Despite the Coleman Report half a century ago, there is no consensus on which is more important, parenting or schooling, for students’ academic performance. Based on the large-scale assessment data from primary and secondary schools in 16 cities of 5 provinces in eastern and central China, this study used generalized educational production function and established the hierarchical linear model (HLM) to analyze the impact of parenting and schooling on students’ standardized test scores. In addition, we employed Shapley and Owen decomposition method to identify the input factors that have a greater impact on school output and drew the following conclusions. Firstly, in addition to the student-teacher ratio, school input factors such as school conditions and teacher quality have significantly positive effects on students’ academic performance. Secondly, parental participation and parental educational expectations have significantly positive effects on students’ academic performance. Thirdly, parenting factors are more important for primary school students while schooling factors are more important for secondary ones. Finally, compared with school conditions, teacher quality contributes more to the variance of average academic performance in primary and secondary schools. Moreover, compared with primary schools, teacher quality has greater contribution to the variance of average academic performance in secondary schools. Based on the empirical research conclusions, we put forward five suggestions to improve the productivity of primary and secondary education in China. Firstly, the government should adjust the allocation of resources for compulsory education and give priority to funding for secondary school education. Secondly, the government should raise teachers’ salary and improve the work environment to attract high-quality labor into compulsory education. Thirdly, the government and schools should enhance teachers’ teaching through teacher training and cooperation. Fourthly, the government should make rules and regulations about family education to enhance parents’ responsibility in their children’s education. Finally, schools and communities should organize some lectures on family education to promote effective cooperating between schooling and parenting.
Educational administrative agencies are the most important subjects of educational administrative legal relations whose legal status has been studied little. They include executive branches, departments of education and others. Based on 12 laws, 19 administrative rules and 48 regulations, educational administrative agencies have powers of rule-making, permission, penalty, sanction, supply, guidance, supervision, etc. The relationship between educational administrative agencies and non-government schools is external, such as permission, penalty and supervision. However, the relationship between educational administrative agencies and government schools is mainly internal, such as sanction, budget and personnel. Besides, there is not much relation between educational administrative agencies and teachers, students.
The definition of the legal status of the school is the basic premise for studying the internal construction and external relations of the school. From the current judicial practice, the legal status of colleges and universities is getting clearer, but the legal status of primary and secondary schools is still to be explored, which is worth paying attention to. The legal status of primary and secondary schools in China can be divided into civil legal status and administrative legal status. According to the current legal norms of China, its definition needs to be dealt with in a diversified way according to different types of primary and secondary schools. In terms of civil legal status, public primary and secondary schools in China do not have the status of independent legal person, while private primary and secondary schools have the status of legal person. As far as administrative legal status is concerned, primary and secondary schools may be administrative counterparts or internal subsidiary in their relations with administrative organs, and may have the legal status of administrative subjects when evaluating teachers' positions and discharging students from non-compulsory education.
Defining the legal status of teachers is essential for the construction of a high-quality teaching force. Nowadays, the teacher law does not reflect the special characteristics of different teacher groups, which results in disputes in teacher management. The establishment of teachers’ legal status should be based on the publicity of teachers’ occupation, and the legal status of teachers in different schools at different levels should be defined clearly. The legal relationship between teachers and schools also need to be defined, and teachers’ professional status stems from the need of modern national education system and social development. The provision of teachers’ rights and obligations should be based on teachers’ publicity, and differences of teachers’ publicity at different levels and different schools need to be reflected. The legal status of different groups of teachers and the corresponding legal relationship between teachers and related subjects need to be established according to their different intensity of publicity. Thus, the teacher law should ensure the coordination of publicity and autonomy, clarify the rights and obligations of teachers, and the legal status of teachers.
The legal status of students is a basic theoretical issue in the study of educational law and a major practical issue in the process of educational law in China. Students’ rights and obligations are the embodiment of students’ legal status. Based on the current education law on student rights and obligations, the legal status of students can be summarized as a special civil subject in civil law and a special administrative counterpart in administrative law. At present, the students’ right to education is deficient in litigation, procedures and justice. Therefore, it is necessary to bring the relief of the right to education into administrative and judicial review, to provide comprehensive relief to the rights of students, to take into account both substantive rights and procedural rights, and to guarantee the realization of the right to education of students according to law.
The guardian of the minor student is a direct stakeholder and plays an indispensable role in the legal relationship of education, but the basic law on education has not paid enough attention to such an issue and the status it deserves. The education by the guardian of the minor student has dual attributes of rights and obligations, so the side of rights should not be neglected when the other side of obligations is emphasized. Compared with the educating power of the state (which is mainly realized through school education), the guardian’s educating right is undoubtedly subordinate, but the latter cannot be ignored. In recent years, both the awareness-raising and the “struggle” of guardians’ educating right have exerted a negative impact on school education. Educational laws and regulations should draw a clear line between guardian’s educating right, state’s educating right and school’s educating right in the future.
Critical thinking can be regarded as the mainstream educational aim of the 20th century in Britain and America, and it reflects the rational tradition of western epistemology and the Kant enlightenment tradition of respecting persons in moral theory. From a pragmatic point of view, most scholars believe that critical thinking is a basic ability necessary to cope with the rapid changes of modern society. J. Dewey and R. S. Peters examined the exploratory significance of the concept of educational aim itself from a philosophical standpoint. McPeck argues that education implies critical thinking from the analysis of conditions of knowledge. Siegel argues critical thinking as an educational ideal from four dimensions: respect for students as persons, self-sufficiency and preparation for adulthood, initiation into the rational traditions, critical thinking and democratic life. Siegel's argument is based on the rational and liberal atmosphere, which has also caused some political philosophers to reflect on whether a democratic society can accept the non-critical thinking education of minorities. Steutel and Spieck summarize critical thinking involving three themes: political policy and legislation, conceptions of the good and the liberal-political framework, concepts of the good and their intrinsic value. They investigate three arguments which intend to justify critical thinking as an aim of education. In their arguments, the support argument explains the first and second themes, and the welfare argument covers more than the support argument to the second theme. However, these two arguments and the necessity argument still cannot fully prove the third theme concerning critical thinking as intrinsic value of good. In addition to promoting critical thinking in liberal society, the author attempts to argue that if minority groups do not violate significant common social values and do not restrict their children's participation in mainstream society, critical thinking is still a desirable educational value. However, mainstream culture should respect minority groups which do not identify the critical thinking as educational value. Regardless of whether we have justified it sufficiently or not, philosophical justification remains to be conducive to the manifestation of educational concepts, helps to embody the spirit of critical thinking, recognizes its possible limitations, and also has positive significance in educational practice.
Labor is a combination of human hands and brains. We believe that labor created the world and men himself. One of its ontological roles is to maintain and promote the development of the hand and the brain. The manufacture and use of tools and equipment occur almost simultaneously with labor, and equipment is an important factor in labor. Martin Heidegger launched the significance of labor/concernful dealing, equipment, the world and the relationship between each other. Individuals can understand equipment only by concernful dealing with it and put it to use in the readiness-to-hand (Zuhandenkeit). During labor then we can know the equipment from-which, towards-which and unusablility. Unusability is the motivation for repairing, transforming and innovating equipment, and for sustained innovation. Only through labor can people understand the referential totalities and the real world. The purpose of labor education is therefore very closely linked to the grasping of the equipment and the world. Labor education is a kind of labor that exerts educational functions essentially. It has six characteristics. Labor education outside the school field is diverse in its origin and purpose. The purpose of labor education in the school field can be biased towards moral education, but as labor itself has the function of uncovering and making truth open, so cognitive labor, exploratory/creative labor are also important aspects of labor education and closely related to the cultivation of innovative talents. Readiness-to-hand can quickly bring individuals to the forefront, and the concept of readiness-to-hand presents the limitation of step-by-step instruction as a principle of teaching. The world lights up only in certain definite ways with the readiness-to-hand, and indeed it has been lit up only with the readiness-to-hand of that concern. The equipment as the readiness-to-hand is modern and the modern world will be lit up. Therefore, in the labor education curriculum, it is necessary to allow students to use different, rich and advanced tools and equipment. The reason why labor education is new in the new era will be highlighted in the advanced tools and equipment of labor education.
The purpose of this study is to explore the developmental levels of students’ equity preferences and influence factors by using stakeholder and spectator game in experimental economic. The result shows that student’s equity preferences change with age, peer relationship, cognition and social experience, from egalitarianism to meritocratism and efficiency. Students can accept more and more inequity allocation based on luck, merit and efficiency difference. Family background and schooling are important factors to impact students' equity preferences. The implication of this study is that educators should consider the different educational equity strategies for different students of ages in schools and families.
Teaching and learning is the most important educational activity for universities to promote the development of students and respond to the needs of society. Based on the framework of learning-oriented assessment, combined with the years of theoretical and data exploration of CCSS, this study constructs eight indicators to assess the quality of undergraduate teaching and learning in universities of China. They are high-order cognitive ability, problem-solving ability, reading and writing ability, active learning, student interaction, instruction, teacher-student interaction and online teaching. This quality evaluation index system is used to analyze the quality level and trend of undergraduate teaching and learning in China in the past ten years.
To basically realize modernization by 2035 is an important strategic deployment made by the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. In order to achieve this goal, what is the most lacking for vocational education? What should be the focus of the next stage of development? How to develop? The analysis of the development process in the past 40 years and current situation of vocational education tells us that the key factor hindering our vocational education system to a higher level is the imperfection of the basic national institution of vocational education, so the development focus of vocational education in the next stage should be shifted from the construction of schools and colleges to the formation of the basic national institution. The demand of the development of vocational education in China for the national institution involves six levels: coordination level, structure level, demand level, content level, implementation level and evaluation level. The function of the national institution at the coordination level is to coordinate the management function of vocational education of relevant departments; the function of the national institution at the structural level is to link all components of vocational education into a system; the function of the national institution at the demand level is to provide demand information for the development of vocational education; the function of the national institution at the content level is to provide standard for the construction of vocational education curriculum; the function of the national institution at the implementation level is to guarantee the stable supply of the necessary conditions for the operation of vocational education; the function of the national institution of the evaluation level is to make an evaluation of the skill level with social credibility and to ensure its value of employment. The construction of the basic national institution of vocational education is difficult and need a long cycle, which requires a scientific design and long-term planning.
Based on Richard S. Peters’ concept of education as criteria of value judgment and the evolution of educational values disclosed by Chen Gui-sheng, the paper explores the way Karl Marx thinks of education. His thinking of education is located in his evaluation of labor, fighting and instruction, the analysis of which indicates that Marx’s thinking is rooted in his construction of the working class’ emancipation. The author investigates into how educational values are embedded into Marx’s evaluation of three sorts of praxis above from the perspective of working class’ emancipation, and into the specialty of Marx’s thinking from the perspective of educational values. The analysis shows that it is impossible to master Marx’s educational thoughts without his theory of the working class’ emancipation, and that Marx values culture (“Bildung”) over the narrow-sense educational value, the imbalance of which may be relevant to the way Marx thinks of morality and the formation of moral characters.
Discipline of textbook construction is the current pursuit of textbook history, theory and practice. Exploring the basis of constructing discipline of textbook, modern textbook research originated from New Education during the late Qing Dynasty when textbook discipline compilation began. It has accumulated over start-bloom period (1877—1919), diversity-dynamic period (1920—1948), regulation-uncertainty period (1949—1978) and recovery-prosperity period (1979 till now). Currently, discipline element, resource platform and operating mechanism, which support the independence of discipline of textbook, have improved. Broadening the logic of discipline of textbook construction, discipline of textbook is the supporting discipline of education, whose discipline features derive from the complexity and utterance controversy of textbook. Discipline of textbook involves researches on textbook phenomena and rules, which can classify textbook spectrum based on fundamentality, applicability, disciplinarity, intersectionality and comparability. With the distinct practical character, discipline of textbook informs textbook compilation, textbook teaching and textbook assessment, which are its core functions. Designing the strategies to develop discipline of textbook, it is necessary to promote problem domain transformation of textbook theory, establish methodology system of textbook research, excavate disciplinization path of textbook elaboration and enhance systematic guarantee of textbook compiling-research in the future.
Inquiry into the teaching epistemology for competence development aims to clarify the relationship between knowledge and competence, and the epistemology principles and teaching mechanism of their transformation. Competence is the moral ability of using knowledge to solve complex problems, and this learning outcome is based on knowledge and beyond, and depends on the fact that learners could transfer and utilize knowledge morally in complex situation. The nature of competence is practice which implies the epistemological meaning of the unity of knowledge and action, intellect and morality. This implication demands that teaching epistemology should handle well with the integration between ‘learning’ and ‘utilizing’. Although traditional teaching epistemology consistently advocates ‘learning for utilizing’, clamped by the knowledge creed of firm belief in rationalism, it struggled with the dualism cruces including the time sequence view, instrumental theory and mechanism in dealing with the relationship between knowledge and action, ‘learning’ and ‘utilizing’. The crux of dualism not only split the inherent unity of ‘learning’ and ‘utilizing’, but made it difficult to ensure the practicality of learners’ learning outcomes. ‘Utilizing for learning’ adjusts the sequence between ‘learning’ and ‘utilizing’ and aims to re-evaluate the epistemology meaning of action and practice, so as to promote ‘learning for utilizing’. ‘Utilizing for learning’ as the practice-oriented teaching epistemology, not only outlines the teaching mechanism of turning knowledge into competence, but reflects the practical turn of modern and contemporary epistemology research, the newest development of learning science and the action-based epistemology tradition implied in Chinese culture.
Based on the 282-prefecture-city panel data from 2007 through 2016, this paper tests the overall impact and spatial distribution effect of the policy statements related to the fiscal education investment on the efforts of local governments by using FE estimates. Empirical results show that the education expenditure as a proportion of public fiscal spending or GDP, the growth rate of education expenditure and education expenditure per student have increased significantly when the key word “4%” is clearly stated in government working paper. The growth of education expenditure in public fiscal spending and the sequential growth of education expenditure within the county are both significantly lower than those in urban areas. The growth of the proportion of education expenditure in GDP and education expenditure per student within county areas are considerably higher than those in municipal districts. This study responds to the long-term mechanism establishment of fiscal education expenditure in the post-4% era and the integrated development of urban and rural education.
Teaching behavior has a direct influence on the effectiveness of teaching. Improvement of teaching behavior is a dynamic process and has group characteristics. Based on the theory of experiential learning circle, this study focused on the continuous improvement of 71 teachers’ teaching behavior in two years. 350 classes of these teachers were studied by the method of content analysis, in order to investigate the characteristics of teaching behavior improvement of novice teacher group, competent teacher group and proficient teacher group. This study indicated that the two-year continuous teaching behavior improvement process based on the experiential learning circle made great achievements, and all three groups of teachers improved the openness of the question. The common difficulties in behavior improvement of three teacher groups are engaging students in discussion and encouraging students to ask questions. The improvement of teachers’ teaching behavior was not significant in the stages of reflective observation and abstract conceptualization in experiential learning cycle. The focus of the three groups of teachers’ teaching behavior improvement has notable difference. The teaching behavior and learning stage that is most difficult to make improvement for proficient teachers are different from that for novice teachers and competent teachers. Novice teachers and competent teachers have different difficulties in teaching behavior improvement. Besides, the stage that is most difficult to make improvement is the same for these two groups. The teaching behavior improvement characteristics of different teacher groups found in this research can optimize the teaching behavior improvement methods and strategies, provide theoretical foundation for more targeted services that support teaching behavior improvement, and enrich relevant research on teaching behavior improvement.
Traditionally, influenced by academic freedom, university autonomy and federalism, the US federal government has been less involved in higher education. In the second half of the 20th century, in the context of a revolutionary change in the relationship between academia and the legal world, the federal government began to actively participate in university governance based on four explicit or implied federal constitutional power forms related to education, including the right to expenditure, taxation, trade, and enforcement of civil rights. At present, American university governance has entered an era of compliance. The strengthening of federal higher education regulations not only promotes the protection of teachers and students' rights and the public interest, but also inevitably breeds a “compliance panic” and a crisis of teacher rights. In recent years, under the influence of a “spiral” compliance culture, the sources of compliance pressure for American universities have continued to increase. As one of the most widely regulated types of institutions, universities are often pulled into different, sometimes conflicting and irreconcilable directions. Now, through the reform of federal higher education regulations, the expansion of university compliance functions, and the re-definition of the role of university legal counsel, the relationship between the federal government and universities is being reshaped, which constitutes the latest trend of American university governance change in the era of compliance.
The academic governance ability includes multiple factors such as the enthusiasm of the multi-stakeholder’s participation in the academic field practice of the university, the mode of participation, the design of the governance system, the responsibility division among the governance subjects, and the distribution of benefits. Improving the level of modernization of academic governance has become a comprehensive push in the governance of education and modernization. It includes academic understanding of the system goodwill, responsibility to read the force, execution, conflict resolution and innovation driving force. However, the university academic field under the real situation suffers from the confusion of the power and the lack of supply of the external legal system, which leads to the “pseudo-governance” dilemma of lower academic public governance ability. The realization of the modernization of academic governance needs to maintain the concept of good governance in a symbiotic environment with democratic contract, to shape the multi-center academic governance pattern, and to ensure that the process of academic governance can achieve the unity of good means and results.
In the stage of compulsory education, the actual school entrance age in the same school year is different due to the cut-off date for school admission. Based on the sample survey of primary and secondary school students in Shanghai, the effect of school entrance age on school performance was analyzed and the relative-age effect was discussed. The results showed that the relative-age effect in primary schools was significant, which gradually weakened or even disappeared after junior middle schools.But the school performance of summer-born children was more disadvantageous than those who were born in autumn from primary to the junior middle schools.The relative-age effect was significant on the academic achievement of both boys and girls, as well as on the social interaction of girls. Family resources can moderate the relative-age effect.
The national time series data and provincial panel data from 2005 to 2018 are used to analyze the regional difference and distribution dynamics evolution of regular senior secondary school education funds in China with Dagum gini coefficient and Kernel density estimation method. Results show that per-student educational funding of regular senior secondary school is characterized by significant spatial inequality. Spatial distribution of per-student educational funding of regular senior secondary school is decreasing, and the disparity among regions is the major source of overall inequality. The absolute difference in per-student educational funding of regular senior secondary school is widening and is characterized by bipolar or multipolar differentiation. It is imperative to improve and implement the per-student allocation system for regular senior secondary school education, strengthen the overall planning of provincial finance for regular senior secondary school education, and improve the transfer payment system of central finance, so as to promote the high-quality and balanced development of regular senior secondary school education.
From the perspective of the system logic of university governance, the university system interacts with the university governance. The system plays a guiding and restrictive role in the construction of the governance system and the governance practice. Also, the governance practice and governance system contribute to the improvement of the system. The university system is formed in the long-term historical process. It is continuously enriched and developed in the governance practice. It is the result of the interaction between the governance subject and the system practice. The system formed in the governance practice includes both formal systems and informal rules and habits etc. Therefore, the system logic is not to construct the system subjectively, but to modernize the governance system and governance capabilities formed in the interaction of system cognition, system composition, system operation and system behavior and system evaluation. The human factor plays a key role in the improvement of the system, the construction of the governance system and the development of governance capabilities. It is necessary to fully focus on and value and play the role of the human factor, especially the governance subject. The key to the system logic of university governance lies in the integration of “university system” and “university governance”, in order to make the university system transform into a governance system through the construction of institutional mechanisms, and to make the institutional advantages transform into governance efficiency. In the governance practice, it is necessary to address all the system inadequacies, strengthen the executive abilities, and improve the system construction, to gradually finalize the system, and promote the realization of the modernization of university governance.
This article presents a definition and rationale for evidence-based reform in education, and contrasts the development of educational research in the U.S., U.K. and China, world leaders in evidence-based reform. Building the understanding of current evidence-based policies should help all countries learn how evidence can play a greater role in education policy. The article suggests ways in which scholars might improve the worldwide quality of evidence-based reform in education.
This paper examines the progress of evidence-based educational policies in Europe and identifies organizations for the generation and dissemination of evidence. Further, it discusses some of the most relevant challenges facing the development of evidence-informed education policies in Europe. The paper also analyzes the official documents by the European Commission and other organizations. Literature in the field of evidence-based education worldwide is examined to identify the primary challenges and issues related to the development of a culture of evidence in Europe’s education sector. It provides a point of reference regarding the initiatives already undertaken and the challenges facing evidence-based educational policies and policymaking in Europe.
Since the 21st century, the pursuit of high-quality preschool education has become the global consensus, and the international community has regarded preschool education as one of the important symbols of building the wealth of nations. China’s Education Modernization 2035 also clearly puts forward the development goal of “universal quality preschool education”. With an integration of objectivist and relativist approaches in defining quality, this paper expounds three levels of value appeal and five dimensions of core elements of preschool education quality in China, and proposes a government-organisation-family dialogue mechanism and a quality framework including curriculum, teachers, educational system and monitoring. It sorts out the realistic dilemmas in the development of China’s quality preschool education from affordability, equitability and sustainability. Then, the paper advises to reconstruct early childhood development goals, enhance the quality of preschool curriculum and teachers, and improve the public service system of early childhood education and care.
Discipline appeared as a set of knowledge classification system in response to the development and differentiation of human knowledge. The development of science and technology imposes higher requirements on knowledge synthesis nowadays. The new knowledge production mode brings challenges to traditional discipline systems. But there is no fundamental change in the need for specialization in the process of knowledge production. Therefore, it will not make the discipline system out of date. However, the discipline operation mechanism and discipline construction methods must be reformed. It is very important to create an institutional environment conducive to the convergence of disciplines. It can help discipline to play a better role in scientific research, talent training and other activities in university.
High school students are generally believed not to enjoy a high level of physical and mental health and happiness due to the pressure of the College Entrance Examination. This phenomenon has attracted more and more attention from society, schools and families. Although many policies and measures for reducing burdens and stimulating students’ interest have already been implemented, they have not achieved the expected results, indicating that there may be more complicated relationships between learning motivation, learning pressure and subjective well-being than simple correlation. Using the online questionnaire to survey more than 14,000 high school students from a province in east China, the piecewise regression model (PRM) was used to explore the possible thresholds of learning motivation and learning pressure. The results show that learning motivation has more influence on students’ subjective well-being than learning pressure; and high school students with high learning motivation can feel the happiness of active learning. For high school students, it needs to be targeted to effectively improve the subjective well-being of students with higher learning pressure. Besides, it is necessary to focus on the academic development and healthy growth of high school students whose learning motivation and pressure are not up to standard.
The present research constructes the basic mechanism that family environment influences pupils’ learning performance. Data were collected from 770 pupils who engaged in “home-school co-education” and 726 pupils who didn’t engage in “home-school co-education” in New Educational Experiment schools through paired-sampled method. Using the methods such as structural equation model and multiple linear regression analysis, the results showed that the indirect effect of family environment on pupils’ learning performance through mediating variables such as the students’ learning engagement and school environment was significant. School environment had a significantly positive effect on students’ learning engagement and learning performance, and home-school interaction could significantly improve students’ learning performance. The home collections of pupils who engaged in New Education Experiment schools were significantly higher than those in the Non-new Education Experiment schools. The longer the schools participated in the “home-school co-education” of New Educational Experiment, the better the students’ reading performance and mathematics performance were. In order to strengthen the positive influence of the family environment on pupils’ learning performance, while taking basic factors such as students’ gender, age and school location into account, we can learn from the action experience of New Education Experiment to improve the pupils’ learning performance by creating family study, building literary campus, achieving a goal once a month and optimizing home-school cooperation.
Based on the data of CEPS (2014—2015), this paper empirically tested the impact of physical exercise on adolescents’ cognitive ability using OLS, QR and PSM. It is found that, first, according to OLS, the cognitive ability of adolescents who often participate in physical exercise is 0.149 higher than that of adolescents who do not often participate in physical exercise. When the pre-ability is controlled, the cognitive ability can be improved by 0.049 for every unit increase in the time that teenagers take part in physical exercise. Second, physical exercise has the strongest promoting effect on adolescents whose cognitive ability is in the middle, while the heterogeneity of physical exercise is characterized by “inverted V-shaped” curve by using the method of QR. Regular physical exercise could reduce the intra-group differences in cognitive ability at low and high scores by using the method of UQR. Third, school work is not the decisive factor for teenagers to participate in physical exercise, while watching TV, playing online games and other extracurricular activities constitute an extrusion relationship for teenagers to participate in physical exercise. Cultural capital, human capital and educational expectation are positively correlated with teenagers’ participation rate in physical exercise by using model Probit. Finally, the influence of physical exercise on cognitive ability and its average processing effect fall into the value range of [0.095, 0.117], while ignoring the selective deviation will result in high net effect of physical exercise by using PSM.
For quite a few years, alumni organizations have become objects of restricted development due to fear of being involved in “Bangquan Culture”, and their functions are mostly limited to personal friendship and raising funds for HETs. Looking at the emergency rescue action case of Wuhan University alumni organization during COVID-19 in 2020, it can be found that the alumni organization could adjust its action demands timely in response to the changes in social demand under the determined role. Alumni organization used the “alumni identity” as the credit basis required of a large-scale alumni call, and could quickly make a response and take coordinate actions driven by some alumni leaders so as to complete the public construction in the process of producing various public products. The public growth of alumni organizations would promote their organization growth simultaneously, that is, the organizational structure from “alumni association of alumni”and “alumni association of university” to “alumni association of society”, the organizational function from “personal friendships” and “mutual indebtedness” to “public welfare”. The case shows that alumni organizations have giant potentials and advantages that other social organizations do not own in providing social public products. Therefore, the role of university alumni associations should be reviewed.
Olin College is small in size and young in age, but extraordinary in achievement. Beginning with the remarkable achievements made in the short period of 20 years since the founding of Olin College of Engineering in 1997, the interview was carried out with a focus on the following three themes: how to choose the right people; how to create synergy among the students, the school and the parents; and how to anticipate the future. In this profound and impressive interview, President Miller attributed Olin’s success to being in the right place at the right time and having the right people. He pointed out the true meaning of learning as joining passion and hard work together, and regarded teamwork as the secret weapon to cultivate learning. At the same time, he stressed his aim to lead Olin students appealing to the “heart” as well as the “head.” President Miller also elaborated on forming the Olin Conductorless Orchestra (OCO), implementing the new faculty assessment system, considering five mindsets in selecting candidates for admission, “Olinizing” the curricula at MIT, embarking on an even grander mission—a “Mars shot,” and analogizing the curriculum to a backpack. After reading this interview, readers can see Olin’s four pillars of success: Olin Strength, Olin Wisdom, Olin Approach and Olin Strategy.
This article discusses a number of challenging issues in educational assessment, including multiplicity and incompatibility of educational outcomes, the desire and need to assess all outcomes, and personalization of educational outcomes. These are issues that educational assessment must deal with properly. Thus, the article argues that the future of educational assessment should focus more on long-term educational outcomes and reduce attention on short-term instructional outcomes. It should also focus on personalizing educational assessment so as to help individuals discover and develop their unique strengths and passions.
To understand the quality of basic education, people should develop its descriptive definition instead of a prescriptive or programmatic definition. First, the connotation of educational quality is multi-element, multi-faceted, and it is necessary to establish a systematic view about the quality of education. Second, the core of education quality is the quality of students' development. Third, students’ development should be all-round. Finally, the quality of student development is the result of multiple factors. The theoretical model of basic education quality monitoring and evaluation is a structured presentation of the connotation. It employs CIPO (Context-Input-Process-Output) as the framework, defines educational output from the perspective of students’ development, selects key influencing factors to investigate the various aspects of the quality of education and their relationship, and finally presents the effectiveness of educational factors as the quality of education. China needs to define the quality of basic education by standards, improve the monitoring of key influencing factors, strengthen the follow-up investigation and experimental research on the quality of basic education and construct indexes for the quality of basic education.
The development of basic education quality index can provide scientific and effective evaluation for education quality. This paper first reviewed the related explorations on educational indicator systems and educational indices to provide insight into the construction of the basic education quality index of China. Based on the goal of improving education quality and the specific requirements for the construction of the basic education quality index proposed by the trend of educational evaluation system reform in this new age, this paper proposed a possible approach to constructing the educational indicator system based on the CIPP framework, selecting input, process and product indicators according to validity evidence, building a comprehensive evaluation system allowing the participation of multiple sides, using and interpreting the index based on the quality standards, and considering equity and quality simultaneously. Meanwhile, to facilitate the construction of the basic education quality index, there is a need for a series of educational empirical studies in the areas such as data linking and imputation, the local validation of quality indicators, validation of indices of different levels, the index construction at the age of “Internet +”, comparison of different aggregation methods, case study of index application with quality standards, and the construction of index merging quality level and equality.
Since the reform and opening up, China’s basic education quality monitoring and evaluation system has experienced three periods: the germination period relying on supervision and evaluation (1978—2001), the exploration and pilot period for education quality monitoring (2002—2014), and the construction and improvement period of the monitoring and evaluation system (from 2015 to present). Some basic experience has been obtained in value positioning, monitoring content, organization and implementation, application of results, operating system, etc., but there are also some problems and challenges in the construction of monitoring and evaluation systems. Based on the analysis of historical evolution, basic experience and existing problems, in future, the monitoring and evaluation system needs to fully embody and implement the Party’s education policy, exert the monitoring function through macro-control education supervision positioning, strengthen the connotation construction of monitoring systems at all levels, and to promote the deep integration of information technology and the monitoring system.
The match between college graduates’ major and job is an essential factor affecting the quality of employment. Based on the national survey data of colleges graduates’ employment in 2015, this paper investigates the major match of the college graduates, as well as the effects of major match on the starting salary of graduates. It uses the Propensity Score Matching (PSM) method to solve the endogenous problem, and reduce the deviation of results caused by self-selection.The main conclusions and findings are: there are 56.1% of graduates’ majors and jobs match, while 11.7% are irrelevant. Using the OLS method, the starting salary of the major match is 3.4% higher than the major mismatch, and after correcting the endogenous problem by using PSM method, the salary effect of the major match is 5%. OLS regression method underestimates the effect of major match on starting salary. Further research finds that, compared with Project 211 universities and vocational colleges, major match has a significant income effect on non-Project 211 graduates. Also, compared with graduates of college degree and master degree or above, major match has a significant income effect on bachelor degree graduates, the starting salary of the major match is about 7% higher than the major mismatch. Major match of economics graduates has a more significantly positive influence on starting salary, and the major match graduates is about 15% higher than the major mismatch. Based on this, colleges and universities should make more accurate judgment on the specialty matching in order to effectively improve the employment quality of college students.
Based on the ranking data of the best universities in China from 2016 to 2020, this paper analyzes the influence of “double first-class” policy on the source quality of undergraduates by using the single group time series experiment method in the interruptive time series quasi experiment method. It is found that there are great differences in the quality of students in “double first-class” universities, but the distribution is relatively stable. The “double first-class” policy has a certain impact on the quality of undergraduate students. 38 of Project 985 universities and 67 of Project 211 universities have further consolidated the advantage of high quality students. In addition, 3 of Project 211 universities have entered the list of first-class universities and 19 of non-Project 211 universities have entered the list of first-class disciplines and the quality of their students has improved to a certain extent. However, the quality of students in those colleges and universities with good quality but not in the list of “double first-class” construction shows a downward trend. This results from the continuity of government resource input, the orientation of social talent demand and the stability of the university’s own development.
It is an inevitable requirement for the modernization of school governance to promote the participation of multiple subjects including teachers. Based on a questionnaire survey of 442 middle school teachers in Shanghai, this paper analyzes the mechanism that affects teachers’ willingness to participate in school governance under the framework of the theory of planned behavior. The results show that subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and participation attitude have a significant positive impact on teachers’ participation in school governance. Besides, subjective norms and perceived behavior control can not only directly and positively predict teachers’ willingness to participate in school governance, but also indirectly affect teachers’ willingness to participate in school governance through participation attitude. Also, the mediating effect of subjective norms on teachers’ willingness to participate in governance is moderated by teachers’ identity and teaching age, and the effect of non-representatives of teachers’ Congress and novice teachers is more obvious. It is necessary to strengthen the publicity of the idea of participation and create a good atmosphere for participation. In addition, it’s important to pay attention to feedback, improve teachers’ sense of participation efficiency, make good use of incentive mechanism and change teachers’ attitude to participate in governance. Finally, expanding the scope of participation, especially the participation of novice teachers and non-representatives in school governance is helpful.
Inter-school exchange among teachers is essentially a re-adjustment of the person-organization fit between teachers and schools. The survey shows the degree of the fit between some primary and secondary schools’ teachers and school organizations is relatively high on the whole, but it still needs to be improved. Based on the analysis of the person-organization fit theory, and combined with the current situation of the fit, inter-school communication between urban and rural teachers can take the following implementation paths: strengthen the support for rural schools, and improve the needs-supplies fit of urban teachers who will be exchanged to rural schools; implement a composition pattern of the exchange team based on core teachers and excellent principals, and supplemented by ordinary teachers; disclose the information of exchanging teachers and of the schools receiving them, and promote two-way choices; restructure the person-organization value system to create an organizational atmosphere of democracy, harmony, mutual assistance and endeavor; build a platform for teachers’ growth relying on core teachers, and improve needs-supplies fit and demands-abilities fit between rural schools and teachers, in order to achieve a win-win situation for the development of the exchanging teachers and schools.
In October 2019, the World Bank put forward the concept of “learning poverty”, set the goal of halving the learning poverty rate by 2030, and formulated a detailed working plan. The “Learning Poverty” project has received positive responses from governments of many countries, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic. With the victory in poverty battle, rural revitalization has become a new task for the realization of the great rejuvenation of China. Education poverty-alleviation will also enter into the post-poverty-alleviation era characterized by high-quality, deep cultivation and multiple-subjects. The new concepts and practices of the “Learning Poverty” project will be of great reference value for the promotion of educational poverty alleviation and boosting rural revitalization by education.
High-level vocational education is the core of the development of vocational education modernization system. Based on five main indicators which include sixteen secondary indicators of school running level and five core indicators of the “Double High-level Project”, an analysis was made to investigate the development process and the challenges that the higher vocational education in the western ethnic regions would face. We found that higher vocational education in the western ethnic regions had already made outstanding achievements in standardization construction. The gap between the regions has narrowed and the policy goals of the National Education Reform and Development Plan have been achieved. However, the task of building high-level higher vocational education is still arduous, as it also faces challenges such as regional imbalance, insufficient type attributes and insufficient capacity building. To solve the above problems and construct high-level higher vocational education in ethnic regions, it is necessary to reinforce the foundation through top-level design and policy supply, to highlight the “ethnic nature” through differentiated strategies and characteristic development. Also, it’s important to catch up and build up a modern governance system by seizing opportunities to improve capacity-building in order to improve governance efficiency in the future development.
The Chinese term jiaoyan literally means “study of teaching”, but this article argues that it is a notion that encompasses teachers’ professional characteristics. The article attempts to analyse the Chinese system of jiaoyan using a framework that is commonly understood in the west, in English speaking communities in particular. Systems of education are everywhere, but systemic institution for teaching is rather unique to China. It is where teachers realise their professional identity and fulfil their professional needs – professional knowledge, professional development, professional ethics, and so on. It is also virtually a Chinese version of the General Teaching Council where teachers assume their professional status. The inclusion of research in jiaoyan is also rather unusual, which is a drive for teachers’ continuous self-renewal. It is a treasure that should not be taken lightly, and should look forward to new levels of development.
Teacher professional development is one of the key factors to ensure the quality of school education and student achievement. With the increasing emphasis on teacher professional development, policymakers around the world have paid more and more attention to the effectiveness study of teacher professional development. Using high school student achievement and transcript data linked to their subject teachers and school from Haidian district in Beijing during 2016—2019, this study applied the Value-Added Model, Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM), and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to examine the effects of teachers’ participation in district-level and school-level teaching-research activities on teaching practice, teachers’ self-efficacy, and student achievement in standardized high-stakes testing. The findings show that: (a) the degree of teachers’ participation in district level teaching-research activities has a significant positive impact on students’ performance, in which the effects of activities focusing on the subject and curriculum content knowledge is particularly significant; (b) teachers with a higher degree of participation in district-level teaching-research activities have a higher sense of self-efficacy, and they tend to use more inquiry-based, student-centered teaching practice and adopting more diversified evaluation strategies; (c) the degree of teachers’ participation in school-based teaching and research activities also has a significant positive impact on students’ performance, and the role of informal communication between teachers is also important; (4) district-level teaching-research activities also affect classroom teaching practices indirectly by improving teachers’ participation in school-based teaching-research activities.
In order to improve K-12 teaching-research work in the new era, it is necessary to identify the current state and problems of teaching-research system across China. However, few empirical studies have examined the quality and equity of teaching-research work across the country, especially from the perspective of teachers for and with whom the teaching-research system works. Based on the data of a representative teacher sample collected from 30 provinces (N=47, 620), this study constructed the teaching-research quality index and the teaching-research equity index, and computed these two indexes’ scores for 30 provinces. The study found that: (a) all provinces with higher scores in the teaching-research quality index are from the East and the Northeast, and the provinces from the Northwest, the Southwest, and the South usually have lower scores; (b) the teaching-research equity index scores appear not to be related with geographical distribution, and Shanghai and Zhejiang win the best scores; (c) the regression analysis results show that the teaching-research quality index scores depend on the working style of teaching-research (professional vs. administrative leadership), the ratio of teachers to teaching-research officers, and years of teaching-research experiences, and the teaching-research equity index scores are related to the working style of teaching-research. Teachers’ perceptions of teaching-research work should be used as an important way to evaluate K-12 teaching-research. Our findings have implications for the improvement of teaching-research system and practices in future.
Teaching-research officers play an important role in teaching reform of basic education, improved quality of regional education and the transformation and development of teaching research. Their competency level can directly affect the teaching-research system, teaching-research theory or teaching-research practice, and determine the construction of teaching-research system with Chinese characteristics. In order to identify the professional characteristics and outstanding professional performance of teaching-research officers, their competency structure was difined, based on mathematical evidence-based thinking and combined with behavioral event interview, questionnaire survey and other methods. Also, a theoretical model of teaching-research officers' competency was constructed, including professional knowledge, curriculum construction, teaching development, scientific research, organizational leadership and professional quality. Then we used this model to explore the development level and function mechanism of teaching-research officers. We find that they are generally competent for teaching and research work, outstanding in professional quality, teaching development and organizational leadership, but with unstable performance in curriculum construction and scientific research. In order to confirm the different performance of the competency development, under the guidance of big data concept and algorithm thinking, we used cluster analysis, correlation analysis, regression analysis and other methods to explore the sample data. It is found that there are obvious differences in competency development among teaching-research officers and there are three types of officers: "passive and survival ", "happy and potential" and "active and strong". In addition, the mechanism of faculty member competency is also clarified. It's found that faculty member self-efficacy has a direct impact on competency, and organizational climate mainly affects competency through faculty member self-efficacy. At present, in order to promote the innovative application of the competency model, we can focus on the construction of teaching-research theory discourse system with Chinese characteristics, meet the development requirements of teaching-research system of basic education in the new era. It's also important to improve the in-out mechanism of “selection, evaluation and appointment” and support the transformation of teaching-research officers with high-quality professional and innovative vision.
The idea of teaching research has long been regarded as imported and the result of “copying the Soviet Union” since the founding of PRC, rather than a unique experience and fine tradition of basic education in China. Based on the review of some documents since the establishment of the modern educational system in the late Qing Dynasty, especially some school archives during the period of the Republic of China, it is found that the idea of teaching research originated from local practice in China, the seeds of which sprouted even before the implementation of the new educational system in the late Qing Dynasty. Then influenced by the new educational thought, guided by the government policy, and promoted by the education pioneers, experimental studies were conducted in a number of new schools in the Republic of China to adapt to new teaching approaches, and gradually a more systematic and institutional mode of teaching research was formed. The concept of teaching research in China is not the result of “learning from Russia”, but an inheritance of excellent Chinese teachers’ professional moral culture for thousands of years, and the exploration has made great contribution to the theory and practice of teachers’ professional development.
In recent years, with the consolidation of teaching-research institutions and other departments, the function of teaching-research is weakened and the administrative function is becoming more and more obvious. From the perspective of the evolution of the concept of “teaching-research”, the generalization of the concept of “teaching-research” is closely related to the weakening of its function. Therefore, the premise of solving the problem of teaching-research function is to clarify the original meaning of the concept of “teaching-research”. Based on this, this paper argues that the following relations should be handled properly. First, shift the relationship between “teaching” and “learning”, from “teaching-oriented” to “teaching for learning”. Second, the relationship between “teaching” and “curriculum” should be changed from “teaching” to “curriculum”. Thirdly, in terms of the relationship between “experience” and “theory”, we should move from “discussing facts” to “theoretical guidance”.
In order to better realize the evidence-based teaching research transformation, it is necessary to investigate the basic concepts related to this transformation. The professional particularity of teaching research work lies in “teaching guidance”. The on-the-spot and interactive characteristics of “teaching guidance” not only put forward requirements for the main research methods of teaching research personnel, but also provide guidance for the expansion of the connotation of “evidence”, “argumentation” and other related concepts, and prompt us to pay attention to the key issues such as the source of evidence, the type of evidence, the continuity of evidence, the form of argumentation, and the acceptance of evidence.
Chinese teaching-research officers are regional teaching quality assurance staff, making contribution to the implementation of basic education curriculum, teaching improvement and teacher development. With more and more prominent status and functions of teaching-research officers, research on them tends to develop prosperously. The research on teaching-research officer’s role, teaching-research work and activity, as well as their capacity and development has gone through an interlaced process of conceptual discussion and historical analysis, institutional concern and empirical research, and international comparison and local argumentation. Among the extant research, the research on teaching-research officer’s role started earlier whereas the paradigm transformation becomes the new research hotspot. The multi-line research raises three important research questions: the origin of Chinese teaching research system, the role and status of Chinese teaching-research officers, and the core functions and key competence of Chinese teaching-research officers. In the future, the research of teaching-research officers should promote the transformation of their functions through the study of system and mechanism, analyze the transformation of paradigm on the basis of teaching research, and establish the professional standards of teaching-research officers from the perspective of international comparison.
With China’s higher education entering the stage of popularization, its future development has become a widespread concern. Combining the dimensions of supply and demand, this paper employs the statistical and econometric regression models to predict the scale and structure of higher education and public educational funding in China from 2021 to 2035. According to the empirical results, it is appropriate for the gross enrolment ratio of higher education in China to reach about 60% in 2025, 67% in 2030, and 75% in 2035. For the proportion of graduate enrolment, it is suitable to reach about 16% in 2025, 18% in 2030, and 20% in 2035. For the government expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP, it is suitable to reach about 4.4% in 2025, 4.5% in 2030, and 4.6% in 2035.
Since John Dewey’s visit in China in 1919—1921, pragmatism has become one of influential philosophical trends in modern China. Chinese scholars interpret the concept of pragmatism in many ways in different contexts. Chinese concept of pragmatism has at least six versions. Firstly, it refers to pragmatism educational thought which Huang Yanpei advocated in the 1920’s. Secondly, it means a philosophical movement in USA and modern China. Thirdly, it is John Dewey’s education thought and his Chinese students’ application. Fourthly, it refers to a theory of value which focus on instrumental utility and material effects. Fifthly, it refers to utilitarianism which Jeremy Bentham developed. Sixthly, it means egoism. These versions of pragmatism in modern China indicates six types of identity which reflects the complexity of understanding John Dewey’s pragmatism and sinicized reading of pragmatism in terms of the function of Chinese thoughts.
“With whom to change the world” is not only a political issue, but also an educational issue. After Confucius, Plato, Rousseau and Marx, Dewey responded to this question and proposed to cultivate modern citizens with reflective thinking, communication, cooperation and creativity as the core to build the great community he advocated. This kind of 4Cs citizen discourse has profound cosmopolitan significance and is also regarded as the theoretical basis of the international 21st century skills-oriented education reform movement. This thinking of John Dewey is helpful to transform the traditional models such as “learning and thinking” and “unity of knowledge and action” in Chinese education into models such as “thinking, communicating and acting” and “cooperative problem solving”, thereby accelerating the cultivation of more competitive Chinese with a global perspective to cope with the uncertainty of the future and build a community with a shared future for mankind.
Dewey’s philosophy of curriculum is the core of his whole philosophy of education. Dewey’s view of children’s curriculum is the basis of his whole philosophy of curriculum. The basic problem of philosophy of curriculum is the problem of relationship between subject-matter logic and psychological experience. Subject-matter logic itself is not children’s curriculum, but it has intrinsic connections to children’s psychological experience: both share one reality; both have the nature of experience. If the appropriate environment and conditions are provided, children’s psychological experience can grow up into subject-matter logic. Children’s psychological experience and subject-matter logic form “two limits” of instructional process. The process of growing from the former to the latter is a continuous reconstruction of experience. The meaning of children’s curriculum is subject-matter elements in children’s present experience and the psychological aspect of subject-matters, which are mutually related. The classification of children’s curriculum is based on the principle of differentiation of subject-matters from social life. The subject of psychologizing subject-matters is teachers. Teachers’ arts of curriculum development are mainly interpretation and guidance. In today’s information age, Dewey’s view of children’s curriculum is still vital and vigorous.
Before John Dewey’s reception of coming to China, Hu Shi had launched the moments of new cultural education in college liberal arts, pedagogy, and basic education. The arrival of Dewey provided Hu Shi, who suffered troubles caused by the outside political interference, with strong supports to carry forward his enterprise. Dewey was interested in Chinese democratic movement against the warlord government, hoping Chinese educators to seek for new ideal of the modern cultural education based on their own understanding of political situation and social progress. Hu Shi’s expectation for Dewey, however, was to escape the political reality, and to transmit the pragmatism in the Dewey’s educational, and social political philosophy. Meanwhile, Marxism also had begun to spread since Li Dazhao published a series of articles. Hu Shi provoked ideal conflicts to unify the new cultural education. Dewey had to help Hu Shi to expand the influence of pragmatism. It was not until the end of his journey in China that Dewey could express his real and kind concern of Chinese social political progress, before his pragmatism shaped by Hu Shi was erased by the rise of Marxism in the field of new cultural education in 1948.
Russell’s critique against Dewey’s new logic in the early 20th century is a symbol of some controversy over the orientation of critical thinking training. This article sets out from a conception of argument popular in earlier analytic philosophy, exemplified by the Principle of Clifford, and thereby examines the historical quarrel over “inquiry” between Russell and Dewey and its embarrassing outcome. After introducing the new conception of argument propounded eminently by Stephen Toulmin and embedding it in Dewey’s theory of inquiry, it is showed in what sense Russell’s criticism against Dewey was based upon some serious misunderstanding of Dewey’s methodology as well as of his key texts. At last, for the viewpoint of philosophy of education, this article suggests that the conception of argument-as-inquiry has the advantage of emphasizing arguers’ engaging in a variety of living experience and warning them against converting academic arguments into some sort of linguistic games.
The logical starting point of China’s higher education legal system originates from China’s constitution, education law and its corresponding Chinese education legal system, which is the natural extension and logical expansion of China’s education legal system. However, the coexistence of Higher Education Law and Academic Degrees Ordinance has resulted in the technical separation of higher education legal system, and formed in the practice of rule of law the dual implementation system of management in higher education and academic discipline. Through the systematic analysis of the substantive structure and legislative mode of China’s higher education legal system, this paper puts forward that during the “fourteenth five-year plan” period, China’s higher education legal system should be improved from the aspects of codification, unification, hierarchy and classification.
The civil relief of the right to education is an important problem that remains to be solved in academic circles and judicial practice. The current research is limited to the abstract and overall civil nature of the right to education, while neglecting to grasp the substance of the right, the type of infringement and the liability with the categorical analysis. The substance of the civil right to education is mainly the general personality right, but it is closely related to the property interests, so it should include the interests of the education personality and the interests of the education property. Therefore, the types of infringement can be divided into three types: infringing upon the education personality interests, infringing upon the education property interests and infringing upon both personality interests and property interests. In terms of tort liability, it can be divided into strict liability and fault liability according to different principles of liability. The establishment of the civil relief of the right to education is an important link to protect the legitimate rights and interests. We should further clarify the status of the right to education in the civil law and return to the nature of the right relief.
County-level senior high schools provide education opportunities for people living in counties or lower administrative level, which accounts for nearly half of the total population in China. The paper-setting of the college entrance examination (CEE) has a direct impact on the opportunities for county-level senior high school students to enter elite universities. This study, based on data from elite university A’s undergraduate students from 2000 to 2018, used a two-way fixed-effect model to probe into the two reforms of paper-setting of the CEE and found that in the reform of “From National to Provincial”, provincial autonomous paper-setting significantly reduced the opportunities for county-level senior high school students to enter elite universities, while it also made the distribution of admission opportunities more balanced across high schools. In the reform of “From Provincial to National”, the two methods had no significant difference. The current form of national paper-setting with sub-versions ensured a balanced distribution of admission opportunities and successfully adapted to the different education levels among different regions. Meanwhile, the implementation of targeted enrollment plan in poor areas improved the admission opportunities of elite universities for county-level high school students. Therefore, the combination of the new form of national unified paper-setting of CEE and the targeted enrollment plan in poverty-stricken areas can guarantee the equality of educational opportunities from multiple dimensions.
From the perspective of spatial spillover effects, we conduct a spatial econometric analysis on the panel data of 194 cities in China from 2004 to 2018. The purpose of our empirical test is to verify the existence of strategic interaction in education expenditures between local governments. Besides, the paper also aims at examining the intrinsic motivation and incentive mechanism of local government education expenditures. The results show that local governments have significant complementary strategic interactions with their geographical and demographic neighbors in education fiscal policy. Moreover, the education expenditures of local governments are significantly affected by economic basis, fiscal characteristics, institutional inertia and official promotion. We also found that governments in different regions have a heterogeneous feedback mechanism towards central budget. The governments in eastern region are more sensitive. Therefore, the education development plan of central government should take the spatial spillover effect and the regional heterogeneity into consideration. Only in this way can the plan better balance the allocation of educational resources and promote coordinated regional development.
The sudden outbreak of an epidemic in 2020 has aroused unprecedented attention to educational technology. From a historical viewpoint, there is indeed an interactive relationship between technological progress and school education. While technology promotes the transformation of teaching forms and methods, it constantly seeks development space from the social needs of education. However, technology has never fundamentally shaken the relationship configuration of tutor-student dialogue in education. Due to certain characteristics of contemporary information technology, some people expect to deconstruct and even subvert all traditional models, but its effect in reality is not ideal. At least for the present and foreseeable future, the information technology revolution may not necessarily bring about a pedagogy revolution. The main factor causing various current paradoxes and dilemmas of modern education lies in the education systematism which embody social structure rather than technology. Technology does not necessarily manifest itself as an emancipatory force. It may promote the amplification and involution of the existing functions of education, and may also cause the attenuation and alienation of the inherent value attributes of education. Therefore, we need to be open and cautiously optimistic about technological intervention and application.
The original operational definition of digital divide is the difference in information technology penetration rate among subgroups by social economic background. The recent evolving trend of digital divide is the gradual shift in its primary criteria from the external access to internal engagement. Based on a large sample of 64,949 undergraduates from 39 universities in Shanghai, the current study found that the original digital divide nearly closes, for only the students living in villages or towns purchased more laptops or broadband services than urban students during Covid-19. The new digital divide, however, deserves more attention. Female students more frequently read novels or play games during online courses than males. First-generation college students are more difficult to focus and engage in online learning than second-generation college students. Rural students face more challenges in all above-mentioned six dimensions. After controlling other variables in regression models, the internet access has little impact on the self-evaluation of online learning outcomes, while the usage preference and learning engagement measured as the new digital divide are statistically significant and have relatively larger effect sizes.
In order to explore the influence and mechanism of teachers’ e-readiness on the graduate students’ online learning effect, the research basing on the control-value theory employed a structural equation model to analyze the survey data. The results showed that teachers’ e-readiness not only had positive effect on graduate students’ online learning effect, but also through the independent mediating effect of learner control, academic emotions and the chain mediating effect of “learner control and academic emotions” indirectly predicted graduate students’ online learning effect respectively. At the same time, the total indirect effect was slightly larger than direct effect. Among the three specific indirect effects, the independent indirect effect of learner control was the largest. The results of this research suggest that, online teaching training should be provided for teachers, teachers’ e-readiness and the quality of online courses should be improved; it is critical to assess graduate students’ learner control on online learning, as well as provide adequate guidance for them. At last, attention should be paid to the graduate students’ academic emotions online learning, negative academic emotions should be intervened in time.
Teaching interaction is not only the key to the re-integration of online teaching and learning, but also an important factor affecting students’ engagement in online learning. As one of the special interactive modes in synchronous classroom, video interaction also has an important influence on the relationship between teaching interaction and students’ online learning engagement. Based on the survey data of 15441 postgraduates from 30 universities, this study conducted structural equation model and hierarchical multiple regression model to analyze the relationship between online teaching interaction on learning engagement. The results showed that learner-learner interaction, learner-teacher interaction, and learner-content interaction of online courses can positively predict students’ behavioral engagement, cognitive engagement and emotional engagement, respectively. The results also indicated that learner-learner video interaction positively moderates the relationship between teaching interaction and behavioral engagement, teaching interaction and cognitive engagement, and teaching interaction and emotional engagement. However, learner-teacher video interaction had no significant influence on the relationship between teaching interaction and learning engagement. In the future of online education, students’ online learning engagement can be promoted by creating a social interaction environment, enriching interactive content, triggering interactive events, and ensuring the quality of video interaction.
Interpersonal interaction is a key factor affecting the effectiveness of online teaching. The SOTL-T project analyzed the characteristics and effects of the negative aspects of online teaching through a questionnaire survey of 8850 university teachers and 23 in-depth interviews with teachers. The study found that: In terms of interactive media, text interaction accounts for the largest proportion because of its retention and visibility. The written expression ability is exercised through careful consideration of words and sentences, and there is a trend of emoticon assistance and conciseness. Audio and video interactions have high requirements for internet speed and in-depth performances. Due to the pressure of image decoration in the background, some teachers do not turn on the camera frequently. In terms of interaction time, the time characteristics of synchronous interaction and offline interaction show some similarities in respect of time rigidity, short intervals, clear boundaries, uniform rhythm and single direction. Also, time utilization efficiency is relatively high. In contrast, the time rigidity of asynchronous interaction is weak, the interval is long, the boundary is blurred, the rhythm can be adjusted, and it can be undone and edited. The time efficiency is lower. In terms of interactive space, the dispersion of online teaching space limits the diversity and sufficiency of interaction, but also it can form a safe distance for anonymous protection. In courses with special space requirements, online teaching shows unique advantages or disadvantages. More than half of the teachers believe that the frequency and effect of interpersonal interaction in online teaching are lower than offline teaching. Teacher-student interaction is worse than student-student interaction. Based on analytical results, the research suggests possible actions in future for universities, teachers, and platform developers.
Based on an outline of basic facts about foundation of the Humboldt University of Berlin drawing from multiple historical narrative texts, this article critically analyzes some historical narratives such as suspecting of status and role of Humboldt on establishing the Berlin University, construction and deconstruction of “Humboldt myth”, and points out that the establishment of the Berlin University is the result of collective consensus reached and put into collective action by the educated intellectuals of Germany represented by Humboldt on the establishment of a new university that embodies the German spirit, morality and cultural mission. The various historical narratives about Humboldt’s founding of the University of Berlin and his educational concepts, although all of them are one-sided in constructing the whole from parts, reflect the construction, reflection, and criticism of modern university values in the two dimensions of cognition and politics by German intellectuals in different eras.
Family education has an important impact on the academic performance of primary and secondary school students. Using HLM model and path analysis model to discuss the influence effects and influence mechanism of parental learning involvement on their children’s academic performance, we have gotten the following conclusions. Firstly, as the frequency of parental learning involvement increases, the academic performance of primary school students will be improved, while that of secondary school students shows a trend of “Inverted U-shaped”. Secondly, for primary school students with better parent-child relationships, the more parental learning involvement is conducive to the improvement of their children’s academic performance, but for primary school students with poor parent-child relationships and secondary school students, parents should moderately control the frequency of their learning involvement to promote children’s academic performance. Thirdly, learning confidence plays a mediating role between parental learning involvement and students’ academic performance for both primary and secondary school students. Fourthly, parent-child relationship plays a moderating role between the frequency of parental learning involvement and the learning confidence of primary and secondary school students, then to have a positive effect on students’ academic performance. Therefore, we suggest that parents of primary and secondary school students should build a harmonious parent-child relationship, and parents of secondary school students should control the frequency of learning involvement reasonably, adopt learning involvement methods suitable for children and strive to improve the quality of learning involvement. In addition, in the process of parental learning involvement, parents should encourage children more to improve their academic confidence.
Error-component analysists argue that after netting out the effects of student background, teacher credentials and school characteristics, the residuals of test scores generated by subtracting predicted values from the class-level mean can be regarded as teachers’ effect on pupils’ achievement. The paper tests this idea by using self-collected teacher-student matched data from Hubei and Guangdong province. Residual analyses show that, (1) Marginal effects of teaching performance of teachers instructing Chinese Language Art, Math and English are among 0.3?0.5 standard deviations, among which the magnitude of Math teachers’ effect is the largest. (2) There are huge individual differences among teachers in terms of teaching performance. If a teacher of average quality were replaced by the most effective one, the whole class would witness a net gain of 0.3?1.0 standard deviations. On the contrary, if he or she were replaced by the worst colleague, mean performance of the class he or she taught would go down by 0.5?0.7 standard deviations. Policy implications of this article are obvious with regard to evaluating teachers’ performance.
The strategy of Rural Revitalization expects rural teachers to play the role of new rural sages actively. To fulfill this cultural responsibility, rural teachers need not only knowledge, ability and prestige, but also strong will to serve the Rural Revitalization Strategy. The results show that the willingness of rural teachers to serve the Rural Revitalization Strategy is still in a low state; The gender, age and origin of rural teachers have significant differences in their willingness to serve the Rural Revitalization Strategy; Rural teachers’ professional watch, local feelings and public spirit are positively related to their willingness to serve the Rural Revitalization Strategy. Therefore, the Rural Revitalization Strategy calls for rural teachers to keep their professional beliefs, cultivate local feelings, invigorate the public spirit, enhance the willingness to serve the Rural Revitalization Strategy, and actively play the exemplary and leading role of new rural sages.
To cure poverty first, to cure foolishness is a long-term strategy in the battle against poverty. In order to promote the development of children in poverty-stricken areas and explore effective ways to block the intergenerational transmission of poverty, China Development Research Foundation (CDRF), with the support of local governments and Administration Bureau, carried out an early childhood development project for children in poverty-stricken areas in Ledu County in 2009, including two projects of one village one preschool and nutrition package. With the continuous expansion of scale, improvement of quality and vigorous promotion by the local government, the one village one preschool project was scaling-up in 2016. Over the past 10 years since the implementation of the “One Village One Preschool project” program, a village-level preschool education service system has been put in place, significantly increasing the three-year gross enrollment rate of preschool education in poor areas. By the end of 2019, the three-year gross enrollment rate of preschool schools in Ledu District had exceeded 98 percent. Over the past 10 years, 8705 children in Ledu have graduated from mountain kindergartens and entered the compulsory education stage, benefiting more than 5400 families. The mountain village kindergartens have guaranteed nearly 30% of the poor rural students in the county, and the total per capita cost is only 1/6—1/8 of that of county-level public kindergartens. By the end of 2019, the “One Village One Preschool” program had been widely implemented in 33 counties in 11 central and western provinces, with more than 80000 children enrolled and more than 210000 people benefiting from it. The quality and effect of the "One Village One Preschool" program are ideal and practical. The development level, psychological characteristics, intelligence and learning ability of the children who benefit from the program are generally better than those who do not go to kindergartens and children in towns and villages, and some aspects are close to those in county-level public kindergartens. In terms of benefits, cost effectiveness, educational effect and social impact, the “One Village One Preschool” plan is an excellent project of targeted poverty alleviation through education, which embodies the basic public service value orientation of social justice.
In the perspective of inter-subjectivity, edcational evaluation is a ubiquitous value processing, and sense-making as well. There are different combinations between formal and informal education and formal and informal evaluation. The formal evaluation of formal education plays the role of direction to the professional development in educational evaluation. Any educational evaluation is executed in a specific field. Therefore, it is context bounded. Educational evaluation is an instrument of governance, sharing the functions of governance. At the different governance level, from individual to organization, state and the international communities, evaluation has the different contents. Good governance is a kind of evaluation at the state level. It also has the directory value for the educational governance. Evaluation itself is the object of governance, while it has the function of governance. Educational evaluation should stick to the self-reflexive stance, keeping itself under re-evaluation. On the one hand, the meta-evaluation awareness should be raised. On the other hand, it should be on the alert against behaviorism, economism, localism and opportunism in the evaluation exercises.
With the development of modern information technology including mobile Internet, big data and artificial intelligence, we are stepping into an era of rapid transformation. And great and unprecedented changes have taken place in the educational field. Smart education is the inevitable choice of education from the traditional era to the digital era and even the future exponential era. With the opportunity of the conference “educational reform and innovation towards the era of smart education and academic thought of professor zhi-ting Zhu”, this paper summarizes the theoretical framework, development stage and future prospect of smart education. At the same time, it also points out the three stages in China. Through drawing the outline, we hope to grasp the overall situation of smart education and provide useful reference for the follow-up research.
STEM education originates from the pragmatic national policy of the U.S and aims to cultivate students' comprehensive competencies of 21st century skills such as problem solving abilities, innovation abilities and teamwork abilities through interdisciplinary learning. In recent years, while STEM education is flourishing in China, there are problems such as immature curriculum system, ineffective teaching design, and disjunction from STEM education to subject knowledge. In order to solve these problems, this research focuses on the key elements of the STEM curriculum - the design of the driving problem based on the engineering design process, discussed the structure and basic features of a problem, and analyzed relevant cases, . In the STEM curriculum. The driving problem based on the engineering design process should be ill-structured, closely related to the situation, dynastic, and have domain relevance. The three key elements of the problem—Givens, Obstacles, and Goals—can be transformed into key elements of the curriculum design through integration with the engineering design process. The implications of the design of driving problems based on the engineering design process on STEM education practice include: interdisciplinary team building, the alternative evaluation methods, and the STEM curriculum ecological community formed by multiple groups.
The concept of precision teaching has become an international consensus, and wisdom education environment generating huge amounts of multimodal learning also make data-driven precision teaching paradigm possible. However, there are still many challenges in the practice of using data to solve complex teaching problem, the breakthrough is to cultivate teachers’ data wisdom. This article answers three questions from the perspective of teachers’ data wisdom: what is it, how to cultivate it, and what are the influencing factors. First of all, data wisdom is the integration of teaching practice experience, data analysis skills and learning sciences. Its connotation lies in the progressive transformation from data to wisdom. On the basis of clarifying that the realization path of data wisdom is to master the cycle of data inquiry, this paper answers the question of “what” to cultivate, and constructs the cultivating path from pre-service to in-service. In the pre-service stage, we should weaken the discipline boundaries, reform the curriculum system, and create a “reality” learning environment. In the in-service stage, we should innovate training pattern, establish data practice community, and develop collective data wisdom in collaborative inquiry and reflective practice. Finally, considering that the cultivation of data wisdom is a complex and multi-lateral dynamic process, this paper analyzes the influencing factors and mechanism of data wisdom, provides a reference for the cultivation strategy of teachers' data wisdom, and puts forward the viewpoint of making good use of data wisdom.
How to accurately and personally diagnose and evaluate learners is an important issue in the era of smart education. At present, the main method of learning diagnosis is still to evaluate the students’ knowledge acquisition through exam scores, ignoring the evaluation of students’ cognitive ability. So, it is not in line with the value of smart education, which emphasizes both knowledge transfer and ability cultivation. Based on the Rasch model, this study explored a method for mining students’ cognitive ability via exam scores. Took the political course as an example, set up a monthly exam paper, and compiled a two-way specification table to mark the knowledge point attribute and cognitive ability attribute. The data of 195 students were collected and the Rasch model was used to analyze the knowledge of each student behind the scores and to determine the students’ achievement of each level of cognitive ability. At the same time, according to the analysis results, radar images were generated for visual output, and the normalization of student cognitive analysis in the blended classroom was realized. This study provided a new way of the accurate diagnosis in smart education.
“Computational thinking” has been an important indicator for evaluating students’ high-order thinking in K-12 education in recent years. It has common thinking modes with mathematics thinking in many fields such as problem-solving. Therefore, developing computational thinking in mathematics has become a global trend. A three-layer “PBL+CT” theoretical model in primary school mathematics to develop students’ computational thinking is built. In the model, the content layer is PISA-oriented and drives teaching through the problem, the teaching layer is the mathematical model of non-programming plugged that integrates with computational thinking elements and constructs the problem-solving teaching procedure, and the goal layer is of computational thinking in relevant to the six core skills of decomposition, abstraction, algorithmic thinking, critical thinking, problem-solving, and collaborative learning. The course How to Enclose the Largest Area in primary mathematics was taken as an example, specific teaching designs and implementations in terms of the theoretical model were conducted, and the effectiveness of the model was verified in this research. Classroom observations, questionnaires, self-assessments, and interviews were used to verify the effectiveness of the model in promoting the development of computational thinking in primary students. It is found that the “PBL+CT” teaching model in primary school mathematics can significantly cultivate students’ computational thinking, especially in the fields of decomposition, algorithmic thinking, and collaborative learning. Based on the results, the research further summarizes and reflects on the mathematics teaching of “PBL+CT” to promote the development of students’ computational thinking in primary school.
Involution is a kind of anxious state mixed superficial prosperity with virtual standstill in discipline development. Teacher education discipline just is at the critical point of discipline involution whose direct manifestations are false prosperity, superficial strength and blind scale expansion. Paradigm mutations of discipline constitutes fundamental principle to break the development path dependence of teacher education discipline, whose starting points are to select growth point, to activate the growth momentum and to deal with the internal and external relations of the discipline. Chinese teacher education discipline meets the new chances for discipline change of teacher education in which urgent social need, expanding researcher body while accumulating knowledge are expanding extremely. In future, the action strategies are as following, that is, activating hot discipline pints, tamping discipline basis, releasing discipline energy and purifying discipline matrix.
The governance of education has shifted from “management” to “governance”; from “project-based reform based on specific problems” to “systemic change based on system construction”, from “modernization of educational governance” to “modernization of high-level educational governance”, the concept, method and goal have been changed.In recent years, China has conducted many explorations in the process of education governance modernization and accumulated many useful experiences. The transformation of government functions has been further strengthened; the main body status of schools has become more prominent; and the ability of social organizations to participate has increased. But at the same time, the concept and awareness of education governance still need to be strengthened, the power boundary of education governance is blurred, the school self-sponsored learning mechanism needs to be improved, the participation channels of social organizations are not smooth, the participation mechanism is not perfect, and the education rule of law and education system system needs to be further improved.There is still a considerable gap between the advantages of education system and the effectiveness of educational governance. To promote the modernization of education governance at a high level, it is necessary to focus on providing education to the satisfaction of the people, to stimulate the vitality of all educational subjects, to transform the government’s functions, to improve the capacity and effectiveness of education governance, to deepen the reform of the combination of decentralization, management and service, to focus on decentralization and empowerment, to promote the separation of management, administration and evaluation as the basic requirements, to strengthen source governance, legal governance, coordinated governance, system governance, and intelligent governance.In order to achieve a revolutionary breakthrough, we will build a standardized, coordinated and efficient long-term governance mechanism.
There are some limitations in the compound structure of the right and obligation to receive education in the constitution, such as the proposition that the right and obligation are corresponding is not completely valid. The improper establishment and implementation of educational power may infringe upon the right to education. In the context of power differentiation, education power can be divided into public power and private power. Sorting out the logic of the establishment and implementation of different types of educational power may help us to define the protection scope of the right to education in different normative systems more systematically and scientifically. It is essential to use the concept of the division between the public and private spheres to treat the educational power, and allocate the protection and control mechanism commensurate with the risk of infringement on the right to education.
Achieving equity and quality is the goal of education policies in various countries. Governments at all levels in China always focus on the development of equity and quality in terms of education. Based on the data of China Education Panel Survey (CEPS), the study uses a hierarchical linear model to explore the relationship between the equity and quality of school education in junior middle school. The results indicate that: from the perspective of quality, after removing the influence of students’ background factors and school composition factors, the promotion effect of each school on the development of students’ cognitive ability is significantly different; from the perspective of fairness, the promotion effect of each school on the development of students of different genders and cognitive ability bases is different; from the perspective of relationship between the quality dimension and the fairness dimension, some schools not only has high performance in promoting the development of cognitive ability of students but also excels at reducing the cognitive gap between students of different gender or cognitive ability.This demonstrates that school education could balance equity and quality.
This report analyzes the Suzhou data in the SSES main study on 10-year-old and 15-year-old students’ social and emotional skills. The results show that 10-year-old students score higher on all 15 social and emotional skills than 15-year-old students. Among 10-year-old students, girls score higher on cooperation, empathy, sociability, persistence, and tolerance than boys. Except for tolerance, among 15-year-old students, boys score higher on other social and emotional skills than girls. Optimism is by far the most closely related ability to life satisfaction and psychological well-being, followed by energy and trust. Stress resilience and optimism are most closely related to students’ test anxiety. In general, sense of school belonging and teacher-student relationship are positively correlated with all 15 social and emotional skills, in particular with optimism, curiosity and cooperation. In contrast, school bullying is negatively correlated with all 15 social and emotional skills, in particular with emotion regulation (optimism, emotional control and stress resilience).
Task performance is an important part of social and emotional skills. Under the research framework of OECD, it includes three skills: self-control, responsibility and persistence. Based on the data of 10-year-old and 15-year-old students’ participation in OECD Social and Emotional Skills Study in Suzhou, the current paper presents the task performance results of Suzhou students by using descriptive statistics, difference test and regression analysis. The study finds that self-control, responsibility and persistence are significantly related to other skills, and there are significant differences in age and gender, between urban and rural areas, and between general high schools and vocational high schools. Task performance is significantly affected by the relevant factors of background, students, teachers, school and family. It has a significant impact on life outcome variables such as health, well-being, satisfaction, test anxiety, closeness to family and closeness to others. Based on the findings, we make several recommendations for school educators, policy makers and researchers.
Emotional regulation is an important part of social and emotional skills. Under the research framework of OECD, it includes three skills: stress resistance, optimism and emotional control. Based on the data of 10-year-old and 15-year-old students’ participation in OECD Social and Emotional Skills Study in Suzhou, this paper presents the emotional regulation performance of Suzhou students by using descriptive statistics, difference test and regression analysis. The study finds that stress resistance, optimism and emotional control are significantly related to other skills, and there are significant differences in age and gender, urban and rural areas. There is no significant difference between general high schools and vocational high schools. Emotional regulation is significantly affected by the relevant factors of background, students, teachers, school and family. It has a significant impact on life outcome variables such as health, well-being, satisfaction, test anxiety, closeness to family and closeness to others. Therefore, the relevant subjects should pay full attention to the cultivation of students’ emotional regulation, clarify their own roles, and choose the right path and strategy to promote the improvement of students’ emotional regulation.
Collaboration is an important part of social and emotional skills. Under the research framework of OECD, it includes three skills: empathy, trust and co-operation. Based on the data of 10-year-old and 15-year-old students’ participation in OECD Social and Emotional Skills Study in Suzhou, this paper presents the emotional regulation performance of Suzhou students by using descriptive statistics, difference test and regression analysis. The study finds that there are considerable gaps on collaboration scores with respect to age, gender, and location. There are 14 significantly positive predictors of students’ collaboration scores (home possessions, books at home, safety, friendship, well-behaved friends, daily activities indoor, daily activities outdoor, relationship with teachers, sense of belonging to school, climate co-operation, extracurricular activities, understanding mother, understanding father, and perfectionism parents), and two significantly negative predictors (daily activities online, problems with parents). Students’ collaboration scores are significantly positive predictors of four life outcome variables, including overall health, closeness to family, closeness to others, subjective wellbeing. Therefore, the cultivation of students’ collaboration should be given more scientific and accurate policy support.
Open-mindedness is one of the five dimensions of social and emotional skills under the research framework of OECD. It includes three skills: tolerance, curiosity and creativity. Based on the data of 10-year-old and 15-year-old students’ participation in OECD’s study on Social and Emotional Skills in Suzhou, this report presents the open-mindedness performance of Suzhou students by using descriptive statistics, difference test and regression analysis. The study finds that there are considerable gaps on open-mindedness scores with respect to age and gender, school location (urban vs. rural), and high school stream (general vs. vocational). Open-mindedness is significantly affected by background, student, teacher, school, and family-related factors; it has a significant impact on life outcome variables. Therefore, the cultivation of students’ open-mindedness needs more scientific and accurate policy support.
This study uses the data from the OECD youth social and emotional skills assessment in Suzhou, China as the data source to present one dimension of the social and emotional skills survey about engaging with others. The results show that there is a significant medium correlation between engaging with others and other dimensions of social and emotional skills. There are significant differences in engaging with others among students of different ages, genders, schools and regions. Also, students’ engaging with others is significantly affected by students’ safe feelings and peer relationship, family background, teachers and school factors. Engaging with others has a significant impact on the life outcome variables of different groups of students. Therefore, the research results deliver some implications. First, intimate peer relationship is essential for improving students’ engaging with others. Second, harmonious teacher-student relationship is an important guarantee to promote students’ engaging with others. Third, good school atmosphere is the key to improving students’ engaging with others. Finally, positive family education is an important foundation for developing students’ engaging with others.
This technical report presents the analysis of Suzhou data in the SSES main study and the assessment of psychometric properties of items and scales that involve a series of iterative modelling and analysis steps. These steps included the calculation of Alpha and Omega to evalute the subscales’ relibiabilities; the application of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to evaluate constructs; multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) to review measurement equivalence across groups (age cohorts and gender groups); and using the Item Response Theory (IRT) and Generalised Partial Credit Model (GPCM) to scale items and generate scores for study participants.
Since 1980s, the common problems faced by the public schools around the world have enhanced a wave of re-building public schools worldwide, among which, marketization and privatization are the main ideas. At the same time, a process of reforming public school system has also started in China. How to understand the national and civil nature of public schools, how to fully state the characteristics of public schools are the fundamental problems of the reform. Simplifying the administrative procedures and delegating powers to lower levels, as well as building an education system adapting to socialist marketing system, would be the two important issues of reform, behind which, there is a possibility of exploring a modern school system beside the government. During the reform, because of the conflict of interests, past values, and cognition of social status, some schools went wrong direction, for examples, chaos of the teaching order, and the education inequities. The end of public school reform shows that education reform should understand the goodness of education, deal with the relationships of education and market, and stick to the public responsibility of public schools.
The development of pedagogy at East China Normal University has presented us with a magnificent historical picture, which enables us to clearly grasp the developmental trajectory and innovation progress in People’s Republic of China. In the construction of educational knowledge, it reflects the shift from the sinicization of pedagogy to Chinese pedagogy. In the aspect of educational practice, it has gone through a process from experience generalization to theory production. In the service of national policy making, it has undergone a shift from evidence-informed government to evidence-driven policy making. In the term of leading the academic frontier, it has a shift from gearing to international standard to tell the story of Chinese education.
The spirit of “teacher-student cooperation” has been closely linked to the university’s specific practices since its founding, and has been enriched and given new meaning as the times have changed. Based on the spirit of cooperation between teachers and students, Great China University used the mentorship system as an institutional practice that helped the university survive various tests. The “teacher-student cooperation” combines the essence of the traditional academy with the modern university system, which can provide direct ideological resources for the modernization of the university governance system, and is an inspiration for the establishment of a harmonious teacher-student relationship and the reform of the school system at present.
Guanghua University was born in the May 30th Movement in 1925. It was combined with the Great University of China as East China Normal University in 1951. Before the Anti-Japanese War, with the efforts of president Zhang Shouyong and Qian Jibo, Dean of the College of Arts, the Department of Chinese literature of Guanghua University made remarkable achievements in talent training and became an important town for the teaching and research of Sinology. Of course, limited by subjective and objective conditions, the Department of Chinese literature of Guanghua university had some problems, such as inability to set up research institutes, insufficient degree of discipline specialization, limited academic communication circle between teachers and students, which affected the further development of the discipline. Reviewing the teaching and research of the Department of Chinese literature of Guanghua University, such as the misplaced development of disciplines, emphasis on Sinology education, broken boundaries inside and outside the classroom, has guiding significance for the discipline and academy construction of Universities.
The relationship between normality and scholarship is an important issue in the history of higher education about the running of normal universities and teacher education. The combination of normal and academic nature is rooted in the tradition of running schools from Kwang Hua University, The Great China University to East China Normal University (ECNU). It is one of the fruitful and important explorations in the early stage of ECNU. In order to meet the needs of the development of national education, ECNU has completed its normal orientation as an independent normal university through the merger and establishment of private universities and the adjustment of colleges and departments. At the same time, it has completed the shaping of normal nature through measures such as leadership arrangement, ideological transformation and reformation of the training mode. The leader’s idea of a university, the guidance of Soviet experts and the task of teacher training in normal universities prompts ECNU to set up the research department, establish a series of journals and publishing houses in time. It provides platform guarantee and ensures that the academic nature can be established. After the great discussion on the direction of running normal universities, the equal emphasis on normal and academic has been established gradually. Under this concept, ECNU improves teachers’ education level and moves towards the road of subject integration by revising training objectives, exploring and extending the school system, expanding teacher training forms, adding special groups and new majors, and establishing a series of scientific research institutions. The historical exploration of normality and scholarship in the early stage of the school lays the foundation for ECNU’s idea of “unification of normal and academic” in the 1980s. It also has important enlightenment for normal universities on how to deal with the challenge of running teacher education in high-level comprehensive universities.
Phenomenology is a kind of modern philosophy that tries to return to classical rationality and reshape the meaning of human existence. Phenomenology has the characteristics of revolutionary, critical and liberating. It liberates the world and self, reviews people’s understanding of the relationship between themselves and the world, and redefines freedom and responsibility. The problem consciousness of phenomenology is the cover and appearance of self, and its historical mission is to liberate self. Phenomenology not only constructs “a certain” philosophy of education through “Revelation”, but also regards education as political and ethical activities, emancipates the mind, publicizes the freedom of ideas, regards the educators and the educated in the educational activities as the undertakers of truth and freedom, and profoundly changes our understanding of education. Phenomenology itself has a profound nature of education. Phenomenology is the philosophy of education.
Along with the increased level of competition for academic publication, there is a growing debate about the preference for insider manuscripts in academic journals, however, there has been no empirical research to discuss the effect of insider manuscripts on the quality and influence of academic papers in educational research. This study is based on data of 923, 901 papers published in educational academic research journals in mainland China from 2001 to 2019 and textual evidence from 80 interviewees, based on the framework of “cost-benefit” mechanism, rational decision-making perspective and the concept of transaction cost, a research hypothesis and two research assumptions on the effect of insider characteristic on the quality and influence of academic papers are proposed and verified by the combination of quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis of mixed research pattern. The study found that (1) the influence and quality of insider manuscripts are better than that of outsiders in most “Period * Catalog * Download/Cite” sections. (2) From far to near, the insider effect has a different trend in different plates, the effect in CSSCI changed from negative to positive, in CSSCI-E and PKU-CCJ changed from positive to negative, fluctuates in general journals. (3) There is a mediating/indirect effect of the influence of insider characteristic on the total utility of quality, the mediating/indirect effect varies by section, and there is a masking effect, attention should be paid to the mediating/indirect effect of influence on value discovery. (4) The insider characteristic in the middle and low range has more negative effect than that of the middle and high range, the insider characteristic in the middle and high range shows more positive effect than that in the middle and low range. (5) In terms of quality and influence, the fake insider characteristic of outsider characteristic show a downward trend compared with that of insider characteristic, but better than real outsider characteristic, it is not simply a negative definition of monopoly. (6) The opinions of academic journals, reviewers and paper authors on insider manuscripts and their corresponding actions are obviously different with the individual's internal characteristic and external environment. Synthesizing the above analysis, this study argues that it is not possible to simply identify that insider manuscripts with insider characteristic significantly reduce the quality and influence of academic papers, which needs to be analyzed on a case-by-case basis. At the same time, when the characteristic of insider help academic journals to reduce transaction costs with paper authors, the contribution proportion of insider increases in the middle and low sections and decreases in the middle and high sections as the cost, and such cost varies with different sections. Based on the above research results, this study puts forward suggestions on strengthening internal processes, improving decision-making performance and improving quality and influence from the perspective of procedural and substantive fairness for academic journals, and puts forward suggestions on enhancing research level and building professional reputation for paper authors.
Science Philanthropy, which began in the mid-19th century, plays an indispensable role in US research universities. Before World War II, science philanthropy played a key role in the rising of American research universities, the cultivation of scientific talents and the development of disciplines, which made up for the lack of government funding. After World War II, in view of the contribution of university scientific research to the war, there was a strong sense of federal funding to university scientific research, thus federal funding was emerged in research universities more and more. The role of the federal government was highlighted, which obscured the shine of science philanthropy. However, science philanthropy still plays an important role in the development of research universities in the United States. It is a supplement of research funds, an enabler of breaking research development and a supporter of cutting-edge knowledge. And it promotes the development of American research universities together with the federal government.
The independence of education law is not confirmed by the characteristics of the legal branch; on the contrary, the independence of the education law confirms that the education law can be regarded as an independent department law. The independence of education law is determined by the typological characteristics of education law, which is the narrow sense of educational legal relationship, which belongs to the core category of education law. In the stage of the continuous development of education law, it is necessary to focus on the legal relationship of narrow sense education, highlight the research on the nodal issues, and focus on the joint and detail issues of the education law with the legal relationship of narrow sense education and its embodied educational value. Then, we should construct the system of education law, form the order of education law, stabilize the scope of education law, and ensure the independence of education law.
Since the beginning of the new century, New Education Initiative has clung to various value criteria such as persisting idealism, in-depth field consciousness, cooperative attitude of living together, and compassionate public welfare. Taking teacher growth as the logical starting point, “Ten Actions” incorporating building a scholarly campus and related courses as the path, and helping members of the new education community “live a happy life full of education” as the goal, New Education Experiment has undergone fruitful exploration. In the past two decades, some educational philosophy and actions proposed by New Education Initiative including “teacher growth model” and “creating a scholarly campus” have played a vital role in promoting teacher professional development, building a society with reading atmosphere, and facilitating mutual education among families, schools, communities and governments. They have also made positive contributions to giving impetus to the combination of educational theory and practice, combating educational alienation, returning to the essence of education, and improving the regional education ecology on a large scale. Looking forward to the future, we will continue to consummate the curriculum system, build up trial future learning centres, explore the teacher training system, strive to make New Education Initiative as a banner of quality-oriented education and become a new school of education rooted in China.
As a basic accomplishment for children to face, adapt to the future and transform the future, programming has been constantly paid more and more attention to and attached importance to. However, how much educational value it has, for this reason, many scholars have carried out a large number of experiments and quasi-experimental studies based on the individual development of children, but the results are not the same. The question of whether programming can actually promote the individual development of children remains a subject of academic debate. Based on this, this study uses the meta-analysis method to quantitatively analyze 28 foreign experiments and quasi-experimental studies on the influence of programming on the individual development of children. It is found that: (1) overall, the combined effect size of the included studies is 0.61, which is in the upper-middle level, indicating that programming can positively promote the individual development of children; (2) specifically, programming can significantly and positively promote students’ cognitive development, behavioral development and emotional development; (3) compared with primary schools and preschools, programming plays a more prominent role in children’s separate development in middle schools; (4) compared with medium-term and long-term programming activities, short-term programming activities have a more significant promoting effect on children’s individual development; (5) programming has a greater effect on children’s individual development in small-scale samples than in medium and large samples; (6) different programming forms have different effects, among which unplugged programming has a more significant effect on children’s individual development. Based on the findings of the research conclusions, it is expected to provide reference for the future research and practice of programming for children in China.
Written speech is a well-organized form of speech. It requires children to conduct thoughtful analysis, which is a complex and deeper thinking activity. This study uses the writing samples of 1,800 elementary school students in China as a sample to analyze the causal expression characteristics of children, and to explore the development characteristics of children’s causal logical thinking. The study found that: (1) although children’s use of causal expressions increase with grades, each grade shows different characteristics. (2) Facing causal expression of different cognitive complexity, children tend to use descriptive causal expression in writing. (3) There is a “fifth grade phenomenon” in the use of causal expression, that is, fifth grade children are more sensitive to causal logic expression. Based on the above research findings, we have put forward some suggestions for the literacy education of primary school students in China.
Deeper learning quality includes individual learners, groups and deeper learning system. On the one hand, it is highly recognized by theoretical research; on the other hand, the difficulty of evaluation hinders in-depth research and classroom practice. Schema and SOLO theory provide a psychological basis for deeper learning evaluation, while the thinking visualization technology provides evaluation tools, so the learning thinking visualization system is designed and developed, including learning strategy software, cognitive structure software and PDA products. Using the developed evaluation system, the study diagnosed the math learning of more than 4,000 primary school students in S (east China), C (northeast China), W (central China) and K (southwest China). Through the analysis of a large amount of data, three conclusions are drawn: first, learning strategy and cognitive structure can be used as the effect quantity of deeper learning quality; second, the visualization system of learning thinking is effective in evaluating deeper learning; third, deeper learning classroom should be improved from the following three aspects: (1) learning content, we should pay attention to the integration of subject content, learning strategy and cognitive structure; (2) learning mode, we should focus on the operation mode and the structure of personalized learning and cooperative learning; (3) thinking quality, we should pay attention to the construction and generation of complex schema. The development and application of deeper learning quality evaluation tools will effectively improve the operability of deeper learning implementation.
The crisis of modernity has its causes, which is manifested in education. The solution should focus and reflect on issues such as the right and wrong of subjectivity and subject education, the arrogation of instrumental rationality over value rationality, the return to value rationality from instrumental rationality, global absorption and adherence to localization and the question whether information technology reforms education by supporting or leading it. In order to eliminate the crisis of modernity, education modernization should hold the basic attitude of both compatibility and enhancement to classical modernity, and crack it with the idea and action of sustainable development. On the conceptual level, cultural philosophy should be used for reflection; on the institutional level, the governance system and governance capacity should be enhanced simultaneously; on the technical level, the value fusion between people and things should be improved. What is the sustainable way to promote the modernization of education? This paper discusses the solutions from three aspects: one region one pattern, one school one plan and one person one “niche”, which means integrating the concept of sustainable development into the regional index system of education modernization, leading schools to develop characteristics with the school modernization standards, and creating a colorful, warm and friendly “niche” for every teacher and student.
The education index under the framework of the human development index (HDI) is one of the three sub-indexes of the human development index compiled by the United Nations Development Programme. It is widely used in the comparative study of the international educational development level. According to the latest compilation method of education index under HDI framework, the paper calculates China’s education index from 1990 to 2018, and makes relevant international comparative analysis and comparative analysis of domestic regions. Calculation and analysis found that: vertically, China’s educational development has achieved remarkable results; horizontal comparison found that China’s education development still has a long way to go. Analysis of various regions in China found that the low level of education development in the western region is the main reason for the low level of education development in China. This paper puts forward some policy suggestions.
In the context of global economic globalization, international talent demand has become one of the weathervanes of talent training in colleges and universities. Can Chinese college graduates meet the expectations of multinational companies after they join them? With this question as the starting point and 218 German Enterprises in China as the research samples, this study investigates the basic employment situation, ability development situation, especially the differences of enterprises’ expectations on them and their realization of Chinese college graduates who have been employed in these companies for 1—5 years. The research results show that Chinese college graduates generally receive more recognition in terms of hard power, such as subject knowledge or professional skills, but fall far short of the requirements of enterprises in terms of soft power, such as social skills and personal qualities. According to the results, combining to 30 German business work in China’s college graduates interview, this study put forward some suggestions on the cultivation of Chinese university way, including speeding up improve education level of vocational education in our country, accelerate the process of curriculum reform, build campus is advantageous to the comprehensive quality of ascension, and improve college students’ employment guidance of professional standards
In civil law countries, the disciplinary system for study of education law takes the application of legal concepts in education field as the logical starting point, education law, education legal phenomena and its regularity as the research objects, the education law regulating educational order and adjusting rights and obligations of educational subjects in legal relations and the doctrinal logic as the analytical framework, the interaction between government-led educational reform and the legal system as the main line of attention, and theoretical difficulties in judicial disputes as guidelines for problems. In common law countries, the disciplinary system heavily depends on how individuals, as holders of rights, use legal concepts and modes of inference to resolve disputes and protect rights through legal techniques. In common law countries, the disciplinary system of educational jurisprudence depends heavily on how individuals, as holders of rights, use legal concepts and modes of inference to resolve disputes and protect rights through legal techniques. The orientation for study of education law requires a priority focus on a functional rather than a disciplinary orientation. The disciplinary system for study of education law is a knowledge and theory paradigm for studying and constructing a complete educational legal system based on the system of rights and obligations and the system of types and structures. Its scientificity requires an in-depth study of the basic theories and fundamental issues of the discipline, and its applicability needs to pay attention to the relevant problems that constantly arise in the reality inside and outside the education field.
Saturation has become an important criterion to judge the quality of qualitative research and explain the rationality of sample size. This paper systematically and critically reviews the literature and introduces three types of saturation: theoretical saturation, thematical saturation and data saturation and points out that researchers should consider their own overall research design to decide which model to adopt. The paper also introduces three ways to record the process of saturation. Among them, the structural coding book is more suitable for recording deductive thematical saturation and data saturation. There are two types of saturation tables which are more suitable for recording a prior thematical saturation. The conceptual depth scale is particularly suitable for recording theoretical saturation. This paper points out that saturation is a process rather than an event. Quality rather than quantity is the key to understand saturation. Saturation itself should be a concrete methodology practice. Researchers should pay attention to the concept of saturation and make a clear statement of the process of achieving saturation, which can help to improve the standardization, transparency, quality and recognition of qualitative research.
This article argues that social responsibility is one of the core characteristics of top-notch talents. At the very beginning, the article clarifies the necessity of cultivating social responsibility for top-notch talents. Then, the article analyzes the profound connotation and important elements of top-notch talents’ social responsibility based on the relative theories and models. Furthermore, the article analyzes the relationship between social responsibility and other characteristics crucial to the top-notch talents’ development. In the end, the article puts forward suggestions and guidance on the cultivation of top-notch talents’ social responsibility so that the programs and services can be enhanced.
With the “new generation returnees” of the post-80s and post-90s returning to China for development, their employment quality have attracted widespread attention. The paper takes socio-demographic background, education abroad, job search at home into account and analyzes how their contained factors affect Chinese returnees’ employment quality (objective side and subjective side). 203 Chinese returnees who returned to China within three years participated in this study and filled out a questionnaire. Based on ordinal logistic regression, the study found that return time, form of study abroad, area of study abroad, length of study abroad, degree, job search intensity, number of interviews, area of the working and sector type affect objective employment quality (i.e., average monthly income), while one child or not, degree, return time, form of study abroad, re-entry adaption, the time of getting the first job, number of interviews, number of offers, area of the working, sector type as well as objective employment quality affect subjective employment quality (i.e., job–person fit match, job satisfaction as well as turnover intention). In addition, by forming a multi-level directional relationship with Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM), the paper found that socio-demographic and part of the educational experience abroad play an underlying role in the employment quality model; educational outcome abroad (such as degree and re-entry adaption, etc.) are indirect factor at the middle level; job search at home is directly related to the quality of job employment. The results are analyzed and recommendations to promote high-quality job quality are made.
The development of education should be forward-looking. Under the guidance of China’s Education Modernization 2035 Plan, it is necessary to conduct research on the change of the school-age population and the allocation of educational resources during the period of 2020—2035. The queue element method based on Leslie matrix and interview were adopted to predict the number of students, schools, teachers and the required funds of compulsory education during the period of 2020—2035. The results showed that: compared with 2020, the total number of students in compulsory education will drop by 30 million in 2035. Based on the current school size, 5,000 new primary schools should be built until 2026, with 4,000 new middle schools should be built until 2030. A large number of primary schools in rural areas will lie idle (37.3 thousand); Based on the current teacher-student ratio, the demand for full-time teachers in compulsory education is decreasing, with a surplus of about 1.49 million primary school teachers and 370 thousand junior high school teachers. In 2031, the number of compulsory education students in urban areas will exceed that in townships, and compulsory education will generally enter an era dominated by urban education. The transfer of students from rural areas to townships and urban areas should be fully considered, while it is suggested to plan the distribution of schools scientifically, improve the school-running standards, reduce the student-teacher ratio and the class size, optimize the allocation of teacher resources between preschool, nursery education and compulsory education.
The supervisor-postgraduate relationship plays a role in the quality of postgraduate education. The mode of supervisor-postgraduate relationship is moving from unity to diversity. Existent literature tends to conceptualize the supervisor and postgraduate as particular roles respectively and thus construct their relationship. This study attempts to move beyond the above literature focusing on the role play in constructing supervisor-postgraduate relationship and look at their relationship from an interpersonal perspective. Drawing upon Leary’s interpersonal circle constructed by Influence and Proximity as two axes, the study explores how these two dimensions are evaluated by both supervisors and postgraduates and thereafter types of supervisor-postgraduate relationship generated from the two axes, and the correlations between types of supervisor- postgraduate relationship and supervisors as well as students’ backgrounds, interaction, and the surrounding climate and conditions. Our study surveyed 3,903 supervisors and 865 postgraduates, and found that the supervisor-postgraduate relationship largely fell into the category of “equal and close” one, with “slightly equal but distant” one and “highly authoritative and distant” one co-existing. However, there seem poor correlations between different types of supervisor-postgraduate relationship and supervisors and students’ backgrounds; certain frequency and length of interaction seem to more correlate with “highly equal and close” supervisor-postgraduate relationship; and for postgraduate students, supportive climate and conditions regarding funding and wellbeing appear to more correlate with “equal and close” supervisor-postgraduate relationship.
The innovative and entrepreneurial university is artificially shaped based on the needs of economic and social development and the change of university development paradigm, and its formation needs the internal and external conditions. The external conditions mainly refer to the economic and technological paradigm of society, while the internal conditions mainly refer to the development paradigm of universities. For the establishment of innovative and entrepreneurial universities, external conditions play a decisive role, but this decisive role can only be realized based on the corresponding internal conditions. In this process, we should not only avoid bureaucratization of innovation and entrepreneurship and excessive utilitarianism, but also reasonably adjust the service boundary of universities and update the governance structure and organizational culture of universities.
The purpose of labor education in colleges and universities is to foster morality and cultivate socialist builders and successors.This requires the integration of public welfare elements, the promotion of the ideological and political value of labor education with the public concept of public welfare for everyone, the realization of high-level labor education by facing the real environment and innovative learning methods, and the cultivation of learners’ charity personality to promote the all-round development of people. This research, based on the experience and analysis of the “East China Normal University Zijiang Public Welfare Talent Training Project”; explores the goals, methods and ways of incorporating public welfare elements into labor education, and builds a public welfare labor education system to make labor education goals more specific, educational forms more diversified and more adequate resource carriers, to enhance the effectiveness of cultivation. The construction of the labor education system should draw on the achievements of voluntary public welfare education, improve the traditional labor education model through the cultivation of public welfare personality. Also, it should absorb and transform teachers, courses, interest clubs and practice bases to meet the requirements of labor education; effectively rely on curriculum, applied courses, and frontier courses, explicit courses of cutting-edge courses; combined with practical courses of student associations, public welfare services, and public welfare innovation, explore and improve new evaluation methods, build a linkage and radiation mechanism for public welfare labor and education bases inside and outside the university.
Chen Bochui made important contribution to Chinese textbooks, especially to primary school Chinese textbooks. Between the 1930s and 1950s, he successively worked in Beixin Bookstore, Children Publishing House, National Institute for Compilation and Translation, People’s Education Press, when he compiled multiple textbooks and teaching references, such as Beixin Mandarin Textbooks (1932), Renaissance Mandarin Textbook (1934), National Mandarin Common Sense Textbook for Primary School (1943), Mandarin Textbooks for Senior Primary Schools (1945), Mandarin Textbooks for Junior Primary Schools (1955), the first national textbook of the People’s Republic, and Mandarin Textbooks for Senior Primary Schools (1957), etc. Besides, he made intensive study on primary school textbooks and Chinese textbooks. His research was concerned on definition, meaning, purpose, types, compilation principles, preparation methods of textboosk, relationship between textbooks and Children’s reading and his textbook ideas is original, systematical, theory integrated with practice.