The models used in Latent Class Analysis and Latent Profile Analysis are collectively referred to as latent class models, a kind of statistical methods of classifying individuals according to their different response patterns in observation indicators, so as to identify population heterogeneity. It has attracted increasing attention from applied researchers in the fields of pedagogy, psychology, and other social science disciplines. However, it is not easy for most education researchers to understand the existing Chinese literature on the statistical principles and analytical procedures of such models. This paper systematically introduces the basic knowledge, statistical principles, analytical procedures and Mplus programs of latent class models, and clarifies various methods and selection strategies involved in the subsequent analysis of these models. It would help applied researchers enhance their understanding of the principles and methods of the latent class models, and promote the application of these models to educational research.
Based on individual-center perspective, 716 middle school teachers were selected to explore the latent profile of their emotional labor strategies (surface acting, deep acting, and nature acting) with the latent profile analysis technique (LPA), and the relationships between these latent profiles and the indicators of teachers’ well-being were tested. The result showed, first, there were four potential profiles, namely, the high level of emotional labor group, the medium level of emotional labor group, the natural sincere group, and the low level of emotional labor group. Second, gender, ethnic, marital status, teaching age, school type, class types were related to profile groups of emotional labor strategies. Third, these four profile groups of teachers had significantly differences in the indicators of teachers’ well-being. Middle school teachers’ emotional labor performance and group division were further discussed from the individual-centered perspective.The study provided theoretical basis and practical reference for guiding middle school teachers to adopt appropriate emotional labor strategies and to improve their vocational well-being.
Parental control refers to a relatively stable behavior pattern used by parents to control and manage their children in the process of parenting activities, which has an important and direct influence on the psychological development and social adaptation of children and adolescents. This study explored the profiles of parental control, transformational characteristics and its impact on adaptation among Chinese adolescents based on a longitudinal study and a person-centered approach. The main findings are as follows. First, the parental control of Chinese parents is heterogeneous with three profiles: low-medium control (i.e., low psychological control-medium behavior control, and so on), medium-medium control and high-high control. The proportion of parents in the medium-medium control group was the highest at the two time points, which were about 60 percent and 50 percent respectively. Second, the profiles of parental control change as time passes. From the first grade to the second grade of junior middle school, there were about 70 percent of parental control profiles remaining stable and around 30 percent mainly changing to adjacent profiles. If the profile of medium-medium control is not maintained in the first grade, it will be more likely to become high-high control. Third, the profiles of parental control have significant effects on adolescents’ adaptation (including subjective well-being, Internet addiction and parent-child conflict). Above all, this study lays a foundation for empirical research on the precise intervention of different profiles of parental control.
The current study investigated whether there were distinct subgroups of rural children who experienced different forms of aggression and victimization using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA), and whether these subgroups differed from one another in their different levels of school adaptation. Participants were children in grades 4-6 from rural central primary schools. It showed that, first, four subgroups were identified, including “high aggression-victimization subgroup” “high victimization subgroup” “medium aggression-victimization subgroup” and “low involvement subgroup”. Second, there was high degree of co-occurrence among four subgroups of aggression and victimization. Except the “high aggression-victimization subgroup”, all subgroups showed that indirect aggression was higher than direct aggression, and indirect victimization was higher than direct victimization. Third, there were significant differences in gender, grade and boarding status among different subgroups. Boys, lower grade and boarding students were more likely to be involved in school victimization. Fourth, in terms of school adaption, the scores of positive and negative emotions in “high aggression-victimization subgroup” were significantly higher than those in other subgroups. However, the scores of interpersonal relationship and academic achievement of “low involvement subgroup” were significantly better than those of other subgroups. Therefore, we should pay more attention to rural schools, pay attention to rural primary school students who are in “high aggression-victimization subgroup”, and carry out targeted intervention and prevention according to the characteristics of different subgroups and students' adaptation.
It is both theoretically and practically important to investigate the types and features of parental involvement and their relationships with secondary school students’ subject literacy. Using the data of Hong Kong and Macao in PISA 2018, this study conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) to identify four different latent classes of parental involvement. We then used the robust three step method (R3STEP）and BCH respectively to test how covariates such as region, student gender, and grade contributed to the classification of parental involvement and how different classes of parental involvement were related to students’ mathematics literacy, reading literacy, science literacy, and global competence. The results showed that (a) region, student gender, grade, family ESCS, and parents’ expectation of their child’s educational level were significantly related to, while the gender of parents/guardians who filled the questionnaire was not significantly related to the classification of parental involvement; (b) students of different parental involvement classes were in general found to be significantly different from each other in terms of their subject literacy. Specifically, students of Class 1 (Low Involvement Class, C1, 39.1%) were found to have the highest average scores in mathematics literacy, reading literacy, and science literacy, but not in global competence. Students of Class 2 (Busy and High Involvement Class, C2, 33.3%) were found to have slightly higher average scores in reading literacy than those of class 3 (Comprehensive and High Involvement Class, C3, 23.1%), but have lower performance in mathematics literacy, science literacy, and global competence than those of Class 3. Students of Class 4 (Limited and Moderate Involvement Class, C4, 4.5%) were found to have the lowest average scores in mathematics literacy, reading literacy, and science literacy, but have better performance in global competence.
This research takes the application and review mechanism of labor contract research assistant position in a “985” university as the starting point, adopts the method of qualitative research, and selects four types of stakeholders: the university, schools, professors and research assistants to conduct interviews to explore their positions, motivations and demands of the three parties in the employment of scientific research assistants. It also analyzes the reform of the scientific research process under the “Principal Investigator System” in the university. The study found that the employment of scientific research assistants reflected the new pattern of scientific research process established by universities with “PI team” as a typical institutional feature. The whole-process audit system for the scientific research process intensifies the competition among professors. Through the labor contract system hiring scientific research assistants not only changes the composition of the scientific research team, but also hinders the academic cooperation required in the knowledge production process. Multi-stakeholders need to make expedient adjustments and changes in scientific research management methods under the new situation.
There are two myths in contemporary higher education reform: one is to create a world-class university, and the other is to strengthen the university to serve economic development. Facts have proved that the world-class is only a ranking game for a few universities and is not suitable for the development guide of all universities. Similarly, there is also a non-deterministic causal relationship between universities and innovation-driven development. The success of innovation and entrepreneurship of individual universities does not mean the general rules. In the reform of higher education, either becoming a world-class or promoting economic development is an unbearable task for universities as a kind of organization. The future reform of higher education should focus on long-term common interests rather than short-term utilitarian goals. Through the “subversive innovation” of the old system, it should be freed from the myth of academic championship and knowledge economy, so as to lay an institutional foundation for the sustainable development of universities in our era.
Situation is the product of interaction. Interaction and mobility are the essential attributes of situation. Learning takes place in specific situations, which affect people and learning. People in learning create continuous situations. Situational learning refers to the process in which learners experience the growth of experience by fully interacting with the situation around the learning theme, which emphasizes the maximization of the use of information and factors in the situation. Situational learning can build complex situations for the cultivation of students’ literacy, facilitate students’ independent participation, promote the development of high-level complex mind and nourish the cultivation of literacy. The situational learning that points to the cultivation of literacy needs to be realized by relying on grand concept and swarm intelligence. Structuring the situation with grand concept and constructing swarm intelligence in interaction are the key to the implementation of situational learning.
The paper investigates the first batch of modern apprenticeship pilot city and vocational school carried out by the Ministry of Education in Zhejiang Province. Based on structured interviews with 89 enterprises, 103 questionnaires were obtained, which determined the enterprises’ motivation, behavior and non-monetary benefit for participating in modern apprenticeship. A structural equation of “motivation-behavior-non-monetary benefit” model is constructed and verified by the empirical data. The logical relationship and influence mechanism between motivation, behavior and non-monetary benefit is analyzed. The results show that motivation has a significant positive impact on behavior and non-monetary benefit, but behavior has no significant effect on non-monetary benefit, and the mediating effect of behavior from motivation to non-monetary benefit is not obvious. The vocational school and enterprise should unblock information channels, improve motivational matching, and promote school-enterprise resource sharing. The government should guarantee the benefits of enterprises by formulating targeted policies to enhance their dominant position. Vocational schools and enterprises should improve the cooperation mechanism, regulate the communication, and improve the quality of apprenticeship training. Also, they should build an exchange platform to strengthen the exchange between master and apprentice, and form a cooperative apprenticeship training mechanism.
"Who is the student?" is one of the fundamental problems of education. Classical educational philosophers and modern educational philosophers give different answers. Classical educational philosophers, starting from the teleology of nature, thought that students were the few who were born outstanding. In his criticism of the wise school’s view of students, Plato clearly explained the classical view of students. Modern educational philosophers, on the other hand, think that students are all created equal from the perspective of unnatural teleology. As a modern educational philosopher, Locke’s view of students seems to be opposite to Rousseau’s, but in fact it is the same. Both of them insist on equality and aimlessness. For modern education, on the one hand, we should adhere to the equal student view, but at the same time, we should be aware of the nothingness of life contained in academic competition and student personality, so we need to activate the classical student view and perfect the modern student view in understanding and dialogue.
Interdisciplinary instruction competency is the fundamental driving force for teachers to carry out interdisciplinary teaching practice activities. Interdisciplinary instruction competency evaluation is an important tool and necessary means to guide and promote teachers to develop interdisciplinary instruction competency. By clarifying the connotation and characteristics of teachers’ interdisciplinary instruction competency, this paper constructs the interdisciplinary instruction competency evaluation index system of primary and secondary school teachers, and uses Delphi method and analytic hierarchy process to form a three-dimensional evaluation model of teacher interdisciplinary instruction competency with weight coefficient value, which integrates interdisciplinary teaching knowledge, interdisciplinary teaching ability and interdisciplinary teaching affection. Through empirical test, combined with the current level of interdisciplinary instruction competency of primary and secondary school teachers in China, this paper puts forward the development path of teachers’ endogenous interdisciplinary instruction competency, that is, to understand the interdisciplinary teaching concept and enhance the interdisciplinary teaching sentiment and liberal consciousness, to deepen interdisciplinary teaching practice and temper interdisciplinary teaching ability and cross-border thinking, and to strengthen the communication between subject teachers and develop interdisciplinary teaching community and organizational culture.
Based on the administrative data of ten cohorts of doctoral graduates of a “double first-class” construction university in China, this paper examines whether there exists the discrimination of educational background for “Gold Bachelor, Silver Master and Bronze Doctor” when looking for an academic career and draws the following conclusions. First, overall “Gold Bachelor”, “Silver Master” and “Bronze Doctor” are not effective labels that reflect doctoral graduates’ research ability: there is no significant difference in various research ablity indicators among these three types of doctoral graduates majoring in humanities and social sciences, while only the impact factors of English papers of “Gold Bachelor” and “Silver Master” are significantly higher than “Bronze Doctor” with science and engineering majors. Second, doctoral graduates of “Gold Bachelor”, “Silver Master” and “Bronze Doctor” have significantly different opportunities in acquiring academic careers, which to a certain extent, reflects the discrimination of educational background. The probability of pursuing postdoctor positions for a “Bronze Doctor” majoring in science and engineering is significantly higher, while the probability of obtaining faculty positions in a more selective university for a “Gold Bachelor” majoring in humanities and social sciences is significantly higher.
Online knowledge sharing is the key link of individual development in the digital age. Postgraduates are the core members of the future knowledge society. Exploring the factors affecting their online knowledge sharing behavior is of positive significance to promote postgraduates to enjoy digital dividends fairly and contribute to the construction of Digital China. However, the existing literature lacks attention to this topic. This study examines factors resulting in postgraduates differentiated online knowledge sharing behavior from two dimensions – social structure and individual ability. The results of the questionnaire survey of 501 postgraduates show that: first, structural factors (gender, school type, location, father’s occupation, and father’s education) have a significant impact on postgraduates’ online knowledge sharing behavior. These also have a greater impact on the quality of online knowledge sharing than in a quantity sense. Second, individual ability factors (information literacy) also have a significant impact on postgraduates’ online knowledge sharing behavior. It has a greater impact on the quantity of online knowledge sharing than in a quality sense. Third, there is Matthew effect in the Internet context, and certain effects of structural factors on online knowledge sharing behavior are indirectly generated through individual ability factors. Participants with privileged status regarding structural factors show a higher level of information literacy, which encourages them to be more active in online knowledge sharing behavior and facilitates their high-quality production.
Based on data from four high-performing regions in PISA2018, this study explores student and school factors that affect students’ global competence with the help of hierarchical linear models. The study found that: family socioeconomic status, multilingual capability and reading interest have different degrees of predictive effect on students’ global competence; school mean ESCS has a positive predictive effect on students’ global competence in four places, while multicultural learning opportunities and globalization curriculum have no significant effect on students’ global competence. Teachers’ multicultural beliefs only had a predictive effect on Singaporean students’ global competence; school mean ESCS and teachers’ multicultural beliefs could moderate the relationship between students’ reading interest, family socioeconomic status and global competence, respectively. To promote students’ global competence, schools should provide students of different backgrounds with fair opportunities for learning about global competence, improve students’ foreign language skills, and create a campus culture that values ??reading. At the same time, schools should support peer communication and learning activities, coordinate the breadth and depth of multicultural activities and globalization curriculum, and provide teachers with opportunities for professional development of global competence teaching, so as to give full play to the role of individuals and schools in the development of students’ global competence.
PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) derivatives share many commonalities with financial derivatives, and have emerged as a key development in international student assessments that is rapidly reshaping the policy landscape in global education governance. Their influence includes market-economy ideology replacing that of educational value, sharp increases in global demand for testing, and deterioration of local education autonomy and diversity. Through ideology transfusion, distortion of supply and demand, and decay of educational value, PISA derivatives are deepening policy short-sightedness, decontextualization, and structural dependency in global education governance. In light of these challenges, global education governance frameworks in the new era must emphasize humanistic values, strengthen inclusiveness, enhance equality, and activate new governance potentials through strategic reform in the international educational assessment architecture.
Comparative study and critical analysis approach were applied to analyze the essential features, technical issues, applicable limits, integration trends and preparative conditions of teacher value-added assessment, as well as to detect its pathway in terms of value proposition, technical breakthrough, application focus, developmental framework and practical transformation. Teacher value-added assessment measures teachers’ contribution to students’ learning based on their achievement growth, with the usage of value-added modelling. The approach quantifies the causal effect of teachers’ teaching upon student learning growth, and therefore provides quantitative evidence to diagnose levels of teachers’ effectiveness. Such features imply evidence-based orientation and technical specialties of value-added assessment, however, considering the limitations, over estimation of its value and over generalization in application should be avoided. Debates and unsolved technical challenges still exist around the issues of value-added modelling in terms of reliability, validity and statistical bias, Chinese efforts should be made to challenge the cutting-edge technological innovation and overcome the unsolved difficulties. Drawn from the evaluation reform history and empirical evidence of the U.S., it is proven that teacher value-added assessment should avoid risk of serving high-stakes decisions and highlight its diagnostic function. Integration of value-added assessment with diverse measurements becomes international trend in common, local efforts should be made to construct an integrated assessment system based on value pluralism and negotiation between multiple stakeholders. To promote practical implication of value-added assessment, preparative conditions should be met in development of national system of standardized assessment of student achievement and growth, development of national databases, organization of a professional team of expertise, as well as establishment of reporting and reflection mechanism for value-added assessment results and impacts, in order to add the maximized value to the new evaluation system.
Entrepreneurial intention is not only an important predictor of college students’ entrepreneurial behavior, but also a hot issue in higher education and entrepreneurial education research at home and abroad. Previous studies mainly explore the influencing factors of entrepreneurial intention from individual factors in a specific country. Cross-country research on the impact of institutional environment for entrepreneurship on college students’ entrepreneurial intention is still in its infancy. Based on institutional theory, this study uses the data of ‘Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’ and ‘Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students’ Survey’ to investigate the impact of regulatory, normative and cognitive institutions on the entrepreneurial intention of college students in various countries at the time of graduation and five years later. The study finds that both the cognitive and the normative institution have a significant positive correlation with the entrepreneurial intention of college students, especially the impact of entrepreneurship education at the higher education stage; the role of the regulatory institution on the entrepreneurial intention of college students is more complex. It is suggested to vigorously promote the high-quality development of entrepreneurship education at different stages, create entrepreneurship-friendly cultural environment inside and outside the schools, and reconsider the effectiveness of some accustomed but unverified entrepreneurship policies for college students’ entrepreneurship.
Based on the sample data of 30,887 students from 102 colleges and universities in 26 provinces across the country, combined with the structural equation model, the mechanism model of the influence of innovation and entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial behavior with entrepreneurial ability and entrepreneurial willingness as mediating variables was verified. The research results show that entrepreneurship education can not only directly and significantly affect entrepreneurial behavior, but also positively and significantly affect entrepreneurial behavior through the first mediating effect of entrepreneurial ability, and can also positively and significantly affect entrepreneurial behavior through the first mediating effect of entrepreneurial willingness. The contribution of ability and entrepreneurial willingness to entrepreneurial behavior is stronger than entrepreneurial education. At the same time, consciously mining the elements of ideological and political education contained in the content of innovation and entrepreneurship education can stimulate and cultivate college students' excellent qualities such as team awareness, legal awareness, honesty awareness and social responsibility. Based on the conclusions of empirical research, it is proposed to update the concept of innovation and entrepreneurship education, strengthen the dual-subject awareness of entrepreneurship education in schools; fit the reality of entrepreneurship education in colleges and universities, attach importance to the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education, and strengthen the cultivation of entrepreneurial ability.Also, it's important to pay attention to the integration of ideological and political and ideological and political courses, excavates the ideological elements of innovative entrepreneurship education, and enhances the collaborative education force.
After the 9?11 terrorist attack and the 2008 financial turmoil, the economic development of New York, the financial capital, has been severely affected, and the pace of marching into the city of science and technology has begun. The transformation of New York City’s technological innovation has been affected by various factors, such as its own creative capital development orientation and financial crisis. Higher education clusters are the core components of New York’s technological innovation system. They provide strong support and guarantee for the formation and development of New York’s global science and technology innovation center by cultivating innovative talents in science and technology, improving the transformation mechanism of scientific research achievements, focusing on leading industries, implementing internal and external development strategies, then promoting the successful transformation of New York from a financial center to a technology innovation center. New York’s successful experience of transforming to an international science and technology innovation center by relying on higher education clusters can be an important reference example for Chinese higher education cluster to better assist the construction and development of its urban science and technology innovation centers.
Professor Thomas S. Popkewitz of the University of Wisconsin Madison in the United States, in his half-a-century educational research career, has widely absorbed the academic ideas of the French Almanac School, Michel Foucault and Pierre Bourdieu, and has embedded major educational issues such as educational reform, curriculum and teaching, teacher development and teacher education, and educational evaluation into the vision of social history and cultural structure. And, according to the concepts of institution, rationality, society, institution, knowledge, power, governance and “alchemy”, he explained and revealed the structural relationship of knowledge and power implicited in the multidimensional interaction of time and space.
The digitalization of education is not only an empowerment of education, but also a reform and reshaping of education. Due to the complexity and specificity of the digitalization of education, the digital transformation of education has not achieved the expected results in many other areas. There is some confusion and even misunderstanding in the perception of scholars, policy makers and the public. It is necessary to clarify the basic theoretical and practical issues of the current digital transformation of education. The fundamental difference between the digitalization of education and digitalization in other fields is that educational activities are not the connection between things and things, but the connection between people, and the digitalization of education not only cannot replace people, but also aims at human development, through people, by people, for people, and whether it promotes human development as the standard. At present, the key tasks of education digitalization are to innovate education scenarios, develop digital resources, improve teachers' digital literacy, improve the level of the national digital education platform, and govern the digitalization of education with digital thinking.
The core of the digital transformation of education is to build a future education ecosystem integrated with digital technology through a thinking approach combining evolution and innovation, promoting system reconstruction and cultural innovation of the total elements, the whole business, the whole field and the whole process, and accelerate the realization of balanced, personalized, lifelong, flexible and open education to enhance the operational vitality of the education system and meet the expectations of all parties in society for fair and quality education. The research and practice of digital transformation of education in China are still in the initial exploration stage. Facing various confusions and bottlenecks of the digital transformation of education, it is necessary to carry new value concepts and practice logic through design wisdom to guide and lead the success of the digital transformation of education. This study proposes six target orientations: the shift of educational paradigm from supply-led to demand-led, the shift of teaching mode from teaching-centered to learning-centered, the shift of educational evaluation from knowledge-based to competency-based, the shift of educational system from stage-based to lifelong learning, the shift of educational architecture from system closure to system opening, and the shift of educational system operation mechanism from management to governance. It proposes the guiding principles of problem-driven and concept-led, future-oriented and competency-based, learning-centered and adaptive services, human-machine collaboration and digital empowerment, lifelong learning and accompanying records, multidimensional evaluation and credible evidence, iterative evolution and continuous innovation, and system opening and ecological development. It also proposes an action framework, ecosystem and risk prevention mechanism for the digital transformation of education led by design wisdom.
The digital transformation in education is the driving force and innovation factor of the high-quality development of education. The evaluation of the ability level of the digital transformation in education has become one of the key points of the current education reform and practice. The maturity model provides a new method to solve the difficulty of evaluating the ability level of education digital transformation and helps to lead the implementation of the transformation practice. Based on the theory and basic structure of maturity model, this study analyzes the existing digital maturity model from the perspective of international comparison, and refines the key components of education digital transformation through policy analysis. By referring to the maturity levels and behavior characteristics of Capability Maturity Model and combining with the development characteristics of education digital trans- formation, an evaluation framework of education digital transformation maturity was constructed, which included five key process domains, 18 sub-key domains and five maturity levels. Based on the idea of “macro to medium to micro” to systematically promote digital transformation, this study discusses the key application scenarios of the ma-turity evaluation framework of education digital transformation from national, regional and school levels. A maturity model for digital transformation in education provides feasible evaluation paths for the implementation of education digital strategic actions and high-quality development of education.
Exploring the qualitative prescriptive nature of education digital transformation is the cognitive basis for effectively promoting transformation practices. Information technology enhances the efficiency of information sharing, but objectively brings about the separation of technology from educational subjects (teachers, students, and administrators) and fails to achieve the convergence and fusion of machine intelligence and human intelligence. As a theoretical paradigm, “education technology integration” believes that the application of information technology in education is a process of improving the efficiency of industrialized “educational production” through the “integration of things and things” between technology and curriculum, innovating the presentation of teaching content, focusing on knowledge push, and facilitating students’ knowledge acquisition. The “technology integration” paradigm has limitations in the four dimensions of ontology, methodology, epistemology and axiology, and it is difficult to meet the value creation needs of education digital transformation. The essence of education digital transformation points to “human-machine fusion”. This new paradigm believes that the application of information technology in education is a process of “human-machine fusion” between educational subjects and machine, using human-machine collaboration to bring together machine intelligence and human intelligence to promote students’ mental growth, thus realizing “teaching students in accordance with their aptitudes on a large scale”. This paradigm follows the modern educational philosophy and is the theoretical basis for education digital transformation. Pushing education digital transformation needs to be based on the paradigm of “human-machine fusion”, and: (a) realize the digital-intelligence drive of the education system by the overall process of reengineering; (b) realize the human-machine fusion of education through new capacity building; (c) realize value system reconstruction by system optimization & innovating; (d) realize the educational function improvement of technology by organizing special researches and developments.
School is a special public space. The application of digital technology in school education leads to the coexistence of physical space and digital space in school public space. To understand the school public space in the digital age, we need to re-examine the school boundaries, curriculum and people of the digital space. “Internet + School” broadens the public space of schools and restores the concept of school. In the digital space, the boundaries of schools are defined based on the educational goals by teachers. With the highly developed artificial intelligence, the question that whether teachers would be replaced by artificial intelligence has turned from a technical issue to an ethical one. There is an urgent need to improve teachers’ digital literacy as a whole, not just their IT skills. At present, the focus of digital curriculum construction has shifted from resource construction to people.
The digital transformation of education aims to reengineer the education and teaching process and improve the quality and efficiency through digital technology. On the one hand, digital technology represented by artificial intelligence as the technical engine of digital transformation of education drives the continuous deepening of digital transformation of education. On the other hand, the “black box” problem of artificial intelligence technology has caused a crisis of human-machine trust, and there is a risk of violating basic constraints such as fairness, accountability, transparency, and ethics in education, hindering the digital transformation of education. This study sorts out the four major governance problems caused and aggravated by artificial intelligence to help the digital transformation of education, analyzes the theoretical research and development status of trustworthy artificial intelligence in education, puts forward the basic framework of trustworthy artificial intelligence in education, summarizes the opportunities brought by trustworthy artificial intelligence in education for the digital transformation of education, and puts forward the development suggestions of trustworthy education artificial intelligence to promote the digital transformation of education. The research recommends the introduction of relevant standards and regulations for trustworthy educational artificial intelligence, incorporating technical credibility into the evaluation system of education digitalization, further promoting educational data governance, and improving the digital literacy of education practitioners.
Digital transformation in education includes three levels of change: technology, business, and people. It will go through five key stages of departmental local information application, overall institutional application and integration, business process service reorganization, organizational change of the future school, and new ecology of intelligent education services. If digital transformation of schools is effectively promoted, actions are needed in five areas: awareness of innovation acceptance, top-level planning and design, innovation in school education services, restructuring of school organization, and performance evaluation for continuous improvement.
The digital transformation in education is an inevitable result of the developing affordance of digital technology for education. This paper discusses the barriers, difficulties, and coping strategies in the educational digital transformation. It first describes three stages of future panoramic transformation of education: infrastructure upgrading, learning mode reforming, and educational process reengineering. The digital transformation of education, as a technology-involved innovative social revolution, is not bound to be a smooth journey. The interaction between technologies and education subjects is affected by multiple factors, thus leading to various corresponding difficulties and obstacles. The surface difficulties mainly come from the barriers of technological availability in building the new education infrastructure, referring to limited investments (e.g., human & financial) and technical bottlenecks. The deep difficulties mean educational subjects’ (e.g., teachers, students, & parents) action obstacles. The core difficulty is how to improve the consensus on digital educational innovation and how to deal with the relationship between humans and technology. To solve the core difficulty of educational digital transformation, it is necessary to carry out structural reform in education and strengthen the basic research of learning science to have a deep understanding of the process and mechanism of education with digital transformation. Finally, this paper puts forward several practical strategies to solve these difficulties from three levels: foundation-building strategies, empowering strategies, and exploring strategies.
The importance and value of digital transformation in education are getting more and more attention all over the world. Nowadays, China’s approach to the digital transformation of education is at an important and urgent stage, facing many difficulties, including blurred top-level design and lack of boundaries of responsibilities, inefficient digital resources and lack of stereo integration bases, overemphasizing data scale and technological innovation while ignoring the comprehensiveness of people development. This paper tries to point out paths for the next step of the transformation and think about how to break these dilemmas. The ways include reshaping the consensus and forming a diverse and consistent community; in-depth teaching and exploring five-application scenarios of digital education; and trying to promote people’s all-around development with people-oriented.
The digital transformation of education is driven by the technical ecology formed by the integration of multiple technologies, and it is necessary to analyze the needs it brings to the teaching profession from a technical perspective. The technical intention of the digital transformation of education has shifted teachers from “teaching” to “learning”-centered, and smart education environment has shifted human-machine relationship from auxiliary to collaborative. The physical-social-cyber space survival mode penetrated by technology requires teachers to have corresponding moral cultivation capabilities, and the paradigm of knowledge growth in the digital age requires teachers to continue to develop themselves. Borrowing the functional capacity analysis construction path of organizational behavior elements analysis, the paper analyzes the core mission and attributes of educational organizations, and combines the needs of education digital transformation to obtain the specific types of capabilities supporting the digital transformation of education: curriculum development and teaching competency, human-computer collaboration competency, effective moral education competency and self-growth competency. From the perspective of supporting the digital transformation of education, curriculum development and teaching competency is the premise and guarantee of “learning”-centered, and human-computer collaboration competency is the transformation direction of teachers’ ICT capabilities in smart environments. Effective moral education competency is the primary role of teachers in the process of digital transformation, and self-growth competency is the purpose and means of digital survival. Teacher education needs to face up to the current problems in teacher capacity development and reshape teacher education around the core competencies required by digital transformation.
With the application of the Internet, big data, and artificial intelligence in education, a new form of textbook construction has been created, promoting the development of digital textbook. However, the construction of digital textbook has some problems, such as simplifying to “electronic text”, being a “multimedia resource database”, or as a “dialogue machine”. This study analyzes the necessity of intelligent textbook development and explains the educational characteristics of intelligent textbook, such as “intelligent adaptation learning, intelligent guidance, accompanying evaluation, and in-depth learning interaction” from the perspective of instruction theory. Combining the technical advantages of AI, such as knowledge map, learning analysis, online tracking, learner digital profiles, it describe the methods and strategies of intelligent textbook to achieve corresponding educational functions. In view of the educational and engineering characteristics of intelligent textbook, this study analyzed the strategies for promoting the construction of intelligent textbook from adhering to the instruction theory, paying attention to the iteration of practice, and adopting technical method to supervise and manage.
In the background of the “Digital China” strategy, accelerating digital transformation and development and building a digital China have become the torrent of the times. In the field of education, with the integration of a new generation of information technology and education, such as artificial intelligence, Internet of Things and cloud computing, education informatization has reached a critical point of “quantitative change” to “qualitative change”. At present, China’s education digital transformation practice still faces challenges in terms of top-level design and implementation paths. Around Shanghai Educational Digital Transformation policy implementation process, this paper introduced the procedure Shanghai constructed its plan from top to bottom and extract its experiences, including forming new vision through new infrastructure, breaking barriers through digital base, exploring educational new normal through top-down and bottom-up paths, enhancing deep reform through digital competences, assessment and resources construction. These measures can help solve the key problem in educational digital transformation.
Artificial intelligence (AI) education in primary and secondary schools has just started in China. Lack of unified curriculum standards, we still face many difficulties in the curriculum nature and objectives, textbooks development, and academic evaluation. To address this issue, East China Normal University and Shanghai Artificial Intelligence Laboratory jointly developed the Artificial Intelligence Curriculum Guidelines for Primary and Secondary Schools. The proposed guidelines has six parts including course nature and basic concept, core competency and curriculum objectives, course structure, course content and requirements, academic evaluation standards and implementation suggestions. We aim to construct a scientific and open curriculum guidelines for AI education in primary and secondary schools and simultaneously provide a reference for the construction of an AI education system in China.
To investigate the current situation of elementary school science teachers in China, large-scale research in 31 provinces was organized by the Professional Committee on Science Teaching of the Steering Committee for Basic Education of the Ministry of Education in the second half of 2021, and 131,134 valid questionnaires were collected. The current situation of the elementary school science teacher workforce involves three major aspects: faculty structure, professional literacy, and professional development. The study found that there is a serious structural imbalance in the structure of China’s elementary school science teachers, with part-time teachers and liberal arts backgrounds dominating; weak knowledge and beliefs, practical wisdom such as information technology application to be strengthened; weak professional development, lack of experimental resources and professional training. It is recommended to strengthen the teacher management of elementary science, improve the supervisory mechanism, and optimize the structure of the teaching force; strengthen the professional standards and development planning of integrated pre-service and in-service elementary science teachers; promote the reform of the content and form of elementary science assessment and pay attention to the monitoring and evaluation of the quality of elementary science teaching.
Mindset plays a decisive role in people’s words and deeds. This study adopted the OECD-Suzhou data to explore the growth mindset of 10-year-old and 15-year-old adolescents in social and emotional skills from the perspective of students, parents, and teachers, as well as the relationship between their thinking patterns and abilities. The results of the study show that, first, the growth mindset of students’ social and emotional skills is restricted by socioeconomic status. Second, the growth mindset of students, parents, and teachers’ social and emotional skills is significantly positive, relevant, and predictive for students’ social and emotional skills. This result has enriched the current research on growth-oriented mindset and society and skills, and pointed out and provided new ways and new measures to promote the cultivation of the social and emotional skills of our teenagers.
Social and emotional skill is the cornerstone of success and happiness in life. In 2021, the global first test of SSEs (Study on social and emotional skills) provides a solid data foundation for the international comparative study of adolescents’ social and emotional skills. Using DEA (data envelop analysis) method, taking class size, teacher education, sses training, sses measures and campus activities as input variables and five skills as output variables, this paper evaluates the training effectiveness of 1,171 primary and secondary schools in 10 cities participating in the international evaluation. The results show that: first, the social and emotional skill training effectiveness of primary and secondary schools in all cities is generally high, and the average value of primary school is more than 0.8. The average value of middle school is above 0.9. Second, at the primary school stage, Suzhou schools have achieved outstanding results, not only the highest average, but also a high-level balanced type as a whole. In the middle school stage, Istanbul is the city with outstanding training results, which is also a high-level balanced city. Third, there are 82 high-performance primary schools and 87 high-performance secondary schools in all cities, of which Istanbul and Bogota account for a large proportion. Fourth, sense of belonging to school is the most important factor to improve the social and emotional training effectiveness. According to the above research results, this paper suggests that we should strengthen international cooperation and empirical research on social and emotional skill, look for gaps and fill in weaknesses while summarizing the successful experience of Suzhou, and take high-quality balance as an important goal of social and emotional ability training in primary and secondary schools in China.
Grounded on the social ecology theory and the OECD social and emotional skills framework, this study described the current situation of bullying among students aged 10 and 15, and explored the individual factors and environmental factors affecting bullying based on the OECD survey data in Suzhou. On the one hand, the results confirmed the relationship between demographic factors, environmental factors and bullying victimization, and found that although the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization was low, it was highly correlated with school bullying victimization. On the other hand, it explores the relative importance of social and emotional skills on bullying victimization through relative importance analysis, in which self-control and stress resistance were key factors in predicting students from school bullying and cyberbullying, and trusting skill was a protective factor from cyberbullying. The study reveals the close relationship between social and emotional skills and bullying victimization, and enlightens to carry out all-round and targeted prevention and intervention of bullying victimization from the perspective of social and emotional skills.
The primary purpose of higher education is to enhance students’ moral responsibility awareness, to internalize their moral ethics, and to develop a sound personality. Faced with the transition and evolution of external social morality, the question of whether higher education can promote the development of students’ benign moral cognition has emerged as a critical academic and practical concern. Using data from a national survey of university students, this paper develops a system of observational indicators of moral cognition among university students and examines the moral cognitive qualities of contemporary youth in society-family-university setting. Additionally, we use ordered logistic regression and Shapley’s value decomposition to examine the influence effects and mechanisms of five major educational elements on students’ moral cognition development: institutional organizational endowment, curriculum instruction, extracurricular activities, faculty-student interaction, and peer effect. The study contributes to the theoretical understanding of moral teaching mechanisms in Chinese higher education. It provides scientific advice for the development of an all-encompassing, multi-level, and three-dimensional platform for moral education.
Although many people rightly believe that exam-oriented education hinders the development of Chinese students’ creativity, there is no basic evidence to prove that the overall creativity level of Chinese students is lower than that of other countries. Therefore, it should not be simply asserted that exam-oriented education restricts the cultivation of Chinese students’ creativity. But this does not mean that exam-oriented education has nothing to do with students’ creativity. A reasonable explanation is that exam-oriented education has different effects on different types of students. It is effective in “raising the bottom”, but it will obviously hinder the creativity of top students. This is supported by many direct and indirect factual evidence. Although the number of highly creative students accounts for a small proportion, their creativity is affected, which is related to national security and competitiveness and deserves attention and vigilance. Exam-oriented education has a significant negative impact on the creativity level of top students, which does not mean that other groups of students are not affected by it. But in the environment of exam-oriented education, the top students are more affected and restricted. Using the analytical framework provided by the “the componential theory of creativity”, this negative impact can work through three mechanisms, that is, reducing the width and depth of top students’ knowledge mastery, reducing the spirit of adventure and questioning, as well as the tolerant attitude towards uncertainty, and weakening the internal motivation of learning.
Whether calculators should be introduced to College Entrance Examinations in Mathematics (CEE-M) in China is a long-standing controversial topic. This study examined calculator use policies and practices in CEE-M in 30 relatively economically developed countries and regions, and compared their delivery modes (single, mixed), types of calculators allowed and roles of calculators in exam questions and solutions; representative questions in selected sample exams were also used for case analysis. The study found that most CEE-M allowed students to use calculators, with mainly the single delivery mode using scientific calculators, and introducing calculators into the CEE-M can provide a new opportunity to enhance the real-life context, openness, and flexibility of questions in mathematics examinations. According to the results, the study concluded that there is a need to fully realize the value of introducing calculators in CEE-M, carry out more research in designing exam questions allowing calculators to promote examination reform and innovation, and establish a long-term plan for introducing calculators into mathematics classrooms and examinations.
The phenomenon of cultural reproduction has foregrounded inequity in educational results as a social fact. Although Basil Bernstein argues that this phenomenon is rooted in students’ coding orientations that regulate the practice of rules of recognition and realization, the influence of code theory has been gradually declining mainly due to its numerous jargons. Considering this constraint, this article sets out to illustrate the interplay of rules of recognition, rules of realization, classification, framing and coding orientation in simple descriptions in order to stimulate further empirical studies. We further argue that this interplay is geared by rules of inner logic embedded within coding orientation, classification and framing. As this inner logic is systematically correspondent with the inner logic of an elaborated code, this situation situates high SES students in a privileged position in learning. Unfortunately, a restricted code doesn’t have this connection, so that it is difficult for low SES students to generate excellent performance. The principle of inner logic provides us with a gateway for improving inequity in educational results.
The first generation of college students is a generation of family intergenerational transmission, and a generation of China’s intergenerational society. As they form their own families, they also start the process of reinventing their children after remolding themselves. Based on the CHFS data in 2019, this article focuses on the first generation college students in families. This article, from the micro perspective of “family intergeneration” to the macro perspective of “urban and rural stratum, studies the family and rural-urban effects of the obtainment of supplemental education on the offspring of four groups: the families started by the first generation college students, non-college families, the families started by the first generation college students in urban areas and that in rural areas. The results show that: (1) intergenerational transmission of education widens the gap of the obtainment of supplemental education among children of families with different cultural capital; (2) intergenerational transmission of education narrows the gap of the obtainment of supplemental education between rural and urban children; (3) authoritative parenting and characteristics of the first-generation college students’ families are the internal reason of the double effect. To sum up, the experience and characteristics of the first generation of college students determine intergenerational reinvention that transmits cultural capital, class reinvention that crosses urban-rural boundaries, and upbringing reinvention that values all-round development.
Elite creative talents are wanted and sought after in every modern society as they seem to be the primary force that drives social and economic development. But cultivating elite creative talents can follow different approaches in different societies. This article provides a comprehensive review and analysis of current thinking and emerging issues in cultivating innovative, creative, and entrepreneurial talents. Primarily, the author finds the following. First, elite creative talents are not programmed and trained by early selection. Second, creativity is naturally born and everyone has the potential to become a creative elite. Third, creativity appears in different domains and must be based on solid knowledge and skills. Thus elite talents have their unique abilities and knowledge. Fourth, different society has different attitudes toward creative talents and thus different societies have different environments for cultivating creative talents. Fifth, opportunities and luck play significant roles in the development of creativity. It is therefore critical for individuals to have opportunities or create their own opportunities. Finally, creativity must be bounded by ethical and moral standards, which vary in different societies. But at least, the outcomes of creativity should not cause harm to others and the world.
Higher education satisfaction survey not only reflects students’ satisfaction with the development of higher education, but also reflects the implementation of macro policies of higher education. In 2021, the Chinese Academy of Educational Sciences implemented the third round of national higher education satisfaction survey after 2016 and 2018. The survey found that the overall satisfaction of national higher education is steadily improving, especially in the aspects of ideological and political education, construction of teachers’ morality and style, information technology empowerment and educational environment, which has brought more and more satisfactory learning experience and gains to college students. However, the satisfaction with students’ innovative ability and quality, practical teaching opportunities, teachers’ teaching methods and professional identity is not high. Based on the above contents, from the perspective of improving satisfaction, the article puts forward suggestions on improving the effectiveness of innovative talent training, exploring new practical teaching models, building a dedicated teacher evaluation system, enhancing the social adaptability of talent training, and innovating the forms of international exchange and cooperation.
To build a modern socialist country in all respects, we must, first and foremost, pursue high-quality development. Improving the role and efficiency of higher education in high-quality economic development is not only an important task to implement the spirit of the Twentieth National Congress of the Communist Party of China in the field of education, but also a proper meaning to accelerate the construction of high-quality education system. Based on panel data of 31 provinces in China from 2000 to 2019, this paper analyzes the contribution of higher education to high-quality economic development and its realization mechanism based on the transmission chain of “higher education-human capital, technology, industry-high-quality economic development” by building the direct effect, indirect effect and complementary effect models of higher education. The research shows that higher education has a positive contribution to high-quality economic development, and this economic effect shows significant regional heterogeneity. The contribution of higher education to economic quality is in the order of western region, central region and eastern region from large to small. Factors such as diminishing marginal return of human capital investment, industrial transfer and education policy support jointly promote the strong role of higher education in improving quality and efficiency in the economic development of central and western regions. Further mechanism inspection found that higher education could promote high-quality economic development through multi-dimensional paths such as human capital accumulation, promoting technological innovation and giving play to the complementary effect with industrial structure.
High-level talents in the field of philosophy and social sciences generally have profound love for motherland, a strong sense of social responsibility, and clear academic aspirations. Knowledge structure, ability to interpret and construct, and openness and inclusiveness are relatively unique characteristics of knowledge, capability, and personality of high-level talents in the field of philosophy and social sciences, whose growth depends on social needs, governmental support, organizational cultivation, academic environment, and important others, in which social needs and organizational cultivation are unique important environment elements. Personal factors include ideological and political quality, value pursuit, personal efforts, ability, and growth experience, in which political quality and value pursuit are unique important personal elements. Stepping into the new era, for the purpose of cultivating those talents, it is necessary to raise their ideological standing position, improve the discipline system designed for their growth, and stimulate their lofty ideals, academic interest and social responsibility.
Universities with the same governance system, structure or system have world-wide differences in governance performance levels, which often stem from differentiated governance capabilities. Under the current development situation, turning to the research of governance capabilities can not only break through and make up for the barriers and the shortcomings of “absence of ability” in existing related research, but also cater to the needs of the university governance modernization reform moving into “the second half ” in China. Based on the perspective of factors-resources, university governance capabilities are, in essence, a comprehensive reflection of the university’s influence, control, and effects in the process of allocating various factors it possesses. expressed as the amount of resources that can be produced. In the production of university governance capacity, HEIs undertake the intermediary role from “potential” (element) to “manifestation” (resource). The allocation of relevant elements by HEIs should be the allocation of the maximum governance effect under the existing time and space conditions, and form a virtuous governance cycle of utilization and exploration of elements. In terms of specific configuration methods, HEIs should adopt or comprehensively adopt corresponding configuration methods according to the characteristics of the elements, so as to continuously produce and reproduce the resources required for the development of the university.
The classical theory of university autonomy aims at clarifying the scope and boundary of state supervision on university autonomy through the legal and even constitutional guarantee of university autonomy. With the coming era of governance, the relationship between state and university has been changing from legal decentralization to functional decentralization. In continental European countries, the emergence of the evaluative state which aims at the unification of university autonomy and responsibility provides more systematic guidance and guarantee for the increase of university corporation’s ability to fulfill responsibility. In Anglo-American countries, the rise of the regulatory state in the field of higher education induces or forces universities to strengthen the prevention and management of compliance risks, improve the self-regulatory system of universities, and enhance their ability of achieving good governance through good law. The modernization of China’s higher education governance system and governance capacity should draw on the governance wisdom of the evaluative state and the regulatory state, and coordinate the two reform approaches of prescriptivism and functionalism, so as to realize the synergistic improvement of the government’s law-based and effective supervision ability and universities’ law-based and effective governance ability.
With the continuous improvement of women’s education, women in the scientific circles have become an important force in scientific research and innovation, but the low proportion of female teachers in universities, especially in science and engineering in research universities, is still a prominent problem. This paper focuses on the employment of engineering doctors in the academic career pipeline, and tries to analyze the gender differences in the acquisition of elite academic positions. The study found that the vast majority of female doctors are willing to continue to engage in academic careers, and from the employment results, there is no statistically significant difference in the probability of male and female doctors obtaining academic posts, but the probability of women obtaining elite academic posts (formerly 211 universities and Chinese Academy of Sciences) is 30% lower than that of men. Further, according to the Oacaxa-blinder decomposition, the probability of male doctors obtaining elite academic positions is 11% higher than that of female doctors, and almost 100% are classified as “the unexplainable part of the model”. In combination with this questionnaire, 60% of female doctors believe that they have been treated with gender discrimination in the process of employment. We can cautiously infer that gender discrimination in the process of employment still exists in a way that is difficult to observe.
Based on the data of the China Education Panal Survey (CEPS), this paper analyzes the influence of teacher care on the development of non-cognitive ability of rural children and its mechanism from the perspective of home-school co-education by regression analysis and KHB intermediary effect test. According to the conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness and extraversion under the framework of the Big Five personality theory to measure non-cognitive ability, the study found that the subjective teacher care can significantly improve the development of non-cognitive ability of rural children, and the objective teacher care can have a differentiated effect on the non-cognitive ability of rural children. Specifically, teachers’ learning care has a significant positive effect on rural children’s extroversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness, and significantly improves their neuroticism. Teacher’s psychological care can significantly improve the agreeableness and conscientiousness of rural children, and teachers’ dating care can significantly improve the rural children’s extroversion and openness. We also found that teacher care will affect the non-cognitive ability of rural children by the improvement of parenting. This mechanism is achieved through the parents’ response and demander to the children, and compared with the parents’ demander, the contribution of parents’ response to the needs of their children is greater.
To save the nation from crisis and achieve the goal of universal education, ‘training teachers in higher normal schools’ was chosen by the late Qing Government. This model continued in the early Republic of China and later was improved by implementing ‘Zoning of Higher Normal Education’ with the establishment of six higher normal schools. Things changed soon and ‘training teachers in universities’ seemed more favored by the elites. Continuing debates emerged at both official and folk conferences. In the subsequent movement of promotion to universities, several higher normal schools were transformed to comprehensive universities. With less normal schools to supply qualified teachers, there left hidden troubles in the development of secondary education. Only Peking Higher Normal School remained its tradition of normal education, but it suffered from several tempests and was considered to be superfluous by some scholars. During the Anti-Japanese War, referring to the Zoning system, six normal colleges were established, which manifested the value of higher normal education and the Zoning system. Due to domestic trouble and foreign invasion, it was until the founding of People’s Republic of China that normal education institutions were eventually set up separately rather than affiliated to universities. The vicissitudes of ‘Zoning of Higher Normal Education’ is of some reference meaning to current training of teachers.
From a historical perspective, at the beginning of its birth, national education power only meant the state’s intervention in the content of education. Since the birth of the social state, a welfare factor has been added to national education power, requiring the state to act actively to ensure the realization of the right to education. This makes the national education power that contains both intervention and welfare aspects. Following this distinction, we could investigate their normative requirements separately. Article 19, paragraph 3, Article 19, paragraph 5, Article 24 and Article 46 of Constitution together constitute the constitutional basis for the intervention of national education power, and put forward formal and substantial requirements for national education power. In addition, the Educational Law delineates the normative boundaries between the national education power and the family education right, the school education right and the social education right. The welfare aspect of national education power should also meet the requirements of constitutional norms, it can’t deviate from the national goal, or violate the principle of equality, and should fulfill the national protection obligation.
What is hidden behind learning by doing is the era’s problem of change of ancient and modern, and the social problem of transformation from pre-modern society to modern society. John Dewey is a strategic agent committed to solving the problem of social transformation. His theory of learning by doing faces the conflicts arising in social transformation and promotes social progress by solving these conflicts. From the perspective of social theory, it is based on conflict theory. The social ideal of learning by doing is to build democratic communities based on local autonomy. It is in this sense that the “doing” of learning by doing is communication, intercourse, cooperation and experimentation, and also refers to student autonomy. The real learning by doing is to “learn” by “doing” in an autonomous community with a shared meaning, and to learn in the deep democratic life with high interest. So, learning by doing is not only an educational theory, but also a social philosophy with conflict theory as its core and devoted to solving problems of social transformation towards democratic communities.
Over the past 40 years since the Reform and Opening-up, the effective implementation of the academic and vocational education streaming policy has made great contributions to the structural reform of secondary education, the national economic construction, and the human resources development. In the future, with the changes of the social environment, the streaming will also face many disputes and challenges. To deeply understand the current streaming contradiction and clarify the future institutional trend, we need to “face the history”, and examinations based on the perspective of Historical Institutionalism is an effective way. Through reviewing the policy texts since the Reform and Opening-up, it is found that the development of China’s streaming policy shows the characteristics of gradual institutional change dominated by the state, and has experienced four stages: the recovery of the secondary vocational education with the aim of economic construction, the streaming exploration from pursuing efficiency to emphasizing reasonableness, the streaming landslide under the impact of college enrollment expansion, and the integration of the vocational and academic education under the concept of “people-oriented”. The adjustment of industrial structure, the reform of national governance and the prevalence of the cultural concept of people-oriented have promoted policy development as the overarching structure, and the interaction between the micro actors and the policies also has brought opportunities for its reform. Rationally viewing the “path dependence” and policy reform, giving full play to the role of institutional background in guiding and promoting policies, and establishing “decentralized decision-making” and “diversified cooperation” mechanisms are the effective ways to break through the institutional obstruction and realize the path optimization.
In the past century, the integrated educational relationship between schools and grass-roots society in China has experienced two stages from integration to separation, resulting in a paradox. On the one hand, the school educational function is infinitely expanded and overburdened, on the other hand, the grass-roots society is absent from school educational governance, and its original educational function is also shrinking. Promoting the integration of schools and grass-roots society and the formation of educational pattern is an important task of the modernization of educational governance ability at present and in the future. According to the existing domestic experience of integrated education and management system, it is not enough to rebuild the needs of integrated education between schools and grass-roots society in modern society. Therefore, it is necessary to reconstruct the “new link”. Schools need to change from “organizational image” to “community image”, open to the community and participate in the construction of community culture. In terms of the inter-organizational aspect of schools and grassroots society, the key mechanism is to rebuild a new type of substantive “integrated organization”.
The subject selection system is one of the core contents of the new college entrance examination reform. To investigate the effect of family background on high school students' willingness to choose subjects and academic achievement, descriptive statistics, factor analysis, crossover analysis, and binary logistic regression analyses were conducted based on the data from a sample of Zhejiang Province’s 2017-2020 New College Entrance Examination graduates. Results show that, first, the more advantageous the family background, the more likely the student will achieve high academic achievement. Second, family background has a significant influence on subject choice, mainly in terms of family economic capital positively influencing the choice of subjects with high learning costs, family philosophy of mathematics and chemistry positively influencing the choice of science-oriented subjects, and family cultural atmosphere positively influencing the choice of literature-oriented subjects. Finally, personal factors such as gender and subject performance are still the key factors influencing the willingness to choose subjects, mainly reflected in male and high-performing students preferring science subjects. Policies need to be in place to promote all-round development of students and rational subject choices to further promote equity in educational opportunities.
Based on the supply side perspective, the evaluation index system of postgraduate education resources allocation is constructed. The improved stochastic frontier model is used to calculate the allocation efficiency of postgraduate education resources in 30 provinces in China from 2003 to 2018. On this basis, the Kernel density curve, standard deviation ellipse and spatial econometric model are used to comprehensively analyze the spatio-temporal evolution, convergence and influencing factors of efficiency value. The results show that the allocation efficiency of postgraduate education resources in China shows a trend of steady increase, but the overall efficiency is low and the range is only between 0.255 and 0.321. The spatial distribution pattern showed a ladder pattern of east (0.428) > northeast (0.341) > central (0.245) > west (0.170). However, the growth rate of each region was opposite. In addition, provinces with high value and high value, low value and low value are stable, and no obvious spatio-temporal transition occurs in the sample period. Both traditional β convergence model and conditional β convergence model show that the convergence trend is obvious in the whole country, and will be further strengthened with the orderly expansion of educational scale and the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure. However, the direction and intensity of influence on different regions are different. Therefore, the government should implement the resource allocation strategy according to local conditions, construct resource sharing channels with strong leading weak, and clear the barriers of resource transformation to improve quality and efficiency to accelerate the improvement of postgraduate education resource allocation efficiency, and form a high-quality spatial linkage development pattern in the coordinated promotion.
Based on the survey of people in different regions on the learning needs and participation of senior citizens, this paper investigates the willingness and actuality of the elders to learn in the context of the lifelong education system. The study found that the surveyed groups are generally low in willingness to learn in the old age, and they prefer the learning content of “the old people have fun”. The surveyed population, dominated by the elderly, is obviously insufficiently involved in the existing lifelong education system, and is facing difficulties in terms of funding support, information channels, and insufficient openness of educational venues. At the same time, different groups are learning content and gains for the elderly. There is a different state of support. The construction of an education system for the aging society needs to be based on the concept of life-long education, under the concept of “the old can learn” and “the old can do”, attach importance to the opening of diverse learning opportunities to the elderly, relying on information technology and other platforms. Also, it’s important to establish a learning system based on the needs of the elderly to ensure equal learning opportunities for different elderly groups.
Aesthetic education must be carried out in aesthetic activities and aesthetic experience, and its evaluation should be accomplished in the “process and experiential” assessment. On the basis of the existing artistic quality evaluation results, the report adjusted and built a three-dimensional aesthetic education evaluation index system, including administrative aesthetic education work (z), teacher’s aesthetic education teaching (x), and students’ aesthetic quality development (y). It focused on exploring the composition of all the indicators of teachers’ aesthetic education (x) and the composition of all the indicators of the cardio-cerebral reaction (y) to the aesthetic experience for the students in the aesthetic activities, which would support the students’ aesthetic quality in the“process and experiential”assessment. Modern experimental aesthetics, modern and contemporary aesthetic psychology, neuroaesthetics, information science and intelligent technology also provide theoretical and technical support for the construction of this aesthetic education evaluation platform from different levels. Based on this, we can also construct a set of intelligent scheme which is suitable for the whole education and teaching evaluation.
Educational games, also known as educational electronic games or electronic educational games, are hot spots in the development of smart education industry. Video games are fascinating, but with the addition of the word “education”, they encounter many obstacles at the application level. The theory of game aesthetic motivation reveals that it is human nature to like playing games. People voluntarily follow certain rules (sociality), and then enjoy the freedom, imagination, creation and pleasure in games. The online survey shows that the video game industry pays special attention to audio-visual factors that induce formal aesthetic motivation. However, there are blind spots in the research on the application of educational games at home and abroad, both in terms of form and connotation aesthetic motivation. In recent years, the concept of meta universe and the establishment of the national intelligent education platform have provided new possibilities for the future of ubiquitous learning and autonomous learning. At the same time, practitioners and users of educational games, including game manufacturers and designers, educational administrators, teachers, parents and students, also need to improve their aesthetic and humanistic qualities, so as to promote high-quality educational games to get out of the difficulties at the application level and release greater educational potential.
The assessment of art literacy is an indispensable part of the quality monitoring of school aesthetic education, but in the past it has been ignored for a long time, which makes the assessment of art literacy lag behind in our country and seriously restricts the high quality promotion of school aesthetic education. In view of the current domestic lack of developing the fine arts accomplishment evaluation tool, this study investigate the dimensions and the corresponding weights of the art literacy for elementary school students, and use the item response theory to construct elementary school students’ art literacy assessment tool for the first time. The instrument contains 25 items, which respectively measured four dimensions of perception recognition, artistic expression, creative connection and aesthetic appreciation. The trail test found out that this instrument exhibited moderate difficulty, rational distribution, good reliability and validity. The difficulties of the items were widely distributed across the entire continuum of the art literacy, which can be used to accurately measure students’ literacy across the entire continuum of the art literacy. The instrument can comprehensively reflect the status of students’ art literacy. The research data comes from a total of 3695 elementary school students from urban and rural schools in 15 districts (counties) of 5 provinces in Eastern, Central, and Western China to practically validate the performance of instrument.. The. results showed that both the mode and items fit the data and the majority of responses that students answered to the items can well-represent the performance of the art literacy.
In recent years, the prevalent evaluation activities in university faculties have always been dominated by scientific research orientation, quantitative method, and performance orientation, reflecting the phenomenon that only emphasizes the rationalities at the factual level and ignores the legitimacy at the value level. The evaluation orientation and standards of university faculties are not mainly derived from the self-consistent theoretical logic, but from the strong interventions of external forces in the academic ecology of universities and the results of competitions among universities in reality, which in turn shapes faculties work life styles, academic beliefs, and action preferences. Therefore, it is necessary to comprehensively reflect on the result logic, counting logic, and performance logic of the current evaluation system at the value level, so as to adjust the tension between the purpose value and instrumental value of faculty evaluation.