains a relatively independent state of development. From the perspective of internal rational bureaucracy and political organization, university governance should handle the relationship between them. The "de facto" state is either based on bureaucracy, managing universities in accordance with the mode of administrative institutions, or overemphasizing the interests and powers of certain people. The "de jure" state is to play the role of a rational bureaucracy and to improve the ability to govern. Also, it is necessary to consider university governance from the perspective of political organization, to establish a communication and coordination mechanism and to construct a trust-based organizational culture in order to effectively resolve conflicts. The university governance of China should shift from "seeking change" to "seeking governance", from governance reform to governance construction, from governance system to governance ability, from governance objective to governance efficiency. And finally, it can implement a university governance design from the "de jure" state to the "de facto" one.
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    Implication and Limits of Information Technology and Educational Theory
    Li Yunxing, Wang Lianghui, Zhou Yueliang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (5): 17-25.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.002
    Abstract147)   HTML275)    PDF (562KB)(310)      
    Technology is not only related to education, but also shapes the production of educational theory. Information technology has changed the form of educational practice, provided a new school education epistemology different from the representation epistemology, and revolutionized the logic of educational knowledge production, thus having a profound implication for educational theory. The disappearance of the intrinsic purpose of technology leads to the limits of educational value in information technology, and the duality of technology inherently embodies educational limits and ethical challenges of information technology. The reconstruction of educational theory toward information technology should establish the value scale of "human life growth" and maintain the openness of education. This can help solve and respond to the limits of information technology and educational theory.
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    Technological Progress and Educational Development: Two Possibilities of Pedagogy in the Age of Artificial Intelligence
    Wu Honglin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (5): 26-37.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.003
    Abstract195)   HTML203)    PDF (678KB)(465)      
    Since the second half of the 19th century, technology has been a research focus in philosophy, media, sociology and other disciplines. In contrast, researches on technology in pedagogy theory lag far behind. In fact, the development of pedagogy keeps pace with the technological development in the technological era. Looking back on the development of pedagogy, we can find its inherent technological logic. Technology exists as knowledge (curriculum), skills, value orientation, mode of thinking, evaluation criteria and performance goals; all these make education a technology system and a giant machine. Pedagogy is a knowledge system that provides legitimate and reasonable arguments for this system and its formation process. Technological logic is the fundamental logic for the development of pedagogy. In the era of AI, there are two possibilities for the development of pedagogy. One is the inevitable response of pedagogy to the challenge of AI. It's reflected in the theoretical response to the changes in educational practice, the theoretical reconstruction of the changes in fundamental educational problems, and the reconstruction of discipline system based on changes in scientific standards of disciplines. The other is the possible response of pedagogy. Facing the challenge and potential danger of AI to human survival, the disciplinary mission of pedagogy will change from conformity to liberation, and its core concept will change from plasticity to consciousness.
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    New Concept of Knowledge: Remolding Teaching and Learning in the Age of Intelligence
    Wang Zhuli
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (5): 38-55.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.004
    Abstract205)   HTML129)    PDF (2318KB)(541)      
    Historically, there existed many definitions of knowledge and various perspectives on knowledge, but most of them regarded knowledge as correct, tested and systematically processed by experts and scholars. Since the birth of the Internet, human experience has been recorded in details, stored in digital media, and spread rapidly through the Internet. A new type of knowledge has emerged or got recognized. This kind of knowledge is called soft knowledge, which is still in its forming process and has not been processed and sorted out systematically, while the traditional knowledge is called hard knowledge, which has been processed and sorted out systematically. The index to distinguish between soft and hard knowledge is the stability of knowledge, including the stability of structure, content and value. The concept of knowledge marked by the division of hard and soft knowledge is called new perspective on knowledge. New concept of knowledge has brought about a series of changes, including new learning concepts, new teaching concepts, and new theories and models of teaching and learning, which will have a profound impact on educational reform and educational informatization in the new era.
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    Pedagogy in the Information Technology Age is an “Entertainment Science”
    Ma Hemin, Wang Desheng, Yin Han
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (5): 56-66.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.005
    Abstract199)   HTML197)    PDF (788KB)(452)      
    The rapid development of information technology has opened up new possibilities in education and stimulated people's infinite imagination of education in the future. Technology has become a new dimension of understanding education. Information technology has constructed an increasingly powerful educational discourse, which has evolved into a new educational ideology of modernization and modernity:dramatic changes in educational productivity and the resulting powerful momentum of balanced educational resources. However, judging from educational technology development, the application of technology in education and teaching is always full of entertainment, characterized by richness, interaction, novelty, simplicity and so on. Therefore, the educational application of new technology is often questioned and resisted by schools, teachers and parents. An analysis of the proposition that pedagogy in the information technology age is an "entertainment science" is helpful to the exploration of pedagogy of technology, and can support our deeper understanding of the two sides of technology applied in education:entertainment and productivity.
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    A Historical Perspective on the Two Education Initiatives of Alleviating Academic Burden in China Since 1949
    Xiang Xianming
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (5): 67-79.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.006
    Abstract170)   HTML110)    PDF (646KB)(547)      
    The problem of students' overburdened academic work in primary and secondary schools has become a stumbling block to the reform and development of basic education in China. Examining the education reforms in the past 70 years since the founding of the People's Republic of China, and especially through the analysis of the problem of academic burden, we can find that the pressure caused by the lower degree of matching within different levels of education is the main reason. The cultural heritage of Imperial Examination was playing the role of an amplifier on social and psychological aspects. The unreasonable curriculum of primary and secondary schools, unscientific evaluation mechanism, improper teaching method and lack of learning guidance are the internal causes of overburdened academic work. The anomie of the reformation discourse production, fueled by political performance, is an important interference factor in the formation of the reform dilemma of reducing the burden. In the new era, it's necessary to shift the focus from "running key schools" to "building the characteristics of schools", and guide primary and secondary education to take the diversified development path. Also, the pressure of entrance examination may be reduced by adjusting the matching degree of different kinds of education at all levels. In addition, the negative effects of cultural heritage of Imperial Examination can be eliminated through social reform to adjust the interests of the class. In the new era of education reform, the overburdened academic work as a stumbling block can be successfully kicked off, so as to create sound conditions for educating a large number of outstanding talents in support of national development and revival.
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    A Policy Study on Students' Learning Expectations Viewed from Respect: A Case of Shanghai
    Wu Zunmin, Li Yan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (5): 80-91.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.007
    Abstract149)   HTML104)    PDF (5082KB)(373)      
    Currently, besides expectations from parents and teachers, students in secondary schools and colleges all hold certain expectations of learning. Although their expectations differ, they are centered on merit-priority. Given that respect is the unity of subjectivity and objectivity, dominance of merit-priority mentality and lack of understanding and attention to students' intrinsic learning expectations from parents and teachers, plus high cost and risks, usually lead to frequent interference, substitution and deprivation of students' learning expectations. The fact that learning expectations of students are not respected by adults like parents and teachers tends be a huge hindrance to the future development of students. To deal with this problem, it's suggested that merit-priority mentality should be alleviated, understanding of students' learning expectations be enhanced among adult groups, and mutual respect be recognized by giving lectures to parents, exploring a career guidance institution for students, improving the new Gaokao system and establishing multiple social media. In doing so, learning will go back to interest and learning expectations will play positive roles in students' learning.
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    The Historical Approach and Contemporary Mission of Learning Science Development in Chinese Context: An Analysis Based on the Formation of Scientific Paradigm and its Knowledge Graph Evidence
    Zhao Jian, Yang Xiaozhe
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (5): 92-104.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.008
    Abstract155)   HTML110)    PDF (3224KB)(366)      
    This paper raises the issue of paradigm formation in learning sciences in Chinese context, while analyzing the achievements of Chinese learning research in the past 40 years of reform and opening up. Based on Kuhn's paradigm theory, this paper summarizes the three stages of development of learning science in Chinese context:the pre-scientific stage, the psychological paradigm stage, and the early stage of the scientific paradigm. The process of paradigm shift is then supported by the knowledge graph analysis of related literatures in both Chinese and English. At the same time, through comparison with Western studies, it is proposed that China's discipline of learning sciences is still at an early phase of paradigm formation, with its incomplete mechanism of new knowledge creation and ambiguous Chinese characteristics. The contemporary mission of Chinese learning science development is discussed as well.
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    Discourse Change in Traditional Chinese Classrooms for Higher Order Thinking and Social Development
    Xia Xuemei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (5): 105-114.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.009
    Abstract151)   HTML106)    PDF (601KB)(367)      
    Classroom discourse is the core of classroom reform. One of the characteristics of traditional classrooms is teachers' control of dialogues in the classroom, which is manifested in IRE. What classroom discourse is needed to promote students' higher order thinking and social development? This paper explores the profound changes in the structure, content and function of the classroom discourse in the last 20 years. It then describes the breakthroughs in this field, which allow students to engage in academic discussions and dialogues, and make discourse a social norm rather than just passing on knowledge. Based on these findings, this paper takes the course of discourse design in reading classroom as an example to explore the possibility of discourse reform in traditional classrooms.
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    Gender Difference in Science Learning and Curriculum Response: the Data Analysis of Four Provinces in China Based on PISA 2015
    Wu Yuanyue, Guo Yuanxiang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (5): 115-127.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.010
    Abstract146)   HTML192)    PDF (555KB)(480)      
    In the assessment of science literacy of PISA 2015, the performance of Chinese students are different in several dimensions:the overall science performance, scientific competencies, scientific knowledge and science content. In general, boys have better performance than girls. At the same time, in the science-related background surveys, boys' performance are better than girls' in the scales of enjoyment of science, science interest and science activities. Based on the gender difference in the domain of both cognition and non-cognition in science learning of Chinese students, this paper makes some suggestions to reduce or eliminate gender difference. In curriculum development, it's necessary to address the impartiality of science knowledge selection; in school curriculum construction, the adaptability of school curriculum should be highlighted to promote gender adaption; and in curriculum implementation, students' difference should be respected to ensure gender sensitivity.
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    Field Conversion and Habitus Reconstruction of University Teachers' Career Development
    Ruan Chengwu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (5): 128-135.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.011
    Abstract126)   HTML257)    PDF (705KB)(392)      
    As a relatively responsive and interactive relationship with students, university teachers are social actors who shape a certain habitus in a specific field of education. The age angle formed between students and their different career stages leads to the conflict between the existing habitus and the field of continuous conversion. Based on the narrative study of several cases in A university, this paper investigates the career process of university teachers with the explanation framework of the contradictory movement between field conversion and existing habitus. It is suggested that university teachers should adopt active action strategies rooted in the initial disposition and inclination system, and should constantly reconstruct their habitus with the change of field, so as to achieve their career development.
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    The Construction and Development of Rule of Law in China's Colleges and Universities Since the Reform and Opening-up
    Wang Hua, Sun Xiaobing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (5): 136-143.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.012
    Abstract121)   HTML93)    PDF (477KB)(344)      
    Since the reform and opening up, the construction of the rule of law in colleges and universities in China has made remarkable achievements. The goal of the rule of law has been specified and pursued; the status and rights of legal persons in colleges and universities have been established; and the internal and external governance structures of colleges and universities have been constantly improved. In the new era, with the rapid development of society and profound changes in higher education, the construction of first-class universities and the deepening reform of decentralization have brought new challenges to the legal governance of institutions of higher learning. Effective measures should be taken to improve the system of laws, regulations and rules of higher education, further implement the autonomy of running a university, strengthen the administration of universities according to law, attach importance to the protection of the rights and interests of teachers and students, and promote the legal administration of universities to a new stage.
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    Construction of Universities Inspection and Supervision System for Modernization of Educational Governance: A Case of Shanghai
    SI Yang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (5): 144-152.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.013
    Abstract126)   HTML93)    PDF (1670KB)(273)      
    This paper argues that effective measures should be taken to solve the problem of "weakening, impracticability and marginalization" of the party building in universities. These measures involve exploring effective ways of university inspection and supervision, continuously deepening political inspection and strengthening the standardization of universities inspection and supervision system. It's believed that these measures will help promote the project of strengthening party self-discipline in all aspects and modernize educational governance. In addition, it's important to establish a leadership system of upper-and-lower linkage supervision and a working mechanism for university inspection, as well as a supervision system of implementation. Besides, the paper suggests it's necessary to strengthen the application of the linkage supervision achievements, so as to give full play to the role of the universities linkage supervision system of detecting problems, deterring violations, promoting development and deepening reform, and to provide a strong support for the "double-first-class" construction.
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    Rethinking of Xueji: A Perspective of Overall Educational History
    Sun Jie
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa    2019, 37 (5): 153-160.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.05.014
    Abstract176)   HTML118)    PDF (677KB)(408)      
    Learning to teach is the general feature of the notes of Xueji in the era of Confucian classics. "From learning to the origin" is the overall understanding and grasp of Xueji by Chinese ancient scholars. In the transition from the Confucian classics to the academic age, some scholars express the cultural identity of the modern academic in a new way. The Speculation of Xueji is the self-response by the Chinese people to the modern pedagogy. In translating and introducing Herbart's works, the Chinese people have started the construction of Chinese pedagogy. Drawing on Herbart's paradigm, the Notes of Xueji is an attempt to interpret educational system of Xueji from its educational purpose, methodology and psychology. The works like Modern Translation of Xueji, Annotation of Xueji, can be seen as a historical epitome of the construction of Chinese pedagogy since the founding of the People's Republic of China. As the synchronic and diachronic relations in human socialization becomes the major concern of the education history, it's essential to rethink the research paradigm of academic Xueji. In doing so, it's expected to achieve a logic analysis of Xueji as well as the integration of the history of education and the education history.
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    The Undergraduate Instruction: Theory and Experience, Idea and Evidence
    Yan Guangcai
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2019, 37 (6): 1-15.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.001
    Abstract274)   HTML164)    PDF (740KB)(249)      
    In view of the current hot topics related to undergraduate teaching, this paper draws the following conclusions based on historical investigation and realistic examination. Although college teaching and learning need theoretical research, it depends more on faculty's independent and intellectual practical exploration, individual experience accumulation. Learner-centered instruction is an initiative stimulated by the situation, rather than a teaching mode or paradigm that breaks with the tradition. Relevant evidence shows that the exploration of effective teaching is still inseparable from the teacher's leading and organization, without which the routine instruction will move toward disorder and inefficiency. Learner-centered instruction tends to be limited by certain objective resource constraints, and thus needs something like community's institutional environment and cultural support.
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    The Performing School and Educational Crisis
    Gao Desheng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2019, 37 (6): 16-26.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.002
    Abstract218)   HTML211)    PDF (655KB)(165)      
    The term "performance" is commonly used in the field of education, but without an agreed academic definition, it is an unfamiliar common term in education. Performance occurs among people, that is, people show their character and ability to others in a visible way. Performance is a way of existence of human beings, which not only demonstrates human excellence, but also has many limitations. The birth of schools is actually a "stage" event, which is the beginning of education separated from life and being the object of "being seen". In the history of education, the way to resist the performance of education is mainly reflected in opposing "being seen",but rather in "seeing" society and realistic politics. Through the two stages of "disciplined performance" and "re-evolution" of performance, schools are now dominated by performance. The "performance" of school leads to the loss of educational autonomy, the loss of seeking truth and good, the externalization of education and the loss of enthusiasm. To a certain extent, schools have become a force against education, which has also exacerbated the crisis of education. Only by finding the "antidote" can education get out of the crisis.
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    The Generating Mechanism of Children's Images in Classroom Space: Power or Education?
    Bu Yuhua, Zhong Cheng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2019, 37 (6): 27-35.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.003
    Abstract185)   HTML215)    PDF (1472KB)(153)      
    The research deals with whether lifting a restriction on classroom space and empowering students can ensure students' active and autonomous learning. It's conducted through video-clued subjects' interview, fieldwork and action research. The findings indicated that while teachers' power is surplus, students' images of "school desk dwelling", "sunflower" and "hidden resistance" will come out, which makes it imperative to dispel teachers' power. However, when teachers empower their students and change the classroom structure, the students present their images of passive learning, images like "changers of study rules", "mindless parrots of instruction" and "not-good-at-cooperating disbanded soldiers", which means that space structure and power are not the only factors restricting students' selfhood. Finally, when teachers further change classroom space structure, downshift power and apply educational guide, the students' new image of "idea-willingly-sharer" is unfolded. It's suggested that the mission of contemporary classroom teaching reform is not just deconstructing class space structure and empowering students but also placing higher requirements on teachers' value guidance. Only in this way can students' spiritual space be enriched and enhanced.
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    An Assessment Tool for Learner Profile: The Development and Verification of Students' Learning to Learn Questionnaire
    Sun Yanyan, Gu Xiaoqing, Feng Dacheng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2019, 37 (6): 36-47.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.004
    Abstract261)   HTML215)    PDF (662KB)(199)      
    As a learning analysis technique, learner profile can comprehensively and deeply depict students' learning effect and learning process through diversified data collected. However, not all types of data can be directly collected through information technology, and learners' ability and accomplishment is just one of them. To solve this problem, this paper designed an assessment tool for learner profile targeting core learning abilities of the primary and middle school students. It summarizes the three dimensions of cognition, emotion and metacognition by analyzing the learning ability assessment tools of major countries and regions, and constructs the learning ability questionnaire for primary and middle school students under these three dimensions. To verify the reliability and validity of the questionnaire, the researchers sent an online questionnaire to students in grades 4-9 in 16 schools in the M District of Shanghai, and 2,879 valid responses were collected. By statistically analyzing the responses, the researchers found that the questionnaire had high reliability and validity. The questionnaire has the following two characteristics:first, the questionnaire is independent of subject knowledge and applicable to students of various ages; second, it is designed for learner profile and from the perspective of academic learning of primary school and middle students.
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    Sequential Analysis of Classroom Argumentation: The Pupils' Scientific Reasoning
    Shao Faxian, Hu Weiping, Zhang Huan, Zhang Yanhong, Shou Xin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2019, 37 (6): 48-60.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.005
    Abstract196)   HTML119)    PDF (1173KB)(217)      
    Scientific reasoning is an important part of key competencies in science, and scientific argumentation has become an important way to develop students' scientific reasoning. However, some teachers do not know how to carry out high-quality classroom argumentation. In order to find out how classroom argumentation promotes students' scientific reasoning, and examine how teachers' discourse influences students' scientific reasoning, we conducted a sequential analysis of scientific argumentation conversation in science classes in three primary schools. It is found that teachers' explicit implication is more likely to excite students' corresponding reasoning, while multiple and ambiguous questions are more likely to lead to students' lower level of scientific reasoning. In responding to students' scientific reasoning, teachers offered different feedback. The backtracking of the classroom situation revealed that clear but low-level cognitive problems might generate the pseudo-argumentation, while moderate ill-structured problems could develop students' scientific epistemology and in-depth scientific reasoning. Teachers who emphasize both the structure of scientific reasoning and the process of scientific argumentation, and encourage students to pay attention to the reverse viewpoint and refute it can improve the quality of scientific argumentation.
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    A Study on the Influence of Internet Use on Academic Literacy of Middle School Students
    Zhi Tingjin, Chen Chunjin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2019, 37 (6): 61-74.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.006
    Abstract231)   HTML214)    PDF (2516KB)(170)      
    It is of great practical significance to explore the impact of the Internet use on the development of adolescents' literacy. Based on the survey data from Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in the four provinces of Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Guangdong in 2015, this paper used the propensity score matching method to control the sample selection bias, and examined the impact of Internet use on students' academic literacy and the moderating effect of Internet use motivation. This study found that after controlling for students' psychological and behavioral characteristics, school network environment and family background, students who spend more than six hours on Internet outside of school on a typical weekday showed significantly lower mathematical, reading and scientific literacy. The influence of internet use on students' academic literacy is increasing with the increase of online entertainment frequency. The lower literacy caused by Internet addiction mainly exists in rural areas among the disadvantaged groups with lower economic, social, and cultural status, which results in the expansion of educational inequality. Further, the negative effect of Internet addiction on the development of adolescents should be paid attention to by policy makers.
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    The Theory of Higher Education Development: Deconstruction and Reconstruction
    Li Jing, Liu Hui
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2019, 37 (6): 75-82.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.007
    Abstract204)   HTML202)    PDF (598KB)(234)      
    The theory of higher education development offers a fundamental view of the past, present and future issues of higher education development. After systematization and abstraction, it forms a knowledge system that helps understand and grasp the laws that governing the development of higher education. While the theory of higher education development has mainly dealt with the relationship between the theory and practice of higher education development, there is a lack of in-depth systematic research on the relationship between the theory and the policy of higher education development. Based on the three elements of higher education development-the essence, the value and the way, the authors reconstruct an analysis framework of the theory-value-policy of higher education development, aiming at exploring the impact of educational development theory on higher education policy.
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    Research on the Relationship between University Governance, Financial Management and Value Added
    Yang Rong, Wang Wen, Liu Tingting
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2019, 37 (6): 83-93.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.008
    Abstract131)   HTML188)    PDF (1154KB)(121)      
    Promoting the construction of first-class universities and disciplines for the sustained development of higher education is the process of continuously improving the value of universities. This article takes the universities directly under the patronage of the Ministry of Education as the research subject. Using university financial management as the starting point, the article examines the intrinsic link between university governance and value added. Also, it constructs a theoretical analysis framework of university governance-financial management-value added, and explores the mechanism of financial management in the process of university governance and its value added. The results show that the more efficient university governance is, the more beneficial it is to university value added. University governance further promotes its value added through financial management. However, it is mainly reflected in the value of scientific research, while the improvement of teaching value is not significant.
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    Can Monetary Incentive Increase Teachers' Inter-school Exchange Intention: A Survey Study of 278 Schools in China
    Huang Bin, Zhang Qiongwen, Yun Ruxian
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2019, 37 (6): 94-108.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.009
    Abstract185)   HTML254)    PDF (696KB)(155)      
    Based on survey data from 278 schools in seven provinces in China, this paper, using binary logistic regression and generalized ordered logistic regression, investigates the factors influencing the willingness of primary and secondary school teachers to participate in inter-school exchange and their expectation level of subsidy. It also examines the actual effect of subsidy and housing benefits on the willingness of inter-school exchange. It's found that the current inter-school exchange of teachers is dominated by the same-level exchanges of school types and locations, and the coverage of subsidies and housing benefits is relatively low, while the expected amount of subsidy is about 30% of their salary, which means there is still a big gap. Subsidies and housing benefits can, to a certain extent, significantly enhance the teachers' willingness of inter-schools exchange, and there is a substitute relationship between subsidies and housing welfare. Teachers' willingness to participate in ‘hard exchange’ is stronger than that of "soft exchange". Transferring the personnel relationship of the downward-moving teachers to the targeted schools will significantly enhance their willingness of inter-schools move again. Improved school environment and working conditions has a significant positive impact on teachers' inter-schools exchange intention, but negative impact on teachers' expectation of subsidies. Based on the findings, this paper puts forward some policy suggestions on promoting the intra-county balanced development of compulsory education, including promoting the reform of teachers' unified salary standard, establishing a factor-based subsidy system, and deepening the reform of ‘Administration by Bureau, Recruitment by Schools’.
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    Implications of Emotional Labour for Kindergarten Teaching: A Quantitative Study
    Yin Jianqin, Wu Weiying, Zhang Quan, Jia Yun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2019, 37 (6): 109-122.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.010
    Abstract261)   HTML180)    PDF (1569KB)(203)      
    Emotional labor is a double-edged sword. In earlier studies, most researchers focus on the negative effects of emotional labor such as work-related stress, burnout and physical and mental health resulting from emotional labor. In more recent studies, researchers have taken notice of the positive effects of emotional labor such as increase in salary and actualization of self-achievement. Utilizing a sample of 1,040 teachers from different types of kindergartens, this study explores emotional labor among kindergarten teachers. The results show:(a) kindergarten teachers "seldom" display surface acting, "sometimes" or "often" display deep acting, and almost "always" display natural acting; (b) surface acting is positively related to teachers' work effort, teaching experience, and family interference; (c) deep acting has a negative effect on emotional exhaustion and low accomplishment while natural acting has a negative effect on low accomplishment and depersonalization. While the results are somewhat inconsistent with those in traditional studies in the area, they well reflect the uniqueness of emotional labor in preschool education and resonate with the international movement of reconstruction of early childhood education. Since the sense of professional achievement and satisfaction is crucial to raising social status of kindergarten teachers, this study also has implications for the development of professional standards for kindergarten teachers.
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    Teachers' Everyday Resistance and Its Responses
    Wang Mingshuai, Zhao Chan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2019, 37 (6): 123-130.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.011
    Abstract258)   HTML157)    PDF (654KB)(189)      
    Teachers' resistance is an important research topic of education (curriculum) reform. Based on Scott's theory of everyday resistance, this study adopts the interview method of qualitative research and analyzes the everyday resistance of teachers. Research shows that, teachers carry out everyday resistance, aiming to "reduce or reject requests from the top", and develop various strategies based on the principle of "safety first". Considering the key role that teachers play in education (curriculum) reform, and that everyday resistance can cause lasting harm, this study proposes the following responses:expanding teachers' channels of expressing their demands and safeguarding teachers legitimate interests; recognizing the constructiveness of teachers' everyday resistance; following the logic of teacher change and adopting effective coping strategies.
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    Alief and Implementer: A New Approach to Education Policy Implementation Research
    Zhu Hongyang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2019, 37 (6): 131-136.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.012
    Abstract191)   HTML110)    PDF (519KB)(181)      
    Alief has been the frontier research subject in the field of philosophy and cognitive science in recent years. It is a mental state with associatively-linked content that is representational, affective and behavioral. In the existing study of education policy implementation, the study of individual implementer is based on the assumptions of belief-implementation and desire-implementation, but the effectiveness of these studies is questionable when they are used to analyze the behavior of policy implementers in specific situations. The implementation of education policies depends on the implementation of individual implementers in the specific educational situation. The introduction of alief provides a new assumption of alief-implementation for the study of education policy implementation. The preliminary exploration of the R-A-B analysis model based on the alief theory provides a new approach to the study of education policy implementation.
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    Interagency Coordination in Education Reform: An Analysis Framework and its Application
    Pian Maolin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2019, 37 (6): 137-148.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.013
    Abstract183)   HTML101)    PDF (715KB)(124)      
    The impact of interagency coordination on education reform is mainly reflected in decision-making of goals, resource allocation and policy innovation. Different from the usual practice of collaboration and cooperation between government departments, interagency coordination in education reform aims to form new policies and rules accepted by participant departments which have the willingness to implement them. This research attempts to use relevant theories and analytical tools regarding government reform, and establish a two-dimensional analysis framework of factor-process applicable to the interagency coordination of education reform in China. The dimension of factors briefly analyzes three factors and their possible forms, i.e. coordination matter, coordination organization and coordination method. Process dimension, based on the task attributes of reform at different stages and their differentiation into politics or technology, discusses the interaction between different factors. By using this framework to conduct an empirical analysis on a comprehensive education reform in a province, it is found that the purposiveness of each participant department is an important indicator to test the effect of interagency coordination. At different stages of reform, the nature and complexity of coordination matters are the reference factors to judge the appropriateness for the timing of the coordination organization's involvement and the suitability for coordination methods.
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    Positive Psychology Applied among Schools in China
    Xi Juzhe, Ye Yang, Zuo Zhihong, Peng Yanan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2019, 37 (6): 149-159.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.06.014
    Abstract289)   HTML129)    PDF (593KB)(289)      
    Since the 21st century, the influence of positive psychology has been growing in western countries, as well as in China. There were not only targeted experiments such as PRP and the Strath Haven Positive Psychology Curriculum, but also structural applied programs such as GGS model in western countries. Positive psychology exerts effects on Chinese school education, but the links between theory and practice could be closer. Based on the fundamental theories of positive psychology, the authors conceived an implementation framework of positive psychology among schools in China. Firstly, the school practice of positive psychology has three points, i.e., to utilize the three pillars of positive psychology, to translate the theories into practice, and to adhere to the concept of people-oriented. Accordingly, four strategies could be put into practice, including improving students' well-being during study, promoting their intrinsic motivation of learning, fully developing positive education, and focusing on the positive development of teachers. Finally, four practical approaches should be followed, i.e., replacing the traditional fixed education with strength-focused education advocated by positive psychology and positive education, attaching more importance to students' social practice and physical exercise, fostering teachers' empathy, and constructing a positive environment of school management. The primary and critical purpose to apply positive psychology in schools is to forster an education ecosystem facilitating positive construction.
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