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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences) 2023 Vol.41
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    Principles, Procedures and Programs of Latent Class Models
    Zhonglin Wen, Jinyan Xie, Huihui Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (1): 1-15.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.01.001
    Abstract2390)   HTML235)    PDF (837KB)(2677)      

    The models used in Latent Class Analysis and Latent Profile Analysis are collectively referred to as latent class models, a kind of statistical methods of classifying individuals according to their different response patterns in observation indicators, so as to identify population heterogeneity. It has attracted increasing attention from applied researchers in the fields of pedagogy, psychology, and other social science disciplines. However, it is not easy for most education researchers to understand the existing Chinese literature on the statistical principles and analytical procedures of such models. This paper systematically introduces the basic knowledge, statistical principles, analytical procedures and Mplus programs of latent class models, and clarifies various methods and selection strategies involved in the subsequent analysis of these models. It would help applied researchers enhance their understanding of the principles and methods of the latent class models, and promote the application of these models to educational research.

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    The Latent Profile Analysis of Middle School Teachers’ Emotional Labor Strategies and the Relationship with Vocational Well-being
    Xueyan Zhao, Xuqun You, Wei Qin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (1): 16-24.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.01.002
    Abstract629)   HTML104)    PDF (735KB)(757)      

    Based on individual-center perspective, 716 middle school teachers were selected to explore the latent profile of their emotional labor strategies (surface acting, deep acting, and nature acting) with the latent profile analysis technique (LPA), and the relationships between these latent profiles and the indicators of teachers’ well-being were tested. The result showed, first, there were four potential profiles, namely, the high level of emotional labor group, the medium level of emotional labor group, the natural sincere group, and the low level of emotional labor group. Second, gender, ethnic, marital status, teaching age, school type, class types were related to profile groups of emotional labor strategies. Third, these four profile groups of teachers had significantly differences in the indicators of teachers’ well-being. Middle school teachers’ emotional labor performance and group division were further discussed from the individual-centered perspective.The study provided theoretical basis and practical reference for guiding middle school teachers to adopt appropriate emotional labor strategies and to improve their vocational well-being.

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    The Profiles of Parental Control and its Influence on Adolescents’ Adaptation: Based on Latent Transition Analysis
    Yan He, Keman Yuan, Mingming Zhang, Yufang Bian
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (1): 25-39.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.01.003
    Abstract681)   HTML69)    PDF (1019KB)(1166)      

    Parental control refers to a relatively stable behavior pattern used by parents to control and manage their children in the process of parenting activities, which has an important and direct influence on the psychological development and social adaptation of children and adolescents. This study explored the profiles of parental control, transformational characteristics and its impact on adaptation among Chinese adolescents based on a longitudinal study and a person-centered approach. The main findings are as follows. First, the parental control of Chinese parents is heterogeneous with three profiles: low-medium control (i.e., low psychological control-medium behavior control, and so on), medium-medium control and high-high control. The proportion of parents in the medium-medium control group was the highest at the two time points, which were about 60 percent and 50 percent respectively. Second, the profiles of parental control change as time passes. From the first grade to the second grade of junior middle school, there were about 70 percent of parental control profiles remaining stable and around 30 percent mainly changing to adjacent profiles. If the profile of medium-medium control is not maintained in the first grade, it will be more likely to become high-high control. Third, the profiles of parental control have significant effects on adolescents’ adaptation (including subjective well-being, Internet addiction and parent-child conflict). Above all, this study lays a foundation for empirical research on the precise intervention of different profiles of parental control.

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    Types of Aggressive Victims of Rural Pupils and Their School Adaptation: Based on Latent Profile Analysis
    Min Wu, Wenqi Song, Lichan Liang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (1): 40-49.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.01.004
    Abstract418)   HTML112)    PDF (818KB)(649)      

    The current study investigated whether there were distinct subgroups of rural children who experienced different forms of aggression and victimization using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA), and whether these subgroups differed from one another in their different levels of school adaptation. Participants were children in grades 4-6 from rural central primary schools. It showed that, first, four subgroups were identified, including “high aggression-victimization subgroup” “high victimization subgroup” “medium aggression-victimization subgroup” and “low involvement subgroup”. Second, there was high degree of co-occurrence among four subgroups of aggression and victimization. Except the “high aggression-victimization subgroup”, all subgroups showed that indirect aggression was higher than direct aggression, and indirect victimization was higher than direct victimization. Third, there were significant differences in gender, grade and boarding status among different subgroups. Boys, lower grade and boarding students were more likely to be involved in school victimization. Fourth, in terms of school adaption, the scores of positive and negative emotions in “high aggression-victimization subgroup” were significantly higher than those in other subgroups. However, the scores of interpersonal relationship and academic achievement of “low involvement subgroup” were significantly better than those of other subgroups. Therefore, we should pay more attention to rural schools, pay attention to rural primary school students who are in “high aggression-victimization subgroup”, and carry out targeted intervention and prevention according to the characteristics of different subgroups and students' adaptation.

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    The Types of Parental Involvement and Secondary School Students’ Subject Literacy: A Latent Class Analysis Based on the Data of Hong Kong and Macao in PISA 2018
    Shenghua Huang, Hongbiao Yin, Yule Jin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (1): 50-59.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.01.005
    Abstract593)   HTML72)    PDF (791KB)(803)      

    It is both theoretically and practically important to investigate the types and features of parental involvement and their relationships with secondary school students’ subject literacy. Using the data of Hong Kong and Macao in PISA 2018, this study conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) to identify four different latent classes of parental involvement. We then used the robust three step method (R3STEP)and BCH respectively to test how covariates such as region, student gender, and grade contributed to the classification of parental involvement and how different classes of parental involvement were related to students’ mathematics literacy, reading literacy, science literacy, and global competence. The results showed that (a) region, student gender, grade, family ESCS, and parents’ expectation of their child’s educational level were significantly related to, while the gender of parents/guardians who filled the questionnaire was not significantly related to the classification of parental involvement; (b) students of different parental involvement classes were in general found to be significantly different from each other in terms of their subject literacy. Specifically, students of Class 1 (Low Involvement Class, C1, 39.1%) were found to have the highest average scores in mathematics literacy, reading literacy, and science literacy, but not in global competence. Students of Class 2 (Busy and High Involvement Class, C2, 33.3%) were found to have slightly higher average scores in reading literacy than those of class 3 (Comprehensive and High Involvement Class, C3, 23.1%), but have lower performance in mathematics literacy, science literacy, and global competence than those of Class 3. Students of Class 4 (Limited and Moderate Involvement Class, C4, 4.5%) were found to have the lowest average scores in mathematics literacy, reading literacy, and science literacy, but have better performance in global competence.

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    Individual Competition and Paradox of Academic Cooperation : An Investigation to the Employment of Scientific Research Assistants of the “Principal Investigator System”
    Xiaoying Lin, Xinying Lin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (1): 60-74.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.01.006
    Abstract223)   HTML25)    PDF (817KB)(460)      

    This research takes the application and review mechanism of labor contract research assistant position in a “985” university as the starting point, adopts the method of qualitative research, and selects four types of stakeholders: the university, schools, professors and research assistants to conduct interviews to explore their positions, motivations and demands of the three parties in the employment of scientific research assistants. It also analyzes the reform of the scientific research process under the “Principal Investigator System” in the university. The study found that the employment of scientific research assistants reflected the new pattern of scientific research process established by universities with “PI team” as a typical institutional feature. The whole-process audit system for the scientific research process intensifies the competition among professors. Through the labor contract system hiring scientific research assistants not only changes the composition of the scientific research team, but also hinders the academic cooperation required in the knowledge production process. Multi-stakeholders need to make expedient adjustments and changes in scientific research management methods under the new situation.

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    Myth and Reflection on the Reform of Higher Education
    Jianhua Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (1): 75-88.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.01.007
    Abstract372)   HTML32)    PDF (781KB)(437)      

    There are two myths in contemporary higher education reform: one is to create a world-class university, and the other is to strengthen the university to serve economic development. Facts have proved that the world-class is only a ranking game for a few universities and is not suitable for the development guide of all universities. Similarly, there is also a non-deterministic causal relationship between universities and innovation-driven development. The success of innovation and entrepreneurship of individual universities does not mean the general rules. In the reform of higher education, either becoming a world-class or promoting economic development is an unbearable task for universities as a kind of organization. The future reform of higher education should focus on long-term common interests rather than short-term utilitarian goals. Through the “subversive innovation” of the old system, it should be freed from the myth of academic championship and knowledge economy, so as to lay an institutional foundation for the sustainable development of universities in our era.

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    Situational Learning: Connotation, Value and Implementation
    Zeyuan Yu, Mingming Na
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (1): 89-97.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.01.008
    Abstract1012)   HTML65)    PDF (642KB)(1035)      

    Situation is the product of interaction. Interaction and mobility are the essential attributes of situation. Learning takes place in specific situations, which affect people and learning. People in learning create continuous situations. Situational learning refers to the process in which learners experience the growth of experience by fully interacting with the situation around the learning theme, which emphasizes the maximization of the use of information and factors in the situation. Situational learning can build complex situations for the cultivation of students’ literacy, facilitate students’ independent participation, promote the development of high-level complex mind and nourish the cultivation of literacy. The situational learning that points to the cultivation of literacy needs to be realized by relying on grand concept and swarm intelligence. Structuring the situation with grand concept and constructing swarm intelligence in interaction are the key to the implementation of situational learning.

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    Enterprises’ Participation in Modern Apprenticeship: Research on the Relationship between Motivation, Behavior and Non-monetary Benefits
    Yunfang Ran, Weiping Shi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (1): 98-112.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.01.009
    Abstract199)   HTML20)    PDF (1053KB)(443)      

    The paper investigates the first batch of modern apprenticeship pilot city and vocational school carried out by the Ministry of Education in Zhejiang Province. Based on structured interviews with 89 enterprises, 103 questionnaires were obtained, which determined the enterprises’ motivation, behavior and non-monetary benefit for participating in modern apprenticeship. A structural equation of “motivation-behavior-non-monetary benefit” model is constructed and verified by the empirical data. The logical relationship and influence mechanism between motivation, behavior and non-monetary benefit is analyzed. The results show that motivation has a significant positive impact on behavior and non-monetary benefit, but behavior has no significant effect on non-monetary benefit, and the mediating effect of behavior from motivation to non-monetary benefit is not obvious. The vocational school and enterprise should unblock information channels, improve motivational matching, and promote school-enterprise resource sharing. The government should guarantee the benefits of enterprises by formulating targeted policies to enhance their dominant position. Vocational schools and enterprises should improve the cooperation mechanism, regulate the communication, and improve the quality of apprenticeship training. Also, they should build an exchange platform to strengthen the exchange between master and apprentice, and form a cooperative apprenticeship training mechanism.

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    Who is the Student: Based on the Changing Perspective of Ancient and Modern
    Changwei Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (1): 113-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.01.010
    Abstract455)   HTML40)    PDF (731KB)(319)      

    "Who is the student?" is one of the fundamental problems of education. Classical educational philosophers and modern educational philosophers give different answers. Classical educational philosophers, starting from the teleology of nature, thought that students were the few who were born outstanding. In his criticism of the wise school’s view of students, Plato clearly explained the classical view of students. Modern educational philosophers, on the other hand, think that students are all created equal from the perspective of unnatural teleology. As a modern educational philosopher, Locke’s view of students seems to be opposite to Rousseau’s, but in fact it is the same. Both of them insist on equality and aimlessness. For modern education, on the one hand, we should adhere to the equal student view, but at the same time, we should be aware of the nothingness of life contained in academic competition and student personality, so we need to activate the classical student view and perfect the modern student view in understanding and dialogue.

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    An Empirical Study on the Evaluation Model of Teacher’s Interdisciplinary Instruction Competency
    Dequan Zhu, Hongli Peng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (2): 1-13.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.02.001
    Abstract1395)   HTML69)    PDF (776KB)(1069)      

    Interdisciplinary instruction competency is the fundamental driving force for teachers to carry out interdisciplinary teaching practice activities. Interdisciplinary instruction competency evaluation is an important tool and necessary means to guide and promote teachers to develop interdisciplinary instruction competency. By clarifying the connotation and characteristics of teachers’ interdisciplinary instruction competency, this paper constructs the interdisciplinary instruction competency evaluation index system of primary and secondary school teachers, and uses Delphi method and analytic hierarchy process to form a three-dimensional evaluation model of teacher interdisciplinary instruction competency with weight coefficient value, which integrates interdisciplinary teaching knowledge, interdisciplinary teaching ability and interdisciplinary teaching affection. Through empirical test, combined with the current level of interdisciplinary instruction competency of primary and secondary school teachers in China, this paper puts forward the development path of teachers’ endogenous interdisciplinary instruction competency, that is, to understand the interdisciplinary teaching concept and enhance the interdisciplinary teaching sentiment and liberal consciousness, to deepen interdisciplinary teaching practice and temper interdisciplinary teaching ability and cross-border thinking, and to strengthen the communication between subject teachers and develop interdisciplinary teaching community and organizational culture.

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    Gold Bachelor, Silver Master, and Bronze Doctor: A Reflection of Ability or Academic Discrimination? — An Empirical Study on Ten Cohorts of Doctoral Graduates from a “Double First-Class” Construction University
    Liping Ma, Xiaomei Ye
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (2): 14-24.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.02.002
    Abstract719)   HTML36)    PDF (808KB)(426)      

    Based on the administrative data of ten cohorts of doctoral graduates of a “double first-class” construction university in China, this paper examines whether there exists the discrimination of educational background for “Gold Bachelor, Silver Master and Bronze Doctor” when looking for an academic career and draws the following conclusions. First, overall “Gold Bachelor”, “Silver Master” and “Bronze Doctor” are not effective labels that reflect doctoral graduates’ research ability: there is no significant difference in various research ablity indicators among these three types of doctoral graduates majoring in humanities and social sciences, while only the impact factors of English papers of “Gold Bachelor” and “Silver Master” are significantly higher than “Bronze Doctor” with science and engineering majors. Second, doctoral graduates of “Gold Bachelor”, “Silver Master” and “Bronze Doctor” have significantly different opportunities in acquiring academic careers, which to a certain extent, reflects the discrimination of educational background. The probability of pursuing postdoctor positions for a “Bronze Doctor” majoring in science and engineering is significantly higher, while the probability of obtaining faculty positions in a more selective university for a “Gold Bachelor” majoring in humanities and social sciences is significantly higher.

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    Who Benefits More from Online Learning: An Empirical Study on Postgraduates’ Online Knowledge Sharing Behavior
    Chiyao Sun, Ji’an Liu, Yanru Xu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (2): 25-37.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.02.003
    Abstract475)   HTML35)    PDF (1042KB)(477)      

    Online knowledge sharing is the key link of individual development in the digital age. Postgraduates are the core members of the future knowledge society. Exploring the factors affecting their online knowledge sharing behavior is of positive significance to promote postgraduates to enjoy digital dividends fairly and contribute to the construction of Digital China. However, the existing literature lacks attention to this topic. This study examines factors resulting in postgraduates differentiated online knowledge sharing behavior from two dimensions – social structure and individual ability. The results of the questionnaire survey of 501 postgraduates show that: first, structural factors (gender, school type, location, father’s occupation, and father’s education) have a significant impact on postgraduates’ online knowledge sharing behavior. These also have a greater impact on the quality of online knowledge sharing than in a quantity sense. Second, individual ability factors (information literacy) also have a significant impact on postgraduates’ online knowledge sharing behavior. It has a greater impact on the quantity of online knowledge sharing than in a quality sense. Third, there is Matthew effect in the Internet context, and certain effects of structural factors on online knowledge sharing behavior are indirectly generated through individual ability factors. Participants with privileged status regarding structural factors show a higher level of information literacy, which encourages them to be more active in online knowledge sharing behavior and facilitates their high-quality production.

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    Global Competence of Students in PISA High-Performing Regions: The Impact of Individual and School Factors
    Baocun Liu, Qinhui Huang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (2): 38-52.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.02.004
    Abstract387)   HTML30)    PDF (922KB)(533)      

    Based on data from four high-performing regions in PISA2018, this study explores student and school factors that affect students’ global competence with the help of hierarchical linear models. The study found that: family socioeconomic status, multilingual capability and reading interest have different degrees of predictive effect on students’ global competence; school mean ESCS has a positive predictive effect on students’ global competence in four places, while multicultural learning opportunities and globalization curriculum have no significant effect on students’ global competence. Teachers’ multicultural beliefs only had a predictive effect on Singaporean students’ global competence; school mean ESCS and teachers’ multicultural beliefs could moderate the relationship between students’ reading interest, family socioeconomic status and global competence, respectively. To promote students’ global competence, schools should provide students of different backgrounds with fair opportunities for learning about global competence, improve students’ foreign language skills, and create a campus culture that values ??reading. At the same time, schools should support peer communication and learning activities, coordinate the breadth and depth of multicultural activities and globalization curriculum, and provide teachers with opportunities for professional development of global competence teaching, so as to give full play to the role of individuals and schools in the development of students’ global competence.

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    PISA Derivatives: A Utilitarian Challenge to Global Education Governance
    Ji Liu, Jin Zhang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (2): 53-62.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.02.005
    Abstract328)   HTML19)    PDF (663KB)(303)      

    PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) derivatives share many commonalities with financial derivatives, and have emerged as a key development in international student assessments that is rapidly reshaping the policy landscape in global education governance. Their influence includes market-economy ideology replacing that of educational value, sharp increases in global demand for testing, and deterioration of local education autonomy and diversity. Through ideology transfusion, distortion of supply and demand, and decay of educational value, PISA derivatives are deepening policy short-sightedness, decontextualization, and structural dependency in global education governance. In light of these challenges, global education governance frameworks in the new era must emphasize humanistic values, strengthen inclusiveness, enhance equality, and activate new governance potentials through strategic reform in the international educational assessment architecture.

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    Exploring the Chinese Pathway of Value-Added Assessment: Critical Analysis of the U.S. Practice
    Yumei Han, Wenfan Yan, Dan Jiang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (2): 63-80.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.02.006
    Abstract543)   HTML25)    PDF (854KB)(518)      

    Comparative study and critical analysis approach were applied to analyze the essential features, technical issues, applicable limits, integration trends and preparative conditions of teacher value-added assessment, as well as to detect its pathway in terms of value proposition, technical breakthrough, application focus, developmental framework and practical transformation. Teacher value-added assessment measures teachers’ contribution to students’ learning based on their achievement growth, with the usage of value-added modelling. The approach quantifies the causal effect of teachers’ teaching upon student learning growth, and therefore provides quantitative evidence to diagnose levels of teachers’ effectiveness. Such features imply evidence-based orientation and technical specialties of value-added assessment, however, considering the limitations, over estimation of its value and over generalization in application should be avoided. Debates and unsolved technical challenges still exist around the issues of value-added modelling in terms of reliability, validity and statistical bias, Chinese efforts should be made to challenge the cutting-edge technological innovation and overcome the unsolved difficulties. Drawn from the evaluation reform history and empirical evidence of the U.S., it is proven that teacher value-added assessment should avoid risk of serving high-stakes decisions and highlight its diagnostic function. Integration of value-added assessment with diverse measurements becomes international trend in common, local efforts should be made to construct an integrated assessment system based on value pluralism and negotiation between multiple stakeholders. To promote practical implication of value-added assessment, preparative conditions should be met in development of national system of standardized assessment of student achievement and growth, development of national databases, organization of a professional team of expertise, as well as establishment of reporting and reflection mechanism for value-added assessment results and impacts, in order to add the maximized value to the new evaluation system.

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    Research on the Influencing Factors of College Students’ Entrepreneurial Intention: A Cross-country Comparative Study from the Perspective of Institutional Theory
    Weihui Mei, Weiyi Zhang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (2): 81-92.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.02.007
    Abstract376)   HTML27)    PDF (784KB)(403)      

    Entrepreneurial intention is not only an important predictor of college students’ entrepreneurial behavior, but also a hot issue in higher education and entrepreneurial education research at home and abroad. Previous studies mainly explore the influencing factors of entrepreneurial intention from individual factors in a specific country. Cross-country research on the impact of institutional environment for entrepreneurship on college students’ entrepreneurial intention is still in its infancy. Based on institutional theory, this study uses the data of ‘Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’ and ‘Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students’ Survey’ to investigate the impact of regulatory, normative and cognitive institutions on the entrepreneurial intention of college students in various countries at the time of graduation and five years later. The study finds that both the cognitive and the normative institution have a significant positive correlation with the entrepreneurial intention of college students, especially the impact of entrepreneurship education at the higher education stage; the role of the regulatory institution on the entrepreneurial intention of college students is more complex. It is suggested to vigorously promote the high-quality development of entrepreneurship education at different stages, create entrepreneurship-friendly cultural environment inside and outside the schools, and reconsider the effectiveness of some accustomed but unverified entrepreneurship policies for college students’ entrepreneurship.

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    Research on the Influence Mechanism of Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education on Entrepreneurial Behavior: A Large Sample Empirical Investigation Mediated by Entrepreneurial Ability and Entrepreneurial Willingness
    Depeng Ning, Tongtong He, Junxue Deng, Xue Zeng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (2): 93-105.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.02.008
    Abstract264)   HTML23)    PDF (965KB)(458)      

    Based on the sample data of 30,887 students from 102 colleges and universities in 26 provinces across the country, combined with the structural equation model, the mechanism model of the influence of innovation and entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial behavior with entrepreneurial ability and entrepreneurial willingness as mediating variables was verified. The research results show that entrepreneurship education can not only directly and significantly affect entrepreneurial behavior, but also positively and significantly affect entrepreneurial behavior through the first mediating effect of entrepreneurial ability, and can also positively and significantly affect entrepreneurial behavior through the first mediating effect of entrepreneurial willingness. The contribution of ability and entrepreneurial willingness to entrepreneurial behavior is stronger than entrepreneurial education. At the same time, consciously mining the elements of ideological and political education contained in the content of innovation and entrepreneurship education can stimulate and cultivate college students' excellent qualities such as team awareness, legal awareness, honesty awareness and social responsibility. Based on the conclusions of empirical research, it is proposed to update the concept of innovation and entrepreneurship education, strengthen the dual-subject awareness of entrepreneurship education in schools; fit the reality of entrepreneurship education in colleges and universities, attach importance to the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education, and strengthen the cultivation of entrepreneurial ability.Also, it's important to pay attention to the integration of ideological and political and ideological and political courses, excavates the ideological elements of innovative entrepreneurship education, and enhances the collaborative education force.

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    From a Financial Center to a Science and Technology Innovation Center: Transformation and Development of City Empowered by Higher Education Clusters—Based on the Case Study of New York City
    Zelin Zhuo, Xiaowei Zhang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (2): 106-116.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.02.009
    Abstract342)   HTML26)    PDF (792KB)(493)      

    After the 9?11 terrorist attack and the 2008 financial turmoil, the economic development of New York, the financial capital, has been severely affected, and the pace of marching into the city of science and technology has begun. The transformation of New York City’s technological innovation has been affected by various factors, such as its own creative capital development orientation and financial crisis. Higher education clusters are the core components of New York’s technological innovation system. They provide strong support and guarantee for the formation and development of New York’s global science and technology innovation center by cultivating innovative talents in science and technology, improving the transformation mechanism of scientific research achievements, focusing on leading industries, implementing internal and external development strategies, then promoting the successful transformation of New York from a financial center to a technology innovation center. New York’s successful experience of transforming to an international science and technology innovation center by relying on higher education clusters can be an important reference example for Chinese higher education cluster to better assist the construction and development of its urban science and technology innovation centers.

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    Knowledge and Power in Education: Approaching the Ideological World of Thomas S. Popkewitz
    Guorui Fan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (2): 117-130.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.02.010
    Abstract226)   HTML16)    PDF (726KB)(406)      

    Professor Thomas S. Popkewitz of the University of Wisconsin Madison in the United States, in his half-a-century educational research career, has widely absorbed the academic ideas of the French Almanac School, Michel Foucault and Pierre Bourdieu, and has embedded major educational issues such as educational reform, curriculum and teaching, teacher development and teacher education, and educational evaluation into the vision of social history and cultural structure. And, according to the concepts of institution, rationality, society, institution, knowledge, power, governance and “alchemy”, he explained and revealed the structural relationship of knowledge and power implicited in the multidimensional interaction of time and space.

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    Digital Transformation in Education: What to Turn and How?
    Zhenguo Yuan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (3): 1-11.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.001
    Abstract1317)   HTML109)    PDF (672KB)(969)      

    The digitalization of education is not only an empowerment of education, but also a reform and reshaping of education. Due to the complexity and specificity of the digitalization of education, the digital transformation of education has not achieved the expected results in many other areas. There is some confusion and even misunderstanding in the perception of scholars, policy makers and the public. It is necessary to clarify the basic theoretical and practical issues of the current digital transformation of education. The fundamental difference between the digitalization of education and digitalization in other fields is that educational activities are not the connection between things and things, but the connection between people, and the digitalization of education not only cannot replace people, but also aims at human development, through people, by people, for people, and whether it promotes human development as the standard. At present, the key tasks of education digitalization are to innovate education scenarios, develop digital resources, improve teachers' digital literacy, improve the level of the national digital education platform, and govern the digitalization of education with digital thinking.

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    Digital Transformation of Education Driven by Design Wisdom: The Goal Orientation, Guiding Principles and Practical Approaches
    Zhiting Zhu, Ling Dai
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (3): 12-24.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.002
    Abstract716)   HTML46)    PDF (1625KB)(1054)      

    The core of the digital transformation of education is to build a future education ecosystem integrated with digital technology through a thinking approach combining evolution and innovation, promoting system reconstruction and cultural innovation of the total elements, the whole business, the whole field and the whole process, and accelerate the realization of balanced, personalized, lifelong, flexible and open education to enhance the operational vitality of the education system and meet the expectations of all parties in society for fair and quality education. The research and practice of digital transformation of education in China are still in the initial exploration stage. Facing various confusions and bottlenecks of the digital transformation of education, it is necessary to carry new value concepts and practice logic through design wisdom to guide and lead the success of the digital transformation of education. This study proposes six target orientations: the shift of educational paradigm from supply-led to demand-led, the shift of teaching mode from teaching-centered to learning-centered, the shift of educational evaluation from knowledge-based to competency-based, the shift of educational system from stage-based to lifelong learning, the shift of educational architecture from system closure to system opening, and the shift of educational system operation mechanism from management to governance. It proposes the guiding principles of problem-driven and concept-led, future-oriented and competency-based, learning-centered and adaptive services, human-machine collaboration and digital empowerment, lifelong learning and accompanying records, multidimensional evaluation and credible evidence, iterative evolution and continuous innovation, and system opening and ecological development. It also proposes an action framework, ecosystem and risk prevention mechanism for the digital transformation of education led by design wisdom.

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    A Maturity Model for Digital Transformation in Education
    Yonghe Wu, Qiuxuan Xu, Zhuzhu Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (3): 25-35.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.003
    Abstract1190)   HTML66)    PDF (854KB)(1355)      

    The digital transformation in education is the driving force and innovation factor of the high-quality development of education. The evaluation of the ability level of the digital transformation in education has become one of the key points of the current education reform and practice. The maturity model provides a new method to solve the difficulty of evaluating the ability level of education digital transformation and helps to lead the implementation of the transformation practice. Based on the theory and basic structure of maturity model, this study analyzes the existing digital maturity model from the perspective of international comparison, and refines the key components of education digital transformation through policy analysis. By referring to the maturity levels and behavior characteristics of Capability Maturity Model and combining with the development characteristics of education digital trans- formation, an evaluation framework of education digital transformation maturity was constructed, which included five key process domains, 18 sub-key domains and five maturity levels. Based on the idea of “macro to medium to micro” to systematically promote digital transformation, this study discusses the key application scenarios of the ma-turity evaluation framework of education digital transformation from national, regional and school levels. A maturity model for digital transformation in education provides feasible evaluation paths for the implementation of education digital strategic actions and high-quality development of education.

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    The Essence of Education Digital Transformation: From Technology Integration to Human-machine Fusion
    Lianyu Cai, Mingfei Jin, Yueliang Zhou
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (3): 36-44.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.004
    Abstract1030)   HTML47)    PDF (766KB)(1334)      

    Exploring the qualitative prescriptive nature of education digital transformation is the cognitive basis for effectively promoting transformation practices. Information technology enhances the efficiency of information sharing, but objectively brings about the separation of technology from educational subjects (teachers, students, and administrators) and fails to achieve the convergence and fusion of machine intelligence and human intelligence. As a theoretical paradigm, “education technology integration” believes that the application of information technology in education is a process of improving the efficiency of industrialized “educational production” through the “integration of things and things” between technology and curriculum, innovating the presentation of teaching content, focusing on knowledge push, and facilitating students’ knowledge acquisition. The “technology integration” paradigm has limitations in the four dimensions of ontology, methodology, epistemology and axiology, and it is difficult to meet the value creation needs of education digital transformation. The essence of education digital transformation points to “human-machine fusion”. This new paradigm believes that the application of information technology in education is a process of “human-machine fusion” between educational subjects and machine, using human-machine collaboration to bring together machine intelligence and human intelligence to promote students’ mental growth, thus realizing “teaching students in accordance with their aptitudes on a large scale”. This paradigm follows the modern educational philosophy and is the theoretical basis for education digital transformation. Pushing education digital transformation needs to be based on the paradigm of “human-machine fusion”, and: (a) realize the digital-intelligence drive of the education system by the overall process of reengineering; (b) realize the human-machine fusion of education through new capacity building; (c) realize value system reconstruction by system optimization & innovating; (d) realize the educational function improvement of technology by organizing special researches and developments.

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    Understanding the School Public Space in the Digital Age:Practical Problems of Digital Transformation of Education
    Tong Jin, Yafen Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (3): 45-51.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.005
    Abstract380)   HTML35)    PDF (591KB)(542)      

    School is a special public space. The application of digital technology in school education leads to the coexistence of physical space and digital space in school public space. To understand the school public space in the digital age, we need to re-examine the school boundaries, curriculum and people of the digital space. “Internet + School” broadens the public space of schools and restores the concept of school. In the digital space, the boundaries of schools are defined based on the educational goals by teachers. With the highly developed artificial intelligence, the question that whether teachers would be replaced by artificial intelligence has turned from a technical issue to an ethical one. There is an urgent need to improve teachers’ digital literacy as a whole, not just their IT skills. At present, the focus of digital curriculum construction has shifted from resource construction to people.

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    The Core Technology Engine of Digital Transformation in Education: Trustworthy Education Artificial Intelligence
    Bo Jiang, Yingwen Ding, Yuang Wei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (3): 52-61.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.006
    Abstract831)   HTML44)    PDF (976KB)(792)      

    The digital transformation of education aims to reengineer the education and teaching process and improve the quality and efficiency through digital technology. On the one hand, digital technology represented by artificial intelligence as the technical engine of digital transformation of education drives the continuous deepening of digital transformation of education. On the other hand, the “black box” problem of artificial intelligence technology has caused a crisis of human-machine trust, and there is a risk of violating basic constraints such as fairness, accountability, transparency, and ethics in education, hindering the digital transformation of education. This study sorts out the four major governance problems caused and aggravated by artificial intelligence to help the digital transformation of education, analyzes the theoretical research and development status of trustworthy artificial intelligence in education, puts forward the basic framework of trustworthy artificial intelligence in education, summarizes the opportunities brought by trustworthy artificial intelligence in education for the digital transformation of education, and puts forward the development suggestions of trustworthy education artificial intelligence to promote the digital transformation of education. The research recommends the introduction of relevant standards and regulations for trustworthy educational artificial intelligence, incorporating technical credibility into the evaluation system of education digitalization, further promoting educational data governance, and improving the digital literacy of education practitioners.

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    The Key Stages of Digital Transformation in Education
    Yu Shengquan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (3): 62-71.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.007
    Abstract830)   HTML52)    PDF (693KB)(922)      

    Digital transformation in education includes three levels of change: technology, business, and people. It will go through five key stages of departmental local information application, overall institutional application and integration, business process service reorganization, organizational change of the future school, and new ecology of intelligent education services. If digital transformation of schools is effectively promoted, actions are needed in five areas: awareness of innovation acceptance, top-level planning and design, innovation in school education services, restructuring of school organization, and performance evaluation for continuous improvement.

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    The Difficulties and Corresponding Strategies of Educational Digital Transformation
    Junjie Shang, Xiuhan Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (3): 72-81.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.008
    Abstract2428)   HTML122)    PDF (1016KB)(1370)      

    The digital transformation in education is an inevitable result of the developing affordance of digital technology for education. This paper discusses the barriers, difficulties, and coping strategies in the educational digital transformation. It first describes three stages of future panoramic transformation of education: infrastructure upgrading, learning mode reforming, and educational process reengineering. The digital transformation of education, as a technology-involved innovative social revolution, is not bound to be a smooth journey. The interaction between technologies and education subjects is affected by multiple factors, thus leading to various corresponding difficulties and obstacles. The surface difficulties mainly come from the barriers of technological availability in building the new education infrastructure, referring to limited investments (e.g., human & financial) and technical bottlenecks. The deep difficulties mean educational subjects’ (e.g., teachers, students, & parents) action obstacles. The core difficulty is how to improve the consensus on digital educational innovation and how to deal with the relationship between humans and technology. To solve the core difficulty of educational digital transformation, it is necessary to carry out structural reform in education and strengthen the basic research of learning science to have a deep understanding of the process and mechanism of education with digital transformation. Finally, this paper puts forward several practical strategies to solve these difficulties from three levels: foundation-building strategies, empowering strategies, and exploring strategies.

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    Difficulties and Solutions: Next Step in the Digital Transformation of Education
    Xiaozhe Yang, Ruoxin Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (3): 82-90.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.009
    Abstract931)   HTML63)    PDF (693KB)(811)      

    The importance and value of digital transformation in education are getting more and more attention all over the world. Nowadays, China’s approach to the digital transformation of education is at an important and urgent stage, facing many difficulties, including blurred top-level design and lack of boundaries of responsibilities, inefficient digital resources and lack of stereo integration bases, overemphasizing data scale and technological innovation while ignoring the comprehensiveness of people development. This paper tries to point out paths for the next step of the transformation and think about how to break these dilemmas. The ways include reshaping the consensus and forming a diverse and consistent community; in-depth teaching and exploring five-application scenarios of digital education; and trying to promote people’s all-around development with people-oriented.

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    Reconstruction of Teachers’ Competencies: A Key Support for the Digital Transformation of Education
    Xiaohong Tian, Yilong Ji, Yueliang Zhou
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (3): 91-100.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.010
    Abstract1069)   HTML70)    PDF (1645KB)(1010)      

    The digital transformation of education is driven by the technical ecology formed by the integration of multiple technologies, and it is necessary to analyze the needs it brings to the teaching profession from a technical perspective. The technical intention of the digital transformation of education has shifted teachers from “teaching” to “learning”-centered, and smart education environment has shifted human-machine relationship from auxiliary to collaborative. The physical-social-cyber space survival mode penetrated by technology requires teachers to have corresponding moral cultivation capabilities, and the paradigm of knowledge growth in the digital age requires teachers to continue to develop themselves. Borrowing the functional capacity analysis construction path of organizational behavior elements analysis, the paper analyzes the core mission and attributes of educational organizations, and combines the needs of education digital transformation to obtain the specific types of capabilities supporting the digital transformation of education: curriculum development and teaching competency, human-computer collaboration competency, effective moral education competency and self-growth competency. From the perspective of supporting the digital transformation of education, curriculum development and teaching competency is the premise and guarantee of “learning”-centered, and human-computer collaboration competency is the transformation direction of teachers’ ICT capabilities in smart environments. Effective moral education competency is the primary role of teachers in the process of digital transformation, and self-growth competency is the purpose and means of digital survival. Teacher education needs to face up to the current problems in teacher capacity development and reshape teacher education around the core competencies required by digital transformation.

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    Design and Implementation of Intelligent-textbook: Digital Transformation Perspective
    Feng Li, Jie Sheng, Wei Huang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (3): 101-109.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.011
    Abstract1068)   HTML61)    PDF (1507KB)(1023)      

    With the application of the Internet, big data, and artificial intelligence in education, a new form of textbook construction has been created, promoting the development of digital textbook. However, the construction of digital textbook has some problems, such as simplifying to “electronic text”, being a “multimedia resource database”, or as a “dialogue machine”. This study analyzes the necessity of intelligent textbook development and explains the educational characteristics of intelligent textbook, such as “intelligent adaptation learning, intelligent guidance, accompanying evaluation, and in-depth learning interaction” from the perspective of instruction theory. Combining the technical advantages of AI, such as knowledge map, learning analysis, online tracking, learner digital profiles, it describe the methods and strategies of intelligent textbook to achieve corresponding educational functions. In view of the educational and engineering characteristics of intelligent textbook, this study analyzed the strategies for promoting the construction of intelligent textbook from adhering to the instruction theory, paying attention to the iteration of practice, and adopting technical method to supervise and manage.

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    Exploration of the Path of Digital Education Transformation and Practice in Shanghai
    Haiwei Li, Gong Wang, Meichen Lu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (3): 110-120.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.012
    Abstract683)   HTML66)    PDF (1190KB)(1240)      

    In the background of the “Digital China” strategy, accelerating digital transformation and development and building a digital China have become the torrent of the times. In the field of education, with the integration of a new generation of information technology and education, such as artificial intelligence, Internet of Things and cloud computing, education informatization has reached a critical point of “quantitative change” to “qualitative change”. At present, China’s education digital transformation practice still faces challenges in terms of top-level design and implementation paths. Around Shanghai Educational Digital Transformation policy implementation process, this paper introduced the procedure Shanghai constructed its plan from top to bottom and extract its experiences, including forming new vision through new infrastructure, breaking barriers through digital base, exploring educational new normal through top-down and bottom-up paths, enhancing deep reform through digital competences, assessment and resources construction. These measures can help solve the key problem in educational digital transformation.

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    Artificial Intelligence Curriculum Guidelines for Primary and Secondary Schools
    Jiang Bo Penner:, Dai Juan Core Members:, Zhou Aimin , Dong Xiaoyong , Liu Xiaoyu , Hong Daocheng Participants:, Jiang Fei , Zheng Longwei , Zhao Jiabao , Zhang Hengyuan , Liu Yalin , Yuan Zhenguo Consultant:
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (3): 121-134.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.03.013
    Abstract2374)   HTML153)    PDF (728KB)(2243)      

    Artificial intelligence (AI) education in primary and secondary schools has just started in China. Lack of unified curriculum standards, we still face many difficulties in the curriculum nature and objectives, textbooks development, and academic evaluation. To address this issue, East China Normal University and Shanghai Artificial Intelligence Laboratory jointly developed the Artificial Intelligence Curriculum Guidelines for Primary and Secondary Schools. The proposed guidelines has six parts including course nature and basic concept, core competency and curriculum objectives, course structure, course content and requirements, academic evaluation standards and implementation suggestions. We aim to construct a scientific and open curriculum guidelines for AI education in primary and secondary schools and simultaneously provide a reference for the construction of an AI education system in China.

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    Current Situation, Influence and Suggestions of China’s Elementary School Science Teacher: Based on a Large-Scale Survey in 31 Provinces
    Yonghe Zheng, Xuanyang Yang, Jingying Wang, Jia Li, Yangxu Lu, Shuhui Li, Yujing Yang, Xiaolin Zhang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (4): 1-21.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.04.001
    Abstract982)   HTML609)    PDF (2134KB)(667)      

    To investigate the current situation of elementary school science teachers in China, large-scale research in 31 provinces was organized by the Professional Committee on Science Teaching of the Steering Committee for Basic Education of the Ministry of Education in the second half of 2021, and 131,134 valid questionnaires were collected. The current situation of the elementary school science teacher workforce involves three major aspects: faculty structure, professional literacy, and professional development. The study found that there is a serious structural imbalance in the structure of China’s elementary school science teachers, with part-time teachers and liberal arts backgrounds dominating; weak knowledge and beliefs, practical wisdom such as information technology application to be strengthened; weak professional development, lack of experimental resources and professional training. It is recommended to strengthen the teacher management of elementary science, improve the supervisory mechanism, and optimize the structure of the teaching force; strengthen the professional standards and development planning of integrated pre-service and in-service elementary science teachers; promote the reform of the content and form of elementary science assessment and pay attention to the monitoring and evaluation of the quality of elementary science teaching.

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    Does Growth Mindset Affect Students’ Social and Emotional Skills Development: Empirical Analyses Based on OECD Social and Emotional Skills Study
    Zhongjing Huang, Kaiyue Shang, Jing Zhang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (4): 22-32.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.04.002
    Abstract700)   HTML331)    PDF (697KB)(931)      

    Mindset plays a decisive role in people’s words and deeds. This study adopted the OECD-Suzhou data to explore the growth mindset of 10-year-old and 15-year-old adolescents in social and emotional skills from the perspective of students, parents, and teachers, as well as the relationship between their thinking patterns and abilities. The results of the study show that, first, the growth mindset of students’ social and emotional skills is restricted by socioeconomic status. Second, the growth mindset of students, parents, and teachers’ social and emotional skills is significantly positive, relevant, and predictive for students’ social and emotional skills. This result has enriched the current research on growth-oriented mindset and society and skills, and pointed out and provided new ways and new measures to promote the cultivation of the social and emotional skills of our teenagers.

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    Empirical Research on the Cultivation Performance of Social and Emotional Skills: An International Comparative Analysis Based on SSES 2021
    Yipeng Tang, Zhongjing Huang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (4): 33-45.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.04.003
    Abstract821)   HTML292)    PDF (2512KB)(689)      

    Social and emotional skill is the cornerstone of success and happiness in life. In 2021, the global first test of SSEs (Study on social and emotional skills) provides a solid data foundation for the international comparative study of adolescents’ social and emotional skills. Using DEA (data envelop analysis) method, taking class size, teacher education, sses training, sses measures and campus activities as input variables and five skills as output variables, this paper evaluates the training effectiveness of 1,171 primary and secondary schools in 10 cities participating in the international evaluation. The results show that: first, the social and emotional skill training effectiveness of primary and secondary schools in all cities is generally high, and the average value of primary school is more than 0.8. The average value of middle school is above 0.9. Second, at the primary school stage, Suzhou schools have achieved outstanding results, not only the highest average, but also a high-level balanced type as a whole. In the middle school stage, Istanbul is the city with outstanding training results, which is also a high-level balanced city. Third, there are 82 high-performance primary schools and 87 high-performance secondary schools in all cities, of which Istanbul and Bogota account for a large proportion. Fourth, sense of belonging to school is the most important factor to improve the social and emotional training effectiveness. According to the above research results, this paper suggests that we should strengthen international cooperation and empirical research on social and emotional skill, look for gaps and fill in weaknesses while summarizing the successful experience of Suzhou, and take high-quality balance as an important goal of social and emotional ability training in primary and secondary schools in China.

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    Can Social and Emotional Skills Effectively Reduce Students’ Bullying: Empirical Analyses Based on OECD Social and Emotional Skills Study
    Jing Zhang, Zeliang Jin, Zhongjing Huang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (4): 46-55.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.04.004
    Abstract479)   HTML56)    PDF (665KB)(478)      

    Grounded on the social ecology theory and the OECD social and emotional skills framework, this study described the current situation of bullying among students aged 10 and 15, and explored the individual factors and environmental factors affecting bullying based on the OECD survey data in Suzhou. On the one hand, the results confirmed the relationship between demographic factors, environmental factors and bullying victimization, and found that although the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization was low, it was highly correlated with school bullying victimization. On the other hand, it explores the relative importance of social and emotional skills on bullying victimization through relative importance analysis, in which self-control and stress resistance were key factors in predicting students from school bullying and cyberbullying, and trusting skill was a protective factor from cyberbullying. The study reveals the close relationship between social and emotional skills and bullying victimization, and enlightens to carry out all-round and targeted prevention and intervention of bullying victimization from the perspective of social and emotional skills.

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    Can Virtue Be Taught: Research on the Influence of Higher Education on the Development of College Students’ Moral Cognition
    Wei Bao, Dechun Chen, Linnan Tong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (4): 56-71.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.04.005
    Abstract364)   HTML39)    PDF (1065KB)(357)      

    The primary purpose of higher education is to enhance students’ moral responsibility awareness, to internalize their moral ethics, and to develop a sound personality. Faced with the transition and evolution of external social morality, the question of whether higher education can promote the development of students’ benign moral cognition has emerged as a critical academic and practical concern. Using data from a national survey of university students, this paper develops a system of observational indicators of moral cognition among university students and examines the moral cognitive qualities of contemporary youth in society-family-university setting. Additionally, we use ordered logistic regression and Shapley’s value decomposition to examine the influence effects and mechanisms of five major educational elements on students’ moral cognition development: institutional organizational endowment, curriculum instruction, extracurricular activities, faculty-student interaction, and peer effect. The study contributes to the theoretical understanding of moral teaching mechanisms in Chinese higher education. It provides scientific advice for the development of an all-encompassing, multi-level, and three-dimensional platform for moral education.

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    Research on the Relationship between Exam-oriented Education and Students’ Creativity
    Zheng Ke, Can Liang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (4): 72-82.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.04.006
    Abstract1477)   HTML115)    PDF (783KB)(1072)      

    Although many people rightly believe that exam-oriented education hinders the development of Chinese students’ creativity, there is no basic evidence to prove that the overall creativity level of Chinese students is lower than that of other countries. Therefore, it should not be simply asserted that exam-oriented education restricts the cultivation of Chinese students’ creativity. But this does not mean that exam-oriented education has nothing to do with students’ creativity. A reasonable explanation is that exam-oriented education has different effects on different types of students. It is effective in “raising the bottom”, but it will obviously hinder the creativity of top students. This is supported by many direct and indirect factual evidence. Although the number of highly creative students accounts for a small proportion, their creativity is affected, which is related to national security and competitiveness and deserves attention and vigilance. Exam-oriented education has a significant negative impact on the creativity level of top students, which does not mean that other groups of students are not affected by it. But in the environment of exam-oriented education, the top students are more affected and restricted. Using the analytical framework provided by the “the componential theory of creativity”, this negative impact can work through three mechanisms, that is, reducing the width and depth of top students’ knowledge mastery, reducing the spirit of adventure and questioning, as well as the tolerant attitude towards uncertainty, and weakening the internal motivation of learning.

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    Should Calculators Be Allowed to Use in College Entrance Examinations in Mathematics: An International Comparison of 30 Countries and Regions’ Calculator Use Policies and Practices in College Entrance Examinations
    Shuhui Li, Shang Li, Lianghuo Fan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (4): 83-92.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.04.007
    Abstract950)   HTML25)    PDF (1579KB)(1101)      

    Whether calculators should be introduced to College Entrance Examinations in Mathematics (CEE-M) in China is a long-standing controversial topic. This study examined calculator use policies and practices in CEE-M in 30 relatively economically developed countries and regions, and compared their delivery modes (single, mixed), types of calculators allowed and roles of calculators in exam questions and solutions; representative questions in selected sample exams were also used for case analysis. The study found that most CEE-M allowed students to use calculators, with mainly the single delivery mode using scientific calculators, and introducing calculators into the CEE-M can provide a new opportunity to enhance the real-life context, openness, and flexibility of questions in mathematics examinations. According to the results, the study concluded that there is a need to fully realize the value of introducing calculators in CEE-M, carry out more research in designing exam questions allowing calculators to promote examination reform and innovation, and establish a long-term plan for introducing calculators into mathematics classrooms and examinations.

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    How to Understand and Depict Educational Inequality from the Perspective of Basil Bernstein’s Code Theory
    Xing Ma, Tienhui Chiang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (4): 93-110.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.04.008
    Abstract393)   HTML34)    PDF (830KB)(451)      

    The phenomenon of cultural reproduction has foregrounded inequity in educational results as a social fact. Although Basil Bernstein argues that this phenomenon is rooted in students’ coding orientations that regulate the practice of rules of recognition and realization, the influence of code theory has been gradually declining mainly due to its numerous jargons. Considering this constraint, this article sets out to illustrate the interplay of rules of recognition, rules of realization, classification, framing and coding orientation in simple descriptions in order to stimulate further empirical studies. We further argue that this interplay is geared by rules of inner logic embedded within coding orientation, classification and framing. As this inner logic is systematically correspondent with the inner logic of an elaborated code, this situation situates high SES students in a privileged position in learning. Unfortunately, a restricted code doesn’t have this connection, so that it is difficult for low SES students to generate excellent performance. The principle of inner logic provides us with a gateway for improving inequity in educational results.

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    Towards Reinvention: The Dual Effects of Intergenerational Transmission of Family Education of the First Generation College Students
    Tao Chen, Yan Zhang, Haiping Xue
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (4): 111-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.04.009
    Abstract468)   HTML33)    PDF (1120KB)(457)      

    The first generation of college students is a generation of family intergenerational transmission, and a generation of China’s intergenerational society. As they form their own families, they also start the process of reinventing their children after remolding themselves. Based on the CHFS data in 2019, this article focuses on the first generation college students in families. This article, from the micro perspective of “family intergeneration” to the macro perspective of “urban and rural stratum, studies the family and rural-urban effects of the obtainment of supplemental education on the offspring of four groups: the families started by the first generation college students, non-college families, the families started by the first generation college students in urban areas and that in rural areas. The results show that: (1) intergenerational transmission of education widens the gap of the obtainment of supplemental education among children of families with different cultural capital; (2) intergenerational transmission of education narrows the gap of the obtainment of supplemental education between rural and urban children; (3) authoritative parenting and characteristics of the first-generation college students’ families are the internal reason of the double effect. To sum up, the experience and characteristics of the first generation of college students determine intergenerational reinvention that transmits cultural capital, class reinvention that crosses urban-rural boundaries, and upbringing reinvention that values all-round development.

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    New Concepts and Trends in the Cultivation of International Elite Creative Talents
    Yong Zhao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (5): 1-15.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.05.001
    Abstract675)   HTML52)    PDF (689KB)(622)      

    Elite creative talents are wanted and sought after in every modern society as they seem to be the primary force that drives social and economic development. But cultivating elite creative talents can follow different approaches in different societies. This article provides a comprehensive review and analysis of current thinking and emerging issues in cultivating innovative, creative, and entrepreneurial talents. Primarily, the author finds the following. First, elite creative talents are not programmed and trained by early selection. Second, creativity is naturally born and everyone has the potential to become a creative elite. Third, creativity appears in different domains and must be based on solid knowledge and skills. Thus elite talents have their unique abilities and knowledge. Fourth, different society has different attitudes toward creative talents and thus different societies have different environments for cultivating creative talents. Fifth, opportunities and luck play significant roles in the development of creativity. It is therefore critical for individuals to have opportunities or create their own opportunities. Finally, creativity must be bounded by ethical and moral standards, which vary in different societies. But at least, the outcomes of creativity should not cause harm to others and the world.

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    An Empirical Study on the Development and Problems of Higher Education: Analysis Based on the National Higher Education Satisfaction Survey in 2021
    National Higher Education Satisfaction Survey Group
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (5): 16-25.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.05.002
    Abstract376)   HTML33)    PDF (705KB)(378)      

    Higher education satisfaction survey not only reflects students’ satisfaction with the development of higher education, but also reflects the implementation of macro policies of higher education. In 2021, the Chinese Academy of Educational Sciences implemented the third round of national higher education satisfaction survey after 2016 and 2018. The survey found that the overall satisfaction of national higher education is steadily improving, especially in the aspects of ideological and political education, construction of teachers’ morality and style, information technology empowerment and educational environment, which has brought more and more satisfactory learning experience and gains to college students. However, the satisfaction with students’ innovative ability and quality, practical teaching opportunities, teachers’ teaching methods and professional identity is not high. Based on the above contents, from the perspective of improving satisfaction, the article puts forward suggestions on improving the effectiveness of innovative talent training, exploring new practical teaching models, building a dedicated teacher evaluation system, enhancing the social adaptability of talent training, and innovating the forms of international exchange and cooperation.

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    Higher Education and High-quality Economic Development: Mechanism, Path and Contribution
    Haigang Huang, Siqi Wu, Yue Qu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (5): 26-40.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.05.003
    Abstract557)   HTML16)    PDF (1041KB)(574)      

    To build a modern socialist country in all respects, we must, first and foremost, pursue high-quality development. Improving the role and efficiency of higher education in high-quality economic development is not only an important task to implement the spirit of the Twentieth National Congress of the Communist Party of China in the field of education, but also a proper meaning to accelerate the construction of high-quality education system. Based on panel data of 31 provinces in China from 2000 to 2019, this paper analyzes the contribution of higher education to high-quality economic development and its realization mechanism based on the transmission chain of “higher education-human capital, technology, industry-high-quality economic development” by building the direct effect, indirect effect and complementary effect models of higher education. The research shows that higher education has a positive contribution to high-quality economic development, and this economic effect shows significant regional heterogeneity. The contribution of higher education to economic quality is in the order of western region, central region and eastern region from large to small. Factors such as diminishing marginal return of human capital investment, industrial transfer and education policy support jointly promote the strong role of higher education in improving quality and efficiency in the economic development of central and western regions. Further mechanism inspection found that higher education could promote high-quality economic development through multi-dimensional paths such as human capital accumulation, promoting technological innovation and giving play to the complementary effect with industrial structure.

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    Research on the Quality Structure and Influencing Factors of High-level Talents in the Field of Philosophy and Social Sciences
    Min Zhang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (5): 41-52.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.05.004
    Abstract249)   HTML13)    PDF (1034KB)(283)      

    High-level talents in the field of philosophy and social sciences generally have profound love for motherland, a strong sense of social responsibility, and clear academic aspirations. Knowledge structure, ability to interpret and construct, and openness and inclusiveness are relatively unique characteristics of knowledge, capability, and personality of high-level talents in the field of philosophy and social sciences, whose growth depends on social needs, governmental support, organizational cultivation, academic environment, and important others, in which social needs and organizational cultivation are unique important environment elements. Personal factors include ideological and political quality, value pursuit, personal efforts, ability, and growth experience, in which political quality and value pursuit are unique important personal elements. Stepping into the new era, for the purpose of cultivating those talents, it is necessary to raise their ideological standing position, improve the discipline system designed for their growth, and stimulate their lofty ideals, academic interest and social responsibility.

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    To Enter “The Second Half” Reform:The Theoretical Framework of University Governance Capability and Its Produced HEIs
    Zhimin Luo, Chunlian Chen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (5): 53-64.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.05.005
    Abstract176)   HTML8)    PDF (1058KB)(197)      

    Universities with the same governance system, structure or system have world-wide differences in governance performance levels, which often stem from differentiated governance capabilities. Under the current development situation, turning to the research of governance capabilities can not only break through and make up for the barriers and the shortcomings of “absence of ability” in existing related research, but also cater to the needs of the university governance modernization reform moving into “the second half ” in China. Based on the perspective of factors-resources, university governance capabilities are, in essence, a comprehensive reflection of the university’s influence, control, and effects in the process of allocating various factors it possesses. expressed as the amount of resources that can be produced. In the production of university governance capacity, HEIs undertake the intermediary role from “potential” (element) to “manifestation” (resource). The allocation of relevant elements by HEIs should be the allocation of the maximum governance effect under the existing time and space conditions, and form a virtuous governance cycle of utilization and exploration of elements. In terms of specific configuration methods, HEIs should adopt or comprehensively adopt corresponding configuration methods according to the characteristics of the elements, so as to continuously produce and reproduce the resources required for the development of the university.

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    The Role of State and the Image of University: A Comparative Study of International Governance Reform of Higher Education
    Rong Yao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (5): 65-83.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.05.006
    Abstract262)   HTML15)    PDF (891KB)(387)      

    The classical theory of university autonomy aims at clarifying the scope and boundary of state supervision on university autonomy through the legal and even constitutional guarantee of university autonomy. With the coming era of governance, the relationship between state and university has been changing from legal decentralization to functional decentralization. In continental European countries, the emergence of the evaluative state which aims at the unification of university autonomy and responsibility provides more systematic guidance and guarantee for the increase of university corporation’s ability to fulfill responsibility. In Anglo-American countries, the rise of the regulatory state in the field of higher education induces or forces universities to strengthen the prevention and management of compliance risks, improve the self-regulatory system of universities, and enhance their ability of achieving good governance through good law. The modernization of China’s higher education governance system and governance capacity should draw on the governance wisdom of the evaluative state and the regulatory state, and coordinate the two reform approaches of prescriptivism and functionalism, so as to realize the synergistic improvement of the government’s law-based and effective supervision ability and universities’ law-based and effective governance ability.

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    Are Women No Inferior to Men: A Study on Gender Differences of Engineering Doctors in Elite Academic Positions
    Ying Zhao, Wenqin Shen, Jun Zhu, Haotian Xu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (5): 84-97.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.05.007
    Abstract282)   HTML11)    PDF (2034KB)(226)      

    With the continuous improvement of women’s education, women in the scientific circles have become an important force in scientific research and innovation, but the low proportion of female teachers in universities, especially in science and engineering in research universities, is still a prominent problem. This paper focuses on the employment of engineering doctors in the academic career pipeline, and tries to analyze the gender differences in the acquisition of elite academic positions. The study found that the vast majority of female doctors are willing to continue to engage in academic careers, and from the employment results, there is no statistically significant difference in the probability of male and female doctors obtaining academic posts, but the probability of women obtaining elite academic posts (formerly 211 universities and Chinese Academy of Sciences) is 30% lower than that of men. Further, according to the Oacaxa-blinder decomposition, the probability of male doctors obtaining elite academic positions is 11% higher than that of female doctors, and almost 100% are classified as “the unexplainable part of the model”. In combination with this questionnaire, 60% of female doctors believe that they have been treated with gender discrimination in the process of employment. We can cautiously infer that gender discrimination in the process of employment still exists in a way that is difficult to observe.

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    The Influence of Teacher Care on the Development of Rural Children’s Non-cognitive Ability: Analysis of the Mechanism of Co-education in Home and Schools
    Xiaomei Ye, Xiaojie Cao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (5): 98-112.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.05.008
    Abstract351)   HTML33)    PDF (1060KB)(469)      

    Based on the data of the China Education Panal Survey (CEPS), this paper analyzes the influence of teacher care on the development of non-cognitive ability of rural children and its mechanism from the perspective of home-school co-education by regression analysis and KHB intermediary effect test. According to the conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness and extraversion under the framework of the Big Five personality theory to measure non-cognitive ability, the study found that the subjective teacher care can significantly improve the development of non-cognitive ability of rural children, and the objective teacher care can have a differentiated effect on the non-cognitive ability of rural children. Specifically, teachers’ learning care has a significant positive effect on rural children’s extroversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness, and significantly improves their neuroticism. Teacher’s psychological care can significantly improve the agreeableness and conscientiousness of rural children, and teachers’ dating care can significantly improve the rural children’s extroversion and openness. We also found that teacher care will affect the non-cognitive ability of rural children by the improvement of parenting. This mechanism is achieved through the parents’ response and demander to the children, and compared with the parents’ demander, the contribution of parents’ response to the needs of their children is greater.

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    The Vicissitude of Zoning of Higher Normal Education
    Liyong Zhang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (5): 113-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.05.009
    Abstract258)   HTML17)    PDF (870KB)(347)      

    To save the nation from crisis and achieve the goal of universal education, ‘training teachers in higher normal schools’ was chosen by the late Qing Government. This model continued in the early Republic of China and later was improved by implementing ‘Zoning of Higher Normal Education’ with the establishment of six higher normal schools. Things changed soon and ‘training teachers in universities’ seemed more favored by the elites. Continuing debates emerged at both official and folk conferences. In the subsequent movement of promotion to universities, several higher normal schools were transformed to comprehensive universities. With less normal schools to supply qualified teachers, there left hidden troubles in the development of secondary education. Only Peking Higher Normal School remained its tradition of normal education, but it suffered from several tempests and was considered to be superfluous by some scholars. During the Anti-Japanese War, referring to the Zoning system, six normal colleges were established, which manifested the value of higher normal education and the Zoning system. Due to domestic trouble and foreign invasion, it was until the founding of People’s Republic of China that normal education institutions were eventually set up separately rather than affiliated to universities. The vicissitudes of ‘Zoning of Higher Normal Education’ is of some reference meaning to current training of teachers.

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    The Dual Aspects and Normative Requirements of National Education Power
    Zhongle Zhan, Zhicheng Liang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (6): 1-13.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.06.001
    Abstract239)   HTML26)    PDF (794KB)(269)      

    From a historical perspective, at the beginning of its birth, national education power only meant the state’s intervention in the content of education. Since the birth of the social state, a welfare factor has been added to national education power, requiring the state to act actively to ensure the realization of the right to education. This makes the national education power that contains both intervention and welfare aspects. Following this distinction, we could investigate their normative requirements separately. Article 19, paragraph 3, Article 19, paragraph 5, Article 24 and Article 46 of Constitution together constitute the constitutional basis for the intervention of national education power, and put forward formal and substantial requirements for national education power. In addition, the Educational Law delineates the normative boundaries between the national education power and the family education right, the school education right and the social education right. The welfare aspect of national education power should also meet the requirements of constitutional norms, it can’t deviate from the national goal, or violate the principle of equality, and should fulfill the national protection obligation.

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    “Learning by Doing” as a Social Theory: A New Attempt to Deepen Dewey Research
    Shiwan Tu, Kai Zhu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (6): 14-25.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.06.002
    Abstract880)   HTML54)    PDF (717KB)(987)      

    What is hidden behind learning by doing is the era’s problem of change of ancient and modern, and the social problem of transformation from pre-modern society to modern society. John Dewey is a strategic agent committed to solving the problem of social transformation. His theory of learning by doing faces the conflicts arising in social transformation and promotes social progress by solving these conflicts. From the perspective of social theory, it is based on conflict theory. The social ideal of learning by doing is to build democratic communities based on local autonomy. It is in this sense that the “doing” of learning by doing is communication, intercourse, cooperation and experimentation, and also refers to student autonomy. The real learning by doing is to “learn” by “doing” in an autonomous community with a shared meaning, and to learn in the deep democratic life with high interest. So, learning by doing is not only an educational theory, but also a social philosophy with conflict theory as its core and devoted to solving problems of social transformation towards democratic communities.

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    The Changes of the Academic and Vocational Education Streaming Policy: Sequence, Structure, and Logic
    Jin Jin, Tianjun Cheng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (6): 26-37.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.06.003
    Abstract857)   HTML15)    PDF (760KB)(518)      

    Over the past 40 years since the Reform and Opening-up, the effective implementation of the academic and vocational education streaming policy has made great contributions to the structural reform of secondary education, the national economic construction, and the human resources development. In the future, with the changes of the social environment, the streaming will also face many disputes and challenges. To deeply understand the current streaming contradiction and clarify the future institutional trend, we need to “face the history”, and examinations based on the perspective of Historical Institutionalism is an effective way. Through reviewing the policy texts since the Reform and Opening-up, it is found that the development of China’s streaming policy shows the characteristics of gradual institutional change dominated by the state, and has experienced four stages: the recovery of the secondary vocational education with the aim of economic construction, the streaming exploration from pursuing efficiency to emphasizing reasonableness, the streaming landslide under the impact of college enrollment expansion, and the integration of the vocational and academic education under the concept of “people-oriented”. The adjustment of industrial structure, the reform of national governance and the prevalence of the cultural concept of people-oriented have promoted policy development as the overarching structure, and the interaction between the micro actors and the policies also has brought opportunities for its reform. Rationally viewing the “path dependence” and policy reform, giving full play to the role of institutional background in guiding and promoting policies, and establishing “decentralized decision-making” and “diversified cooperation” mechanisms are the effective ways to break through the institutional obstruction and realize the path optimization.

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    Integrated Education: the Historical Context, Existing Experience and Future Key of the Relationship Between Schools and Grass-roots Society
    Yuhua Bu, Shan Qi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (6): 38-46.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.06.004
    Abstract217)   HTML19)    PDF (962KB)(171)      

    In the past century, the integrated educational relationship between schools and grass-roots society in China has experienced two stages from integration to separation, resulting in a paradox. On the one hand, the school educational function is infinitely expanded and overburdened, on the other hand, the grass-roots society is absent from school educational governance, and its original educational function is also shrinking. Promoting the integration of schools and grass-roots society and the formation of educational pattern is an important task of the modernization of educational governance ability at present and in the future. According to the existing domestic experience of integrated education and management system, it is not enough to rebuild the needs of integrated education between schools and grass-roots society in modern society. Therefore, it is necessary to reconstruct the “new link”. Schools need to change from “organizational image” to “community image”, open to the community and participate in the construction of community culture. In terms of the inter-organizational aspect of schools and grassroots society, the key mechanism is to rebuild a new type of substantive “integrated organization”.

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    Analysis of the Influence of Family Background on Students’ Subject Choices under the New College Entrance Examination System: Empirical Investigation Based on Survey Data in Zhejiang Province
    Jianzhen Zhang, Xiaoyu Liang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (6): 47-58.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.06.005
    Abstract324)   HTML23)    PDF (1227KB)(353)      

    The subject selection system is one of the core contents of the new college entrance examination reform. To investigate the effect of family background on high school students' willingness to choose subjects and academic achievement, descriptive statistics, factor analysis, crossover analysis, and binary logistic regression analyses were conducted based on the data from a sample of Zhejiang Province’s 2017-2020 New College Entrance Examination graduates. Results show that, first, the more advantageous the family background, the more likely the student will achieve high academic achievement. Second, family background has a significant influence on subject choice, mainly in terms of family economic capital positively influencing the choice of subjects with high learning costs, family philosophy of mathematics and chemistry positively influencing the choice of science-oriented subjects, and family cultural atmosphere positively influencing the choice of literature-oriented subjects. Finally, personal factors such as gender and subject performance are still the key factors influencing the willingness to choose subjects, mainly reflected in male and high-performing students preferring science subjects. Policies need to be in place to promote all-round development of students and rational subject choices to further promote equity in educational opportunities.

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    The Spatio-temporal Pattern and Evolution of Resource Allocation Efficiency of Postgraduate Education in China: Supply Side Analysis Based on Provincial Panel Data from 2003 to 2018
    Xuemin Zhang, Guodong Zhao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (6): 59-77.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.06.006
    Abstract244)   HTML20)    PDF (1700KB)(351)      

    Based on the supply side perspective, the evaluation index system of postgraduate education resources allocation is constructed. The improved stochastic frontier model is used to calculate the allocation efficiency of postgraduate education resources in 30 provinces in China from 2003 to 2018. On this basis, the Kernel density curve, standard deviation ellipse and spatial econometric model are used to comprehensively analyze the spatio-temporal evolution, convergence and influencing factors of efficiency value. The results show that the allocation efficiency of postgraduate education resources in China shows a trend of steady increase, but the overall efficiency is low and the range is only between 0.255 and 0.321. The spatial distribution pattern showed a ladder pattern of east (0.428) > northeast (0.341) > central (0.245) > west (0.170). However, the growth rate of each region was opposite. In addition, provinces with high value and high value, low value and low value are stable, and no obvious spatio-temporal transition occurs in the sample period. Both traditional β convergence model and conditional β convergence model show that the convergence trend is obvious in the whole country, and will be further strengthened with the orderly expansion of educational scale and the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure. However, the direction and intensity of influence on different regions are different. Therefore, the government should implement the resource allocation strategy according to local conditions, construct resource sharing channels with strong leading weak, and clear the barriers of resource transformation to improve quality and efficiency to accelerate the improvement of postgraduate education resource allocation efficiency, and form a high-quality spatial linkage development pattern in the coordinated promotion.

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    Construction of Education System for the Aged in the Aging Society: Based on the Study of the Willingness and Situation of Learning and Participation in the Old Age in Four Provinces and Cities
    Zunmin Wu, Lijia Wang, Lu Deng, Keke Yang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (6): 78-91.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.06.007
    Abstract315)   HTML18)    PDF (1300KB)(245)      

    Based on the survey of people in different regions on the learning needs and participation of senior citizens, this paper investigates the willingness and actuality of the elders to learn in the context of the lifelong education system. The study found that the surveyed groups are generally low in willingness to learn in the old age, and they prefer the learning content of “the old people have fun”. The surveyed population, dominated by the elderly, is obviously insufficiently involved in the existing lifelong education system, and is facing difficulties in terms of funding support, information channels, and insufficient openness of educational venues. At the same time, different groups are learning content and gains for the elderly. There is a different state of support. The construction of an education system for the aging society needs to be based on the concept of life-long education, under the concept of “the old can learn” and “the old can do”, attach importance to the opening of diverse learning opportunities to the elderly, relying on information technology and other platforms. Also, it’s important to establish a learning system based on the needs of the elderly to ensure equal learning opportunities for different elderly groups.

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    The Building of Intelligent Platform and Laboratory for Aesthetic Education Evaluation: Based on the Process of Aesthetic Education Teaching and Aesthetic Experience
    Lingli Zhao, Gang Jing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (6): 92-107.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.06.008
    Abstract374)   HTML19)    PDF (1119KB)(640)      

    Aesthetic education must be carried out in aesthetic activities and aesthetic experience, and its evaluation should be accomplished in the “process and experiential” assessment. On the basis of the existing artistic quality evaluation results, the report adjusted and built a three-dimensional aesthetic education evaluation index system, including administrative aesthetic education work (z), teacher’s aesthetic education teaching (x), and students’ aesthetic quality development (y). It focused on exploring the composition of all the indicators of teachers’ aesthetic education (x) and the composition of all the indicators of the cardio-cerebral reaction (y) to the aesthetic experience for the students in the aesthetic activities, which would support the students’ aesthetic quality in the“process and experiential”assessment. Modern experimental aesthetics, modern and contemporary aesthetic psychology, neuroaesthetics, information science and intelligent technology also provide theoretical and technical support for the construction of this aesthetic education evaluation platform from different levels. Based on this, we can also construct a set of intelligent scheme which is suitable for the whole education and teaching evaluation.

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    Aesthetic Motivation: Tension and Dilemma in Educational Games : A New Era of Autonomous Learning
    Geping Liu, Xiaolang Chen, Xue Huang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (6): 108-117.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.06.009
    Abstract279)   HTML26)    PDF (949KB)(543)      

    Educational games, also known as educational electronic games or electronic educational games, are hot spots in the development of smart education industry. Video games are fascinating, but with the addition of the word “education”, they encounter many obstacles at the application level. The theory of game aesthetic motivation reveals that it is human nature to like playing games. People voluntarily follow certain rules (sociality), and then enjoy the freedom, imagination, creation and pleasure in games. The online survey shows that the video game industry pays special attention to audio-visual factors that induce formal aesthetic motivation. However, there are blind spots in the research on the application of educational games at home and abroad, both in terms of form and connotation aesthetic motivation. In recent years, the concept of meta universe and the establishment of the national intelligent education platform have provided new possibilities for the future of ubiquitous learning and autonomous learning. At the same time, practitioners and users of educational games, including game manufacturers and designers, educational administrators, teachers, parents and students, also need to improve their aesthetic and humanistic qualities, so as to promote high-quality educational games to get out of the difficulties at the application level and release greater educational potential.

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    Development and application of an instrument to measure students’art literacy
    Jian Li, Naiqing Song, Shimeng Wang, Xiaojian Sun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (6): 118-132.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.06.010
    Abstract392)   HTML27)    PDF (1019KB)(303)      

    The assessment of art literacy is an indispensable part of the quality monitoring of school aesthetic education, but in the past it has been ignored for a long time, which makes the assessment of art literacy lag behind in our country and seriously restricts the high quality promotion of school aesthetic education. In view of the current domestic lack of developing the fine arts accomplishment evaluation tool, this study investigate the dimensions and the corresponding weights of the art literacy for elementary school students, and use the item response theory to construct elementary school students’ art literacy assessment tool for the first time. The instrument contains 25 items, which respectively measured four dimensions of perception recognition, artistic expression, creative connection and aesthetic appreciation. The trail test found out that this instrument exhibited moderate difficulty, rational distribution, good reliability and validity. The difficulties of the items were widely distributed across the entire continuum of the art literacy, which can be used to accurately measure students’ literacy across the entire continuum of the art literacy. The instrument can comprehensively reflect the status of students’ art literacy. The research data comes from a total of 3695 elementary school students from urban and rural schools in 15 districts (counties) of 5 provinces in Eastern, Central, and Western China to practically validate the performance of instrument.. The. results showed that both the mode and items fit the data and the majority of responses that students answered to the items can well-represent the performance of the art literacy.

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    Efficiency or Value: Logic Dilemmas and Tension Adjustments of University Faculty Evaluation System
    Qiang Su, Xiaowei Cai
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (6): 133-141.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.06.011
    Abstract217)   HTML24)    PDF (685KB)(256)      

    In recent years, the prevalent evaluation activities in university faculties have always been dominated by scientific research orientation, quantitative method, and performance orientation, reflecting the phenomenon that only emphasizes the rationalities at the factual level and ignores the legitimacy at the value level. The evaluation orientation and standards of university faculties are not mainly derived from the self-consistent theoretical logic, but from the strong interventions of external forces in the academic ecology of universities and the results of competitions among universities in reality, which in turn shapes faculties work life styles, academic beliefs, and action preferences. Therefore, it is necessary to comprehensively reflect on the result logic, counting logic, and performance logic of the current evaluation system at the value level, so as to adjust the tension between the purpose value and instrumental value of faculty evaluation.

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    ChatGPT/AIGC and Educational Innovation: Opportunities, Challenges, and the Future
    Yongxin Zhu, Fan Yang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (7): 1-14.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.07.001
    Abstract3186)   HTML490)    PDF (805KB)(4454)      

    A text-based artificial intelligence application called ChatGPT has sparked attention from all walks of life upon its launch, and its demonstrated value of educational innovation has been hotly debated in particular. Thanks to its advanced algorithms, powerful computing capabilities and massive data base, ChatGPT can learn on its own when interacting with users, thus intelligently providing Q&A, translation, writing and other services. In addition, the newly-released upgraded version of ChatGPT—GPT-4 can also better solve real-time problems, reason logically and write creatively. In the field of education, ChatGPT can be used as a teaching tool, answer professional academic questions, build autonomous learning platforms, save human resources costs, and reconstruct school education structures, providing many development opportunities for educational innovation. However, it also brings some risks and challenges, impacting the role of teachers, the goals of talent cultivation, the traditional school order, and exposes typical issues such as technological dependence, academic misconduct, and intelligent discrimination. Currently, technological renovation is pressing educational innovation step by step, which requires us to approach new technologies positively and cautiously, achieving self-reliance and strength in intelligent technology by strengthening organized scientific research, building a national digital security barrier through revising relevant laws, enhancing application service transparency by clarifying digital education standards, and transforming talent cultivation concepts to form flexible thinking in education evaluation. Based on all this, we must make every effort to create a new form of human civilization in the process of moving towards human-machine co-teaching.

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    The Influence of ChatGPT/AIGC on Education: New Frontiers of Great Power Games
    Nanping Yu, Yiran Zhang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (7): 15-25.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.07.002
    Abstract1408)   HTML316)    PDF (1057KB)(1359)      

    The emergence and development of the new generation of artificial intelligence (AI), represented by the ChatGPT, marks the significant transformation from the weak AI to the strong AI, so as to bring great opportunities and challenges to the education system. The new generation of AI’s technological involvement in education elevates the relationship between teachers and students to a brand new third dimension. It presents the following characteristics: a)the network effects of the relationship between teachers and students, b) the dynamic creation of teaching activities, c) th implicit transmission of knowledge and information. From the perspective of application scenarios, the ChatGPT model will focus on three fields: “teachers”, “students”, and “disciplines”, and play an active role in team building, student training, , and discipline building. The application of ChatGPT to the education system not only cast game-changing influence on the current education norms, but also enlarges the gaps in regional developments, controls the industrial transformation process, reshapes the labor structure and complicates the national information security. Th above-mentioned influences not only go beyond the scope of self-definition of education, but also spread to every field of today’s society, and becomes new Frontiers of Great Power Games, directing the shaping of international power structure. In this process, education will be re-understood and redefined.

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    Exploring the Impact of ChatGPT/AIGC on Education and Strategies for Response
    Zongkai Yang, Jun Wang, Di Wu, Xu Chen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (7): 26-35.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.07.003
    Abstract4412)   HTML521)    PDF (699KB)(4412)      

    ChatGPT, as a representative of AIGC, has a significant impact on education. It empowers teaching by shifting the teaching model from “teacher-student” to “teacher-computer-student”, promoting the shift of teaching content from manual production to intelligent production, and catalyzing the assessment model of “knowledge + literacy”. ChatGPT also empowers learning by promoting the ubiquitization of learning space, meeting the personalized needs for full coverage of the learning process, and forming a human-computer collaborative learning mode. Additionally, ChatGPT empowers education by promoting higher-order ability cultivation and comprehensive literacy cultivation, and innovating the education model of discipline integration. To cope with the impact caused by ChatGPT, we must pay full attention, think calmly, and respond positively. This requires us to accelerate the development of high-level competing products with localized characteristics and to thoroughly study the laws of intelligent pedagogy with human-computer synergy. It also involves handling the important relationships between change and invariance, equity and efficiency in education, and the specialization and universality of technology. Besides, it's important to correctly grasp the direction and development of integration of AI technology and education, and lead the transformation of education system structure and operation mechanism.

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    ChatGPT/AIGC and Modernization of Education Governance: Also on the Transformation of Education Governance in the Digital Era
    Hongyu Zhou, Yuyang Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (7): 36-46.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.07.004
    Abstract632)   HTML49)    PDF (719KB)(1186)      

    The application of digital technology to educational governance is a strategic choice to cope with the changes of the times and society. Educational governance in the digital era has two meanings. One is “digital-based educational governance”, the other is “governance of digitalization in education”. The former inspires us to make full use of the governance dynamics of ChatGPT; the latter inspires us to strengthen the risk governance of ChatGPT. Along this line of thought, we can find that the introduction of ChatGPT, a new generation of artificial intelligence technology, has ushered in a major opportunity for the education governance system to be perfected and the education governance capacity to be effectively improved. However, the current ChatGPT is not perfect, and the tension between the existing education governance system and ChatGPT has not yet been dissolved, resulting in its potential application in education governance not being fully released. In view of the potential of ChatGPT, education governance in the digital era is increasingly moving towards scientific, efficient, democratic, rule of law and intelligent development. We should start from improving the governance system of “one core, multiple governance”, improving education governance capacity, building a proactive education governance framework, and jointly building a global education governance system, so as to prevent the risks of ChatGPT application while leveraging its momentum to help modernize education governance and promote the modernization of Chinese education with the modernization of education governance.

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    The Subversion and Resetting of the “Basic” of Basic Education by ChatGPT/AIGC
    Zhengtao Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (7): 47-55.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.07.005
    Abstract595)   HTML65)    PDF (630KB)(885)      

    The relationship between ChatGPT and basic education poses a dual challenge: the challenge ChatGPT presents to basic education, and the challenge basic education presents to ChatGPT. Regarding the challenge that ChatGPT poses to basic education, it brings about a subversive and systemic change to the “basic” of basic education, which is both basic and systemic. As for the challenge that basic education presents to ChatGPT, it requires a reverse thinking process to answer three fundamental questions. Firstly, ChatGPT has changed everything about basic education, but can basic education change ChatGPT? How can ChatGPT be changed? Secondly, what kind of technological changes and ChatGPT can meet the needs of basic education and conform to the laws of basic education? Thirdly, can basic education reform change and even subvert the technological changes represented by ChatGPT? The most fundamental way of subversion is to “legislate” the use of ChatGPT in basic education, establish laws for education, including educational values and educational thinking.

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    ChatGPT/AIGC and the Value and Mission of Higher Education
    Yuan Xun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (7): 56-63.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.07.006
    Abstract1041)   HTML80)    PDF (640KB)(1448)      

    Even though large multimodal models have broad application prospects at all stages of education, especially higher education, we should first focus on how to more effectively train students’ ability to cope with AI, or develop their wisdom to cooperate with AI in the process of applying this model. Today, with the rapid development of artificial intelligence, what artificial intelligence cannot achieve in education, especially in the field of higher education, is exactly the real value of human education, especially higher education, including the development of human unique rationality, collectivity and richness of human intelligence, adaptability of human culture, human moral and ethical choices, and human creativity. Higher education in the era of artificial intelligence must adhere to the intrinsic value of higher education, focus on the development of students’ morality, ethics, spirit and creativity, and provide necessary guidelines for rational application of artificial intelligence, so as to ensure that the young generation can continuously develop human collective intelligence under the premise of correct use of artificial intelligence, so as to create a future of common happiness for mankind.

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    ChatGPT/AIGC and the Future Vocational Education
    Guoqing Xu, Jinfang Cai, Beijia Jiang, Zheng Li, Hui Yang, Jie Zheng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (7): 64-77.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.07.007
    Abstract1407)   HTML88)    PDF (668KB)(1821)      

    Generative artificial intelligence such as ChatGPT has attracted strong attention since its inception. This paper reveals the future picture of vocational education under the influence of ChatGPT from four main aspects: vocation, vocational ability, personnel training in vocational education and scientific research in vocational colleges, which affect the development of vocational education and reflect the important functions of vocational education. Firstly, in terms of vocation, this paper puts forward corresponding coping strategies after clarifying the technical principles, mechanisms and paths of ChatGPT’s impact on vocation. Secondly, in terms of vocational ability, after combing the ability of ChatGPT, this paper analyzes the influence of ChatGPT on vocational ability from the explanation of the characteristics and structure of vocational ability, and suggests how to deal with the above influence. Thirdly, in terms of personnel training in vocational education, this paper first discusses the personnel training of vocational education school system, combs the application of artificial intelligence technology in the field of higher vocational education personnel training, and then analyzes the challenge of ChatGPT to higher vocational education personnel training and puts forward countermeasures. Then this paper discusses the personnel training of vocational skills training system, expounds the influence of iterative update of ChatGPT on future skills training and the influence of ChatGPT on the future skills training mode of vocational education. Finally, in terms of scientific research in vocational colleges, after clarifying the basic connotation of scientific research in vocational colleges, this paper depicts the iterative process of scientific research in vocational colleges in the change of skill formation, expounds the influence of ‘de-skill’ technology development represented by ChatGPT on scientific research in vocational colleges, and answers how scientific research in vocational colleges should deal with ‘de-skill’ technology development represented by ChatGPT.

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    The Transformation of Teachers’ Work in the Era of ChatGPT/AIGC: Opportunities, Challenges, and Responses
    Huan Song, Min Lin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (7): 78-90.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.07.008
    Abstract1227)   HTML103)    PDF (1388KB)(2566)      

    As the latest breakthrough in artificial intelligence, ChatGPT has attracted widespread attention and discussion in the field of education since its release, requiring an analysis and exploration of its impact on teachers’ work from both theoretical and practical perspectives. Drawing upon the theoretical ideas of Biesta’s “weakness of education” and Dewey’s “philosophy of communicative action”, this paper deeply considers the essence of the integration between ChatGPT and education. According to different ways of thinking about “strong education” and “weak education”, teachers and schools have different degrees of replaceability. Teachers should pay attention to the value orientation of education, grasp the essence of education, seize the opportunities brought by ChatGPT in personalized learning, teacher workload, and teacher self-growth, and actively respond to the challenges brought by ChatGPT in learning objectives, teaching processes and design, and evaluation methods. Starting from the fundamental task of education and “competency-based suyang” education, and focusing on the digital information literacy of educators, this paper proposes new requirements for the structure of teachers’ competency in the new era: the ability to lide shuren (cultivate moral character and educate students), professional ethics in the digital age, the ability to integrate artificial intelligence into teaching, and the ability to update the curriculum, learning, teaching, and evaluation.

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    ChatGPT from the Perspective of Computational Education: Connotation, Theme, Reflection, and Challenge
    Yonghe Zheng, Danhua Zhou, Yonghe Zhang, Xuewei Tian, Jingying Wang, Yi Zheng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (7): 91-102.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.07.009
    Abstract667)   HTML47)    PDF (1093KB)(1029)      

    The advancement of artificial intelligence technology, represented by ChatGPT, has driven the transformation and upgrading of data-intensive paradigms in the era of computational education, and pushed computational education towards a critical period of development. This article first explores the value connotation of the generative artificial intelligence model represented by ChatGPT, in order to reveal the essence of promoting the upgrading of computational education paradigm through the advancement of artificial intelligence. Secondly, we explore the emerging educational research themes of teacher-student-machine knowledge generation through social network analysis and data mining, and analyze the multi-agent research of teacher student machine in the school field from four aspects: technological breakthroughs, student learning, teacher teaching, and school education based on the core domain relationship graph to jointly promote the in-depth development of computational education research, which outlines a diversified research landscape of human-machine integration driven by strong algorithmic computing power in computational education iterations. We further reflect on ChatGPT’s educational application as a tool rather than the ultimate goal, that is, ChatGPT serves as a technical means to assist writing rather than a responsible subject, as an enhancement and supplement to teaching rather than replacing the role of a teacher, and it is required to cooperate with assisting students in learning and not become overly dependent. Finally, we explore the key challenges that ChatGPT brings to the development of computational education from the perspectives of theoretical construction and decision-making empowerment, namely exploring the basic theoretical construction based on educational computing, promoting the evolution of structural rules in computational education, practicing the environmental construction and application practice of computational education, enhancing teachers’ abilities to achieve educational orientation in educational computing, and preventing privacy and bias risks of intelligent application data.

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    Educational Reform in the ChatGPT/AIGC Era
    Yukun Chen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (7): 103-116.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.07.010
    Abstract713)   HTML57)    PDF (7518KB)(982)      

    ChatGPT/AIGC was born at the end of 2022. What impact will it bring to education and how should education respond in the future? This article proposes that human-machine collaboration will become the mainstream teaching mode in the future era, and the class teaching system will gradually withdraw from the historical stage. The main function of future teachers will shift from teaching to educating people, and a group of “super teachers” will stand out. Paper textbooks will be cleared out of backpacks, and paperless campuses are no longer a dream. Meaningful learning will replace effective learning for the first time, becoming the most concerned language for schools and parents, and the main research topic for educational researchers.

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    Is AGI Approaching: Rethinking the Development of AI and Future Education in the Context of the ChatGPT Craze
    Xiaoqing Gu, Yiling Hu, Xiangjun Hao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (7): 117-130.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.07.011
    Abstract711)   HTML66)    PDF (1529KB)(1085)      

    Technology and education have been competing to promote the progress and development of human society. The team of “Research on Artificial Intelligence Promotes the Development of Future Education” continues to pay attention to the trends of technology under the AI craze, as well as the impact of new technological developments on future education. The project conducts in-depth analysis of artificial intelligence technology development, the interaction between technology, society and education ecology, and the internal structural elements of the education system. The project has formed systematic achievements on issues such as talent strategy, knowledge view, teaching and learning reform, and teacher role reshaping under the influence of artificial intelligence. Under the new wave of artificial intelligence represented by ChatGPT, what challenges will education face? Has the critical point of AGI really been breached? What are the new trends in the ecological interaction between technology, society and education? Based on the nature of intelligence, this study attempts to answer whether ChatGPT heralds a breakthrough in AGI, and examines the impact of the competition between technology and education on what to teach, how to teach, and who will teach from the perspective of the social ecological system. It is foreseeable that education must take action to respond to the impact of technology on human wisdom. It should focus on raising the intellectual threshold about asking new questions of transforming the world and creating new knowledge, and establish an ecological perception of the development of education, technology and talent.

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    ChatGPT/AIGC Reshape Education: Underlying Logic and Possible Paths
    Zhi Zhang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (7): 131-142.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.07.012
    Abstract1074)   HTML82)    PDF (1879KB)(1472)      

    As a large model based on general artificial intelligence, ChatGPT can provide generative information acquisition services, and its functions far exceed any previous retrieval and search tools. Its appearance will also have a profound impact on education. This paper analyzes the influence of ChatGPT on education through literature research and other methods, analyzes and demonstrates its underlying logic of reshaping education from the perspective of brain science, knowledge view, and educational metacognition, and proposes its possible path to reshape education. The article believes that the impact of ChatGPT on education will mainly change education profoundly in the fields of the effectiveness of traditional educational tools, knowledge value theory, resource form, learning model, evaluation methods, and human-machine collaboration IQ. Its change in education conforms to the essence of brain science, echoes with the concept of knowledge, and also conforms to educational values. The birth of ChatGPT gave birth to a new form of education. In the future, it is necessary to accelerate the construction of human-computer collaborative IQ, educational evaluation systems, and computing-based teaching strategy models, and accelerate the revolutionary reshaping of human education.

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    AI-Driven Educational Reform: The Impact and Prospects of ChatGPT/GPT
    Li Jiang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (7): 143-150.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.07.013
    Abstract959)   HTML83)    PDF (578KB)(1168)      

    With the rapid development of artificial intelligence technologies and the emergence of AI such as ChatGPT and GPT-4, traditional education models are facing significant challenges. We have entered the era of artificial intelligence, and in this era, education should shift from focusing on cultivating individual abilities without AI assistance to nurturing comprehensive abilities with AI support. Using AI technologies such as ChatGPT correctly can provide students with learning resources and personalized learning paths. At the same time, AI can also offer many conveniences for teachers, transforming them into AI-enhanced “super teachers.” The education system should embrace technological changes to achieve truly interest-driven, self-driven, and inquiry-based learning. In the era of artificial intelligence, the focus of education should include teaching of AI thinking, creative and innovative capabilities, design thinking, communication skills, teamwork, problem-posing abilities, and learning abilities with the assistance of AI.

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    The Impact of ChatGPT/AIGC on Learning from the Perspective of Learning Evolution
    Minjing Ni
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (7): 151-161.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.07.014
    Abstract837)   HTML74)    PDF (666KB)(1125)      

    ChatGPT is a brand new knowledge tool that can be compared to the emergence of text (which enables knowledge to exist outside the human brain) and the emergence of the Internet (which enables every brain to fairly acquire and express knowledge). Through new machine learning algorithms, it achieves the creativity and generative power of artificial intelligence and opens up wisdom outside the human brain. This has had a huge impact on learning itself, and has even led to the evolution of learning to a new stage - the super learning stage.

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    ChatGPT in Education: A Diagnostic Study of Teaching Ability
    Liang He, Zhenyu Ying, Yingying Wang, Wenqi Sun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (7): 162-176.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.07.015
    Abstract996)   HTML75)    PDF (964KB)(1509)      

    The development of artificial intelligence technology is triggering profound changes in the field of education. As a new generation of natural language processing tools driven by artificial intelligence technology, ChatGPT has attracted widespread attention and use due to its powerful language understanding and text generation capabilities. However, due to the special nature of education, it is especially important to pay attention to whether it will have a negative impact on students while accepting it. In order to investigate the current teaching ability of ChatGPT, Shanghai Institute of AI Education, East China Normal University organized a diagnostic study of ChatGPT in teaching ability. Through 118 questions and 800 rounds of questioning, six teachers and nine students found that ChatGPT does not yet have the ability to tutor students independently, but it can be used as a good assistant for teachers to improve their daily work efficiency. Teachers should approach, learn, and use general AI tools as soon as possible, understand their potential risks, and teach students how to properly face and use general artificial intelligence tools.

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    Investigation into the Transformation of Knowledge-Centered Pedagogy with ChatGPT/Generative AI
    Jingyuan Chen, Liya Hu, Fei Wu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (7): 177-186.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.07.016
    Abstract1143)   HTML98)    PDF (2035KB)(1460)      

    This paper explores the transformative role of ChatGPT in the teaching mode centered on knowledge concepts. As a language generation model, ChatGPT is capable of in-depth language comprehension and innovative combinations by mining the symbiotic relationships between words through massive language data learning. However, in the field of education, ChatGPT faces limitations such as over-reliance on training data, weak logical reasoning ability, and limited ability to handle new scenarios. To overcome these limitations and enhance the accuracy and relevance of ChatGPT’s generated content, this paper proposes an organic combination of ChatGPT with the organization of teaching resources centered on knowledge concepts, and improve ChatGPT by creating structure diagrams of knowledge concepts. Additionally, several specific and feasible ways to assist teachers and students using ChatGPT are also proposed. Finally, this paper discusses how to combine the prompt research paradigm with the teaching mode centered on knowledge concepts to help ChatGPT establish a “knowledge system”. This will enable ChatGPT to become a language generation model driven by both data and knowledge, providing more intelligent and personalized services in the education field, and promoting its development and transformation.

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    The Connotation and Influencing Factors of Employment Ability of College Students in China:Based on the Comparison Between Applied Universities and Research Universities
    Qiuheng Shi, Kexin Ren
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (8): 1-12.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.08.001
    Abstract962)   HTML113)    PDF (1194KB)(736)      

    The structural contradiction between employment difficulty and recruitment difficulty highlights the disharmony between the structure of higher education and the demand for talents of economic and social development. This paper explores the current situation and influencing factors of the employability of college students in research universities and applied universities by constructing a structural model of the employability of college students. It is found that the employability model of college students, which is composed of personality traits, general ability and professional knowledge and skills, is well supported by the data. The employability of Chinese college students is mainly based on comprehensive literacy and ability, and the applied talents have obvious advantages in vocational technical skills. The first classroom is the main front to improve the employability of college students, while the second classroom is of great value to college students with high employability. The quality of practical training in application-oriented colleges and universities needs to be improved. Therefore, colleges and universities should give full play to the different values of the first classroom and the second classroom to realize individualized teaching. Application-oriented colleges and universities should take engineering talents as the goal of talent training, improve students’ comprehensive quality in an all-round and multi-channel way, increase the construction of practice and training so as to realize the combination of characteristics and high quality.

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    Divergence or Convergence: The Process Characteristics of College Students’ Learning from the Perspective of Discipline Classification
    Min Kang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (8): 13-21.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.08.002
    Abstract152)   HTML58)    PDF (809KB)(252)      

    The process characteristics of college students’ learning from the perspective of discipline classification reflect the differences supported by the training process and needs of students, which is helpful to deepen the educational evaluation reform and promote the design of multiple evaluation system in the new era. Based on the National College Student Survey, the study shows that students’ academic and social experiences are positively related, with high academic experiences and high social experiences, low academic experiences and low social experiences being the two main types. The proportion of low academic experiences and low social experiences for science students is the largest, and the proportion of high academic experiences and low social experiences, low academic experiences and high social experiences for social science students is relatively large. The results show that the convergent education mode of science and engineering education has been broken, but the parochialization phenomenon of practice education still exists in science and engineering, while polarization appears in academic experiences and social experiences type of social science college students, and the science education and humanities education of basic discipline are split. It is recommended to form a characteristic education path based on discipline types.

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    The Impact of Higher Education Expansion on Undergraduate Enrollment Quality in China: Based on the Data of NCSS
    Yicheng Jiao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (8): 22-33.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.08.003
    Abstract308)   HTML63)    PDF (1148KB)(279)      

    The quality of undergraduate enrollment is the starting point of higher education quality. During the transition from mass to universal higher education, understanding the quality of undergraduate enrollment is of great significance for improving the teaching quality of colleges and universities and building first-class undergraduate education. Based on the data of NCSS, this study evaluates the characteristics of undergraduate enrollment quality, and further explores the impact of higher education expansion on undergraduate enrollment. The results show that, firstly, although the students’ achievements decline, their abilities increase; the profession and university’s suitability show an upward trend; fairness is generally stable but lacks diversity. Secondly, the applied universities have assumed greater responsibility in the expansion, facing multiple challenges, such as a large decline in the students’ scores, insufficient profession and university’s suitability, and insufficient diversity of students. And the research universities should pay more attention to the fairness. The research suggests that the research on quality of undergraduate enrollment should be shifted from the comparative purpose to the cognitive purpose, so as to help colleges and universities improve education and teaching based on the quality of student resources and realize the value-added development of college students. And it is suggested to provide certain policy and resource support for the development of applied universities, so as to cover a wider range of undergraduate students and build a more extensive sense of first-class undergraduate education.

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    Construction of Education for Community of Shared Future for Mankind: Theoretical and Practical Approaches
    Xudong Zhu, Tongtong Zhao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (8): 34-43.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.08.004
    Abstract315)   HTML15)    PDF (693KB)(342)      

    Confronting an era of profound changes unseen for a century, education for community of shared future for mankind has guided the direction for the development of education in China and the world, which is crucial for the realisation of solidarity and interdependence among different nations and individuals globally. Based on the Marxist philosophy of community and traditional Chinese “HE” culture and “All-under-Heaven (TIAN-XIA)” worldview, and through a comprehensive education of the political community, economic community, security community, cultural community and ecological community, education for community of shared future for mankind can achieve training individuals from shaping common values that transcend ethnic groups and countries, to mastering the knowledge of the world and human development cognition, and developing individuals collective rational action ability for world interests. Based on the international, open and practical characteristics of the education for community of shared future for mankind, the educational approaches consist of international dialogue, open integration and practical reflection.

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    The Theoretical Implications of Labor Education
    Xianming Xiang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (8): 44-52.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.08.005
    Abstract472)   HTML21)    PDF (635KB)(295)      

    Labor education is a very important and special aspect of the theory of “five educations” in Marxist pedagogy. It forms an organic whole closely linked with moral, intellectual, physical and aesthetic aspects in human development. Whether as an educational activity, an educational content, a moral education, or as a special curriculum in schools, labor education should be comprehensive, free, independent and creative. Otherwise, it cannot promote people’s free and all-round development. In the process of alienated labor education, people lose their subjectivity and are simply trained as labor tools. Labor education itself often degenerates into a punitive activity. In terms of its essential characteristics, labor education can establish a meaningful connection between students’ book knowledge and their social practice, so as to fundamentally solve the problem of “Reading in a pedantic way”, and thus has important value in overcoming educational alienation. The free and all-round development of human beings, in the final analysis, depends on the development of labor itself. Therefore, free, independent and comprehensive labor education is the fundamental way to ultimately bring up people with all-round development.

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    Deep Learning in the Age of Digital Intelligence: From Shallow Memory Towards Deep Understanding
    Mingxuan Chen, Liang Zhou
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (8): 53-62.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.08.006
    Abstract387)   HTML31)    PDF (838KB)(688)      

    In the complex, changing and challenging real world, shallow learning based on repetitive memory is no longer able to meet the challenges of the times, so deep learning has received great attention. But what is deep learning? How to achieve deep learning? There are different understandings and different approaches in the academic community. The essence of learning is comprehension, and comprehension is the form of representation of deep learning, and the depth of learning is the degree of comprehension. The strategies to promote deep understanding in the era of digital intelligence include “learning transformation to promote deep understanding”, “technology empowerment to promote deep understanding” and “teaching design to promote deep understanding”. The three aspects provides a new theoretical perspective for interpreting deep learning, and lays a theoretical foundation for an in-depth study of the occurrence mechanism of deep learning and the role of technology on learning in the era of digital intelligence.

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    A Visual Analysis of Neuromyths in Education and Educational Inspiration
    Jiaxian Zhou, Zhicong Zhang, Dan Chen, Jie Shen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (8): 63-78.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.08.007
    Abstract316)   HTML23)    PDF (2300KB)(330)      

    The wealth of educational neuroscientific results has contributed to deeper development and reform in education. In the process, however, misunderstandings and misinterpretations of neuroscience results have created an obstacle that has to be addressed - “neuromyth”. The current situation of the prevalence of neuromyth in the education system has seriously affected the teaching efficiency of teachers and the development of students. The current research in this area has not attracted sufficient attention from domestic scholars. Therefore, this study summarizes and compares the literature on neuromyths published from 2012-2022 and conducts a visual analysis to point out the current status and influencing factors of neuromyths and interventions. It concludes with some educational insights and recommendations.

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    Thinking Training Oriented: Analysis and Application of Intelligent Classroom Teaching Based on Accurate Labeling Technology
    Yu Song, Changliang Xu, Jia Zhu, Shaoming Chai
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (8): 79-89.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.08.008
    Abstract313)   HTML25)    PDF (1538KB)(362)      

    Classroom teaching is the main position of talent training. Improving the quality of classroom teaching is important to promote the high-quality development of basic education and cultivate innovative talents. This study systematically puts forward a classroom teaching evaluation system for thinking training. Based on this, an automatic labeling method of classroom teaching based on audio and video transcripts has been created. With the help of the hybrid neural network model combining CNN and BiLSTM model, the rapid and accurate annotation of large-scale classroom data is realized, which can effectively refine the thinking characteristics in classroom teaching. At the same time, sequential pattern mining technique suitable for evaluation of classroom teaching has been developed, which can reveal the sequential pattern of high-quality classroom teaching and the advanced law of implicit thinking. This paper takes a school in Guangdong Province as an example to conduct a one-year experiment. By comparing the first and last monitoring results, it is found that with the blessing of intelligent analysis technology, the proportion of classroom dialogue involving high-level thinking has been significantly increased, the thinking chain is longer, and it can reflect the law of advancing from low-level thinking to high-level thinking, Among them, the more significant long chain dialogue is the advanced mode of basic knowledge acquisition→ personal opinion expression→analysis and interpretation→summary and induction → migration and innovation. The future intelligent classroom teaching analysis should focus on the following three aspects: developing technology based on classroom dialogue analysis and multi-modal data cooperation; the selection and application of intelligent technology should serve the education and teaching objectives, so as to effectively create a high-quality and efficient class.

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    Construction of Indicators of “How Teachers Support ” in Project-Based Learning(PBL)
    Xuemei Xia
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (8): 90-102.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.08.009
    Abstract322)   HTML27)    PDF (767KB)(468)      

    In the new teaching reform, whether teachers should provide support, to what extent, at what time and what types of support are the key issues in the transformation of learning and teaching from the perspective of competencies. Taking project-based learning as a typical method, based on the latest development of constructivism, effective failure, intervention research of project-based learning implementation, learning scaffolding and other theories, this paper forms the theoretical framework based on three key questions about how much support, when to support, and how to support. Based on the framework and the coding of teachers’ interview, the final indicators of how teachers support students in PBL were constructed and confirmed.

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    Research on Financial Aid Policy of Secondary Vocational Education Students in China
    Xiao-jian Qiu, Jiang-nan Li, Tian Qiu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (8): 103-116.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.08.010
    Abstract317)   HTML20)    PDF (786KB)(273)      

    As China’s secondary vocational student financial aid has gone through a monorail stage dominated by people’s grants, a stage of merging people’s grants with scholarships, a stage of merging scholarships with student loans, and a multi-rail stage of state grants with free tuition, the policy system has improved. In terms of funding targets, it has realized the transformation from universal funding to selective funding, “poor” and “agriculture related” students have gradually become the main funding targets. From simplification to diversification in the content of funding, the funding content is increasingly rich. From singleness to mixture in the way of funding, funding methods are increasingly precise. From unity to pluralism in the subject of funding, the main body status of the government has been continuously strengthened. In terms of funding values, it not only reflects the trade-off between equity and efficiency in national macro policies, but also reflects the value appeal of incentive guidance and pursuit of adequacy of the subsidy policy. In the new historical development stage, the student financial aid policy of secondary vocational education should keep pace with the times, construct the new “5W” policy financial aid model. In terms of funding targets, the identification of impoverished secondary vocational students with digital empowerment has improved the “accuracy” of funding targets. In terms of funding content, we should strengthen the supply of “poverty-relief” subsidies and further enrich the content of funding. In terms of funding mode, we should optimize the implicit funding mode and ensure the “temperature” of funding mode, continue to improve the financial aid policy system for secondary vocational education students with Chinese characteristics. In terms of funding entities, we will improve the mechanism of “government-led and diversified participation” in funding to ensure adequate funding supply. In terms of the value of financial aid, we should strengthen the orientation of educational aid and train secondary vocational students to become builders and successors of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era with the all-round development of morality, intelligence, physique, beauty and labor.

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    The Choice on the Boundary of General and Vocational Education: The Logic of Students’ School Choice Based on Education Equity
    Xi Zhan, Shiyue Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (8): 117-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.08.011
    Abstract159)   HTML15)    PDF (719KB)(197)      

    Analyzing the school choice logic of students whose scores in the senior high school entrance examination are at the watershed between regular high schools and vocational high schools will help us to dismantle the educational development dilemma of vocational education and general education, which is called classification but is actually stratified. Students identify the educational function and selective function of general and vocational schools through the signals of classified education and merit-based selection, so as to form a school selection decision that ensures education equity as much as possible. A series of structural and agentive factors affect the identification process. In the future, we should improve career orientation services in primary and secondary schools, promote the consistent development of vocational education concepts, teaching content, pedagogies, and teaching technologies, and create a growth path for students that is different from theoretical teaching and learning in the general schools, so as to provide process equity as the support for achieving equitable education opportunities and outcomes.

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    A Time Sociological Analysis on Teachers’ Workload
    Huan Song
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (9): 1-15.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.09.001
    Abstract436)   HTML48)    PDF (905KB)(535)      

    As a topic closely related to time, teachers’ workload needs to be analyzed from the three dimensions of the sociology of time: the commercial value, the political structure, and the moral norm. The scale effect of social time and its induced performance management lead to teachers’ high workload, stress and burnout. The hierarchical nesting structure and power structure of social time, as well as the time dilemma of public governance, make teachers’ self-time scarce, out of control and overdrawn. The moral tightness requirements and moral traps of social time devour teachers’ subject meaning and lead to teachers’ time poverty. The high-speed society strengthens the domination of the time norm over the subject and causes a series of morbid changes in teachers’ work. Therefore, it is necessary to fundamentally solve the problem of teachers’ workload through a series of methods such as value reconstruction, active deceleration, and technological innovation.

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    The Generation Mechanism of the Primary and Secondary School Teachers’ Workload in China
    Huan Song, Jianjian Wu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (9): 16-37.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.09.002
    Abstract545)   HTML47)    PDF (1332KB)(621)      

    The problem of the overload of primary and secondary school teachers is undermining the development of Chinese basic education. However, existing studies on teacher workload in China have limited discussions on how teachers perceive and cope with workload, as well as lack insight into the generation process of teachers’ workload. Through grounded theory methodology, this study aimed to explore teachers perceptions and responses to workload, and how Chinese teachers’ workload generate. Drawn on qualitative data from 49 Chinese primary and secondary school teachers, head of grassroots administrative department, the results showed that there were three types of workload of primary and secondary school teachers in China: teaching related workload, which teachers were willing to do even if they were tired, special-role workload, which let teachers feel torn on their responsibilities, and additional irrelevant workload, which teachers hated most. The complex sources of teachers’ workload in China were intertwined and layered, rooted in the absence of modern governance and modern school systems, but also shaped by a combination of digital technology, the educationalization of society. Schools as organisational intermediaries may ‘add’ or ‘subtract’ from teachers’ workload. The impact of teacher identity on teachers’ perceptions of and responses to workload, the mechanisms of teacher workload generation, and the differences in the process of teacher workload generation were discussed.

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    “Thriving” or “Retreating”: A Qualitative Study on Chinese Rural Teachers’ Workload and Job Crafting Mechanism
    Qiong Li, Yiwen Lin, Qing Wang, Songli Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (9): 38-55.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.09.003
    Abstract289)   HTML23)    PDF (1182KB)(390)      

    Drawing upon the job demand-resource model, this study investigated rural teachers’ workload and job crafting mechanisms through interviewing 16 rural teachers in hard-to-staff schools in remote underdeveloped areas in China. The results indicated that rural teachers were confronted with challenges such as long working hours, teaching multiple subjects, out-of-field teaching and dealing with administrative works. Although rural teachers faced unique challenges, they could utilize different job crafting strategies in different conditions to redesign their jobs. The study has revealed the intricate nature of rural teachers’ workload and how rural teachers’ crafting strategies can change their jobs and lead to different outcomes.

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    Primary Female Teachers’ Workload, Work-family Interference, Affective Commitment, and Turnover Intention: Structural Equation Modeling from a Realist Social Theory Perspective
    Shenji Zhou, Miao Xu, Heng Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (9): 56-70.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.09.004
    Abstract280)   HTML26)    PDF (1006KB)(399)      

    China’s education policy has placed emphasis on teacher workload. Along with the increasing complexity of teachers’ work, it is essential to note the impact of workload components on their job performance. Based on Archer’s realist social theory, this study explores the relationships between teacher workload, work-family interference, affective commitment, and turnover intention through a questionnaire survey of primary female teachers in 13 primary schools in Hainan Province. The results indicate that participants’ time spent on teaching practice, with students, and on miscellaneous tasks had direct or indirect effects on their turnover intention, whereas time spent on professional development and administrative/management tasks had no significant effect. The research presented both theoretical and practical implications in view of its findings.

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    Can “Double Reduction” Policy Eliminate the Demand for Academic Private Tutoring: An Empirical Study from the Perspective of Bounded Rationality
    Junyan Liu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (9): 71-84.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.09.005
    Abstract562)   HTML55)    PDF (1111KB)(676)      

    In July2021, Chinese government issued the “Double Reduction” policy and started to regulate private tutoring very strictly, seeking significant reduction in its scale. Based on a nationwide parents questionnaire survey, this paper reported that parents welcomed most regulative measures but some of them still demanded academic tutoring. From semi-structured interview, it was found that some types of demand like the one for after-school care would be reduced since schools offered after-school program, but others might not be easily cut down. The new policy had few substantial impacts on students’ educational growth path. Therefore, parents chose to continue their demand for tutoring out of bounded rationality as a strategy to assist their children’s education career. Some demands had turned to underground market because of limited supply under regulations, whose price went up but quality might be unsatisfactory. Finally, the paper concluded with implications for regulating private tutoring effectively with a focus on demand side.

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    The Change of Influencing Factors of Rural Teachers’ Turnover Intention: The Comparison before and after the Implementation of the Rural Teachers Support Plan of Yunnan Province (2015—2020)
    Yanling Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (9): 85-99.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.09.006
    Abstract263)   HTML25)    PDF (910KB)(384)      

    Clearly understanding rural teachers’ turnover intention and its influencing factors is the prerequisite for retaining rural teachers. According to a survey of 5,342 rural teachers in Yunnan province, about 30% of them “always have” the willingness to move, which is 5.7% higher than that in 2016. The rural teachers with a teaching experience of “3-5 years” demonstrate the strongest intention to move, indicating that teachers who have joined in recent years are still “unable to retain”. The most important factors affecting rural teachers’ turnover intention are “allowing children to enjoy better educational resources” and “taking care of family members”, while salary, office and housing conditions are significantly lower in the list of factors. The influence of “school management and teacher evaluation” is further highlighted. Combined with field investigations, it is found that the cultural and psychological characteristics of rural teachers caused by the urban-rural dichotomy, the lack of improvement in the welfare of rural teachers under the “county-based” rural compulsory education funding guarantee mechanism, the lack of a stable teacher supply mechanism for rural education, and the failure of the educational management system in township, etc., are the deep-seated factors that influence the willingness of rural teachers’ turnover intention. This study thus suggests that to stabilize the rural teaching force, it is necessary to plan and develop rural education in the process of rural revitalization and rebuild the ecology of rural education. It is also necessary to enhance the continuous improvement mechanism of rural teachers’ welfare, establish a long-term supplementary mechanism for rural teachers, improve the management system of rural education, and stimulate the vitality of rural school operation.

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    Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education for All: Why is It Possible and How is It Feasible?
    Pingzhang Ruan, Hui Dong, Xu Liu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (9): 100-111.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.09.007
    Abstract271)   HTML23)    PDF (760KB)(355)      

    Under the strategic layout of education, science, technology and talents, the relationship between education and innovation has been further narrowed. How to meet the demand for innovative talents through the construction of high quality education system has become an urgent proposition. As an important part of the training of innovative talents in colleges and universities, innovation and entrepreneurship education in our country has made great progress, but still faces practical problems such as uneven distribution of opportunities, low overall quality, and poor efficiency of educating people. Creating innovation and entrepreneurship education for everyone is the only choice to help build a powerful education country, adapt to the changes of universities themselves and respond to the technological changes of the times. By reviewing the literature and case data of creativity research and education practice at home and abroad, it is found that “everyone can be creative” is becoming mature in theory and feasible in practice. In view of the future, it is still necessary for colleges and universities to promote the deep popularization of “specialization, innovation and integration” in the education process, create an ecological environment of multi-party collaboration and “create atmosphere”, and at the same time, facilitate the continuous growth of students’ “innovative self”.

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    The Legitimacy of School Discipline: A Study from the Perspective of Political Philosophy
    Cheng Hong, Zhengtao Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (9): 112-121.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.09.008
    Abstract212)   HTML15)    PDF (644KB)(329)      

    Most of the existing studies on school discipline are related to laws and regulations. There are few in-depth investigations of the legitimacy of school discipline from philosophical perspectives. The modern political-philosophical arguments about “reasonable”, “treating someone as an end”, “mutual independence and autonomy” and “good life”, not only contribute to illuminating the source of the legitimacy of school discipline in theory, but also have potential significance for the legitimate practice of school discipline. There are theoretical and practical problems with the principle of “general acceptability” in political liberalism and the principle of “mutual independence and autonomy” in Kantian political philosophy, in terms of justifying the legitimacy of school discipline. These problems can be overcome by a reciprocal logic derived from perfectionism, on the premise of distinguishing two types of perfectionist understanding of “good life”, rebutting the criticism from political liberals and Kantians concerning the “reasonable disagreement” and paternalism, and highlighting the importance of respecting the potential of students to consciously realize their “good lives”.

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    International Education as Soft Power Currencies
    Lin Zhang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (9): 122-137.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.09.009
    Abstract191)   HTML16)    PDF (1331KB)(244)      

    The difficulty of improving soft power lies in how to transform soft power resources into soft power including institutional, cultural and value attraction, the key of which is the generation and maintenance of soft power currency. From the case studies of the United States, Britain and Australia, this study identifies three mechanisms for generating soft power through international education, namely the network mechanism, the value-sharing mechanism and the institutions and standards mechanism, all of which can promote the transformation of the three soft power currencies of benignity, beauty, and brilliance into soft power respectively, drive the transformation of different forms of capitals, and hence reinforce their dominant positions in the field of international education. But if the process lacks benignity, integrity, or is over-branded, which leads to inconsistency between branding content and its reality, soft power will be diminished as a result. In this view, China should take international education as an important strategy to accumulate its soft power currencies, strengthen the quality of benignity, beauty, and brilliance under the concept of “a community of shared future for mankind” while draw upon the rich domestic soft power resources, and then build effective pathways for the functioning of the three mechanisms to gain soft power through international education activities.

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    Research Report on Employment Trends of Chinese College Graduates: Based on 2003—2021 Survey Data
    Changjun Yue, Qinxue Feng, Xiaojia Xin, Wenqi Qiu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (9): 138-154.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.09.010
    Abstract4606)   HTML347)    PDF (853KB)(1889)      

    Based on ten national survey data sets on Chinese college graduates’ employment status from 2003 to 2021, this paper conducts empirical analysis on employment characteristics and trend of Chinese college graduates. The main conclusions are as follows. First, from the perspective of graduation destination, the proportion of formal employment has reached a new low level, while the proportion of further education continues to rise. The placement rate has declined, and the unemployment rate has rebounded. The placement rates of graduates with different educational levels tends to converge. Second, from the perspective of employment quality, the higher the graduates’ education level, the higher the starting salary and the faster the salary grows. There is a L-shaped downward trend in relative starting salary. Nearly 50% of graduates have lower starting salaries than expected. Employment satisfaction is on a fluctuating upward trend. Third, from the perspective of employment structure, the employment proportion in large and medium-sized cities exceeds 80%. The employment proportion of private enterprises has jumped to first place. The employment proportion of enterprises increases at the beginning and then decreases, which exceeds 50%. Career types shift from homogenization towards diversification, then back to homogenization. The education industry has become the preferred choice for graduates. Fourth, from the perspective of employment matching, the proportion of education-job match first decreases and then increases, exceeding 70%. The proportion of major-job mismatch is about 40%. Fifth, from the perspective of job-searching status, schools are the main source of job-searching information. The number of job applications has not gradually increased over time, and some graduates have obtained job opportunities but do not accept. Expenses on human relationship, transportation and clothing are the three major job-searching expenses. Ability is the most important factor that affects employment outcomes. Graduates have stable career intentions, attaching importance to prospects and income.

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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (10): 0-1.  
    Abstract143)   HTML31)    PDF (238KB)(143)      
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    Education and Income Distribution: Theoretic Logics and Actual Evidence
    Yuhong Du, Yanbin Guo
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (10): 1-11.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.10.001
    Abstract279)   HTML29)    PDF (1087KB)(325)      

    There is an inconsistence between theory and fact in education and income distribution. Human capital theory including the marginal productivity, and the opinion of increasing income and further narrowing income gap by improving human capital level, and Kuznets Curve that market automatically solves income distribution problem constitute the theoretic logic of education and income distribution. The mass process of education democratization and popularization hasn’t narrowed the income gap in the past few hundred years history of western developed countries. The coexistence of education popularization level and income gap expansion, the coexistence of higher return of schooling and lower labor income share, and the coexistence of competitive education race and the lower share of education determining individual income since reform and opening-up disclose factual evidence inconsistent with theory expectations. Which type of education should be developed and how to provide environment with education is an explanation above inconsistency, and is also the future direction of solving income distribution via education: build compensative public education system based on life cycle to narrow education inequality; implement labor market reform and actual change of education opinion synchronizedly; complete and improve high level market and create the institution environment good for human capital.

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    The Unique Role of Education in Promoting Common Prosperity: Theoretical Oughtness and Empirical Reality
    Bin Huang, Bo Li, Chao Fang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (10): 12-26.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.10.002
    Abstract225)   HTML12)    PDF (761KB)(210)      

    Common prosperity is the essential requirement of socialism, and the promotion of common prosperity needs the help of education. Compared with other policy tools and means, education plays a unique role in promoting common prosperity in the five aspects. First, education is an essential national strategic investment to promote high-quality economic development. Second, the impact of education on social and economic development is long-term and has a complex mechanism. Third, education can adjust the income gaps three times. Fourth, education is not only the tool of development, but also the purpose of development. Finally, education can promote spiritual and material prosperity at the same time. From the perspective of historical evolution, this paper first summarizes the policy practice of promoting common prosperity through education in different historical stages in China from the economic system, distribution system and educational concept aspects. Then, from the theoretical oughtness and empirical reality aspects, this paper makes a systematic literature review on the unique functions of the above five aspects of education. Finally, this paper introspects the shortcomings of the existing research at home and abroad, and proposes six development directions of China’s future research on education promoting common prosperity.

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    Evidences and Policy Implications on Expanding Middle-Income Group through Education
    Chen Xie, Xiuxiu Yang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (10): 27-39.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.10.003
    Abstract149)   HTML18)    PDF (1030KB)(197)      

    The size and proportion of the middle-income group is an important sign of the realization of common prosperity, and is also related to whether China can successfully overcome the middle-income trap and enter a high-income society. From the overall and long-term perspective, the core of the strategy to expand the middle-income group is to improve its ability to create wealth by enhancing the human capital of the low-income group. Therefore, the determining factor for expanding the middle-income group lies in education. It is through the sharing of quality and fair educational opportunities and processes that the general public can improve their human capital and earning capacity and realize fundamental and sustainable common prosperity. Looking towards 2035, how should education help expand the middle-income group? This study, based on data from China Family Panel Studies, presents the trend of the proportion of middle-income group changing with the highest education level, the proportion of people with various educational backgrounds within the three income groups, and the trend of the proportion of middle-income group changing with the survey year and graduation years within each education level, to provide preliminary evidence for the ability of China’s educational system to cultivate middle-income group. Meanwhile, using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study shows the changing trend of the proportion of middle-income group in various educational groups during the process of doubling the middle-income group in the United States from 1976 to 1982, to provide reference for achieving the goal of doubling the middle-income group in China. Finally, based on the research results, policy implications are provided for the design and implementation of the goal to expand the middle-income group in China.

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    An Empirical Study on the Role of Education in Promoting Urbanization
    Boshen Wan, Weifang Min
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (10): 40-52.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.10.004
    Abstract374)   HTML16)    PDF (836KB)(270)      

    Urbanization is not only a way that a country must go through for modernization, but also an important driving force for economic growth and common prosperity. It could promote new rural construction and develop modern agriculture, thus raising farmers’ income and allowing them to enter the secondary and tertiary sector of the economy with higher productivity through better education. Based on the provincial-level panel data of China from 2005 to 2020, by using a two-way fixed effects model, this study finds that: first, education investment could accelerate urbanization; second, economic growth and technological advances could also promote urbanization process; finally, regional development could moderate the educational effect on urbanization.

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    Early Childhood Development and Social Mobility in China
    Xiaogang Wu, Xin Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (10): 53-65.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.10.005
    Abstract251)   HTML16)    PDF (1258KB)(255)      

    The process and mechanisms of intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status have been an enduring topic in social science research. Recently, attention has gradually shifted to the early stages of the life course. Infancy and early childhood are critical stages for the development of cognitive and socioemotional skills, which are predictive of subsequent academic success, employment outcomes, and ultimately, socioeconomic achievement. While early childhood investment can yield substantial returns to human capital, it can also exacerbate economic inequality. Empirical research, both domestically and internationally, have revealed that nurturing quality is increasingly divergent among social classes, leading to intergenerational accumulation of advantage/disadvantage, declining social mobility, and class differentiation. This article systematically reviews relevant theories and empirical research in China and provides a preliminary findings of early childhood education investment in Chinese families using the data from the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Specifically, the article focuses on the differences in early childhood education investment and child development among families of different socio-economic statuses and discusses the potential impact of these differences on children’s future development. The article concludes with a comprehensive analytical framework for the study of early childhood development and social mobility to gain scientific evidence to promote human capital investment and advance social mobility through practices and policies.

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    Education Quality and National (Regional) Income Gap: Construction of the Global Education Quality Index
    Yan Cao, Guoyang Zhang, Xinyue Yao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (10): 66-79.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.10.006
    Abstract218)   HTML19)    PDF (1141KB)(899)      

    The relationship between education development and economic distribution has always been a hot topic in the field of education economics. This study is based on the background of achieving common prosperity, using global education and economic development data from 2000 to 2018 to construct a global education quality index, and based on the index, explores the relationship between education quality and income inequality. The study found that : first, China’s education quality index is at a medium level globally, with the quality of school education operation ranking top, but the competitiveness of the basic education assurance quality index and the quality of secondary and higher education development index is relatively low. The reasons for this are twofold: on the one hand, China’s expansion of higher education came later, making young people the main holders of secondary and higher education degrees. Under the influence of the aging population structure, the proportion of people with secondary and higher education degrees is low, directly lowering China’s index of secondary and higher education development. On the other hand, compared with other countries, China’s public education expenditure ratio is relatively low, coupled with poor completion rate in primary school, which indirectly lowers the quality index of basic education assurance in China. Second, by constructing a two-way fixed effect model to explore the relationship between education quality and national income inequality, it was found that the higher the overall education quality and school education operation quality of a country, the lower the degree of income differentiation, indicating that the improvement of national education quality can to a certain extent promote the realization of common prosperity. Based on the above findings, the study suggests the following: first, consolidate the attainable indicators of basic education, increase the investment in public education funds to meet the minimum targets, and strengthen the guarantee of basic education. Second, continue to leverage the advantage of the quality of school education operation and promote the attainment of graduation standards for secondary school graduates through both academic and vocational tracks in order to improve the whole skill of China’s reserve workforce.

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    Spatial Spillover Effects of Public Education Expenditure under the Vision of Common Prosperity
    Chunjin Chen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (10): 80-91.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.10.007
    Abstract195)   HTML8)    PDF (857KB)(139)      

    Whether the sustained increase in the proportion of public education expenditure can significantly promote the common prosperity within the region, or rely on the spatial spillover effects of neighboring regions, is a key issue related to the effects of education fiscal policy. Using China’s provincial panel data from 2011 to 2020, this paper constructs spatial Durbin models that combine static and dynamic, and examines the spatial spillover effects of public education expenditure on the common prosperity. The study found that the increase in the proportion of public education expenditure has a direct and significant effect on promoting local common prosperity. However, the spatial spillover effect on adjacent areas is not significant, and the short-term effects are stronger than the long-term effects. The marginal effect shows that every 1% increase in public education expenditure will boost the common prosperity index of local residents by 0.203. Every 1% increase in the proportion of public education expenditure in neighboring regions will bring a spillover effect of 0.049 to the region’s common prosperity. The heterogeneity test shows that the spatial spillover effect of public education expenditure on common prosperity in the eastern region is the largest, followed by the western region, and the central region is relatively weak. The policy implication derived from the above findings is to consolidate and improve the guarantee mechanism for local fiscal education funding. In terms of policy, it is necessary to break the barriers to the flow of high-quality resources between regions, promote the balance and integration of education development within the region, and then promote the new pattern of development of the joint construction and sharing of high-quality educational resources.

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    Charity Education is an Important Supply Side to Achieve Common Prosperity
    Jialiang Xu, Lijiao Cheng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (10): 92-103.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.10.008
    Abstract128)   HTML9)    PDF (874KB)(124)      

    At the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the common prosperity of all people was regarded as one of the symbols of achieving Chinese style modernization. Common prosperity in the new era has the characteristics of being all-inclusive, comprehensive and shared. Its realization requires the complementarity and integration of multiple supply mechanisms. This study takes the supply side as theoretical perspective and believes that the administrative supply side, the market supply side, the charity supply side and the mixed supply side play a bottom-up, fundamental, enhancing and complementary role in the process of promoting common prosperity, and multiple supply side work together to meet the challenges. Charities play a positive role in promoting common prosperity, such as wealth distribution, subject incentives, response issues, and atmosphere building. Due to the limitations of the traditional public perception of charity, the inadequate supply of charity education, the lack of external resources in the discipline of charity education, and the lack of universal charity education, charity has not yet achieved high-quality development. It is necessary to improve the charity education system by enhancing the sense of mission of developing high-quality charity education, promoting universal charity education, increasing the supply of social forces, accelerating the training of compound talents, and strengthening the accumulation of local knowledge.

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    Does High-quality Higher Education Better Enable Top Managers to Promote Corporate Participation in Public Good: Evidence from Chinese Listed Companies
    Xiaolan Zhou, Kailin Wu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (10): 104-115.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.10.009
    Abstract141)   HTML11)    PDF (751KB)(101)      

    To achieve common prosperity for all the people is the strategic goal of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and higher education is one of the important drivers towards the goal of common prosperity.The sense of social responsibility cultivated in higher education and the public benefits promote the sharing of achievements and economic growth, and is reflected in the promotion of enterprises’ participation in public good by top managers. We use the data of listed companies in China from 2012 to 2020 to investigate the impact of top managers’ high quality university educational backgrounds and their native places on Chinese enterprises’ participation in public good. Our results show that higher education plays an important role in the promotion of public good. From the perspective of behavior and intensity, high-quality higher education highlights a unique role in the depth and intensity of corporate philanthropy.There are regional heterogeneity among top managers in promoting enterprises’ participation in public good. Top managers who were born in the midwest are more likely to promote enterprises’ participation in public good. Our results have the following policy implications. The government should encourage top managers to actively assume social responsibilities with preferential policies, improve the quality of higher education to promote the in-depth development of public good, expand the opportunities of quality higher education in central and western regions, give full play to public benefits and better achieve the goal of common prosperity.

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    Higher Education Expansion, Human Capital Transmission and Achieving Common Wealth
    Yaozong Hu, Hao Yao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (10): 116-130.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.10.010
    Abstract163)   HTML10)    PDF (1546KB)(242)      

    The key point of achieving the goal of common prosperity lies in increasing residents’ income and narrowing the income gap, and how higher education expansion through the transmission of human capital can make sense in this process deserves more exploration. Based on panel data from 31 provinces in China from 2003-2019, by using panel regression models, beta convergence analysis and panel threshold regression model tests, this article found higher education expansion, structural changes and quality improvement all had significant impacts on the realization of common prosperity. Moreover, the expansion of undergraduate and postgraduate education, the improvement of the postgraduate proportion and the increase in per capita funding which is one of the main characteristics of higher education quality all significantly contribute to the increase of the per capita disposable income. Meanwhile, there is a nonlinear relationship between the growth of the graduate student scale and the change of structure and the residents’ disposable income. The impact of higher education expansion on income growth increases with the size and proportion of postgraduates, and the expansion of higher education increases per capita disposable income by raising human capital. Higher education expansion also drives the convergence of inter-provincial disparities in human capital, creating an economic catch-up effect in disadvantaged areas. The expansion also drives the convergence of inter-provincial disparities in human capital, creating an economic catch-up effect in disadvantaged areas, thereby reducing the absolute inter-provincial disparity in residential income, as well as the threshold effects of human capital size and human capital concentration. The policy implications of this study are to implement the strategic goal of common prosperity based on the new historical orientation of higher education expansion on science and technology innovation and talent supply, to initiate planning for the gross enrolment rate of higher education to 80% by 2035. Moreover, through optimizing the layout of higher education, cultivating regional innovation human capital, this study tries to find a way to narrow the regional residents’ income gap and improve the institutional mechanism of diversified investment in higher education funding, actively face the human capital agglomeration phenomenon and stimulate the role of clustering and leading of national major strategic regions to promote the realization of common prosperity.

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    How Undergraduate Colleges Affect Urban Income Disparity under the Background of Enrollment Expansion
    Peizhen Jin, Xinyan Liu, Siyu Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (10): 131-149.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.10.011
    Abstract129)   HTML10)    PDF (1159KB)(362)      

    The expansion of college enrollment, which began in 1999, accelerated the transformation of China into a country with large human resources. The upsurge of newly-established colleges has also affected the urban income distribution. Based on the college data of 278 cities in China and the nighttime lighting data, this study found that, first, with the expansion of colleges, the income disparity in inland cities with public college has been significantly reduced, and the impact of policies has a longer decay period. Robustness tests such as parallel trend test, placebo test, eliminating the factors of city size and controlling the influence of graduates’ cross-regional employment still support this conclusion. Second, compared with public colleges, the contribution of private colleges to narrowing the urban income disparity in China has not yet been revealed. Third, the accumulation of human capital, the increase in the average wage of staff and the enhancement of technological innovation ability are the internal mechanisms for the newly-added colleges to curb the income disparity. Finally, the effect of narrowing the urban income disparity with key colleges is more significant. The reallocation of higher education resources measured by the construction of first-class universities and disciplines of the world is a beneficial policy to adjust the income distribution. The above conclusions have important implications for how to optimize the spatial allocation of higher education resources, and also provide a basis for realizing the path of regional common prosperity.

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    How Digital Economy Adjusts the Impact of Higher Education on Common Prosperity?
    Yupeng Zhang, Qian Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (10): 150-163.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.10.012
    Abstract211)   HTML6)    PDF (877KB)(158)      

    The development of higher education has been playing a significant and unique role in the historical process of promoting common prosperity. At present, the development of digital economy and common prosperity have strong compatibility with the times. How does the digital economy adjust the impact of higher education on common prosperity? To answer this question, this paper first constructed the provincial, urban and rural common prosperity indicators based on two dimensions of development and shared benefits. Then, from the provincial, urban and rural levels, the influence effects of higher education enabling common prosperity were examined empirically using provincial panel data from 2011 to 2020. Furthermore, this paper investigated impact of digital economy on common prosperity and how the digital economy could affect the effect of higher education on common prosperity. The results are as follows. First, the increase of higher education share significantly promotes the development of common prosperity. The same is true for province, urban and rural. Second, the development of digital economy significantly promotes the development of rural common prosperity. Finally, the development of digital economy could strengthen the effect of higher education on common prosperity at the provincial and urban levels. The above conclusions have reference significance for exploring how to promote common prosperity in China.

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    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (10): 164-164.  
    Abstract72)   HTML5)    PDF (171KB)(94)      
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    The Practical Characteristics, Difficulties and Cooperative Ways of Teacher Subjects in Children’s Transition from Kindergarten to Primary School: An Empirical Investigation of Kindergarten and Primary School Teachers from 11 Provinces and Cities
    Jin Huang, Fang Tian, Hui Qiao, Meng Zhang, Chang Yu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (11): 1-12.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.11.001
    Abstract443)   HTML49)    PDF (1189KB)(404)      

    The transition from kindergarten to primary school is a critical period for children to adapt to society and future education. Kindergarten teachers and primary school teachers are important participants to ensure effective two-way coordination and support the smooth transition. Based on the perspective of multi subjects’ collaborative participation in the transition practices, this study investigates the transition beliefs and practice of kindergarten and primary school teachers. Participants were 9,872 kindergarten teachers and 7,411 primary school teachers from 11 provinces and cities. The findings revealed that there were conflicts in the belief and understanding of transition to school between kindergarten and primary school teachers, and there was inconsistency in the organization and implementation of curriculum and teaching. They faced such practical difficulties as weak belief in cooperation, low implementation rate of cooperation, limited external support, and insufficient internal understanding. These findings highlight that it should promote the coordination of kindergarten and primary school teachers to support the smooth transition of children in such aspects as establishing a consensus on two-way coordination based on children’s position, realizing the continuity of curriculum and teaching, building an interactive platform and forming a supportive guarantee system.

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    Metaverse in Education: Position Every Child Real Experience in the New World
    Xiaoqing Gu, Ping Wan, Gong Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (11): 13-26.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.11.002
    Abstract384)   HTML33)    PDF (735KB)(364)      

    Metaverse attracted attention in the field of education, but there is still a lack of rational understanding. Therefore, it is necessary to rethink about the real meaning of metaverse and its educational value. Metaverse is the existence that connects the real world you are currently in with other different time and space, through which you can enter the real situation of any time and space, and this is also the way for students to learn knowledge in the future. The Metaverse in education enriches the existence of knowledge, the depth of the learner’s learning experience and the scope of the true-life world, allowing students to directly experience the process of knowledge dissemination, knowledge construction, knowledge application, knowledge production and creation. At the same time, the process of interaction between learners and the situation affects the formation and development of human social knowledge, and the influence is fed back to the real-life world to promote the real occurrence of knowledge learning. On this basis, this research further explores the possible application scenarios of metaverse in education and analyzes the key technologies and potential educational value and risks.

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    From Knowledge Sharing to Knowledge Co-creation: A Decentralized View of Knowledge in the Education Metaverse
    Xuesong Zhai, Xiaoyan Chu, Jianmin Gu, Yan Li, Huijun Wang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (11): 27-37.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.11.003
    Abstract274)   HTML31)    PDF (845KB)(297)      

    With the advent of Web3.0 era characterized by semantic network and swarm intelligence, educational metaverse have become the exploration topic of future education under the new generation of Internet revolution, which will profoundly affect the future knowledge dissemination and knowledge production in education. Exploring the innovation of knowledge concept in the context of educational metaverse is not only necessary to clarify the connotation of educational metaverse, but also an essential requirement to build a higher quality and more equitable education service system. From the perspective of technology-society interconstructionism, the current research elaborated the decentralised characteristics and technological basis of the education metaverse. Oriented to three realistic problems of cultivating top innovative talents, quality and equitable development of education and education evaluation reform, the study uncovered the technological-social duality of education metaverse from the decentralised concept of knowledge. Combining the technological characteristics and the educational needs of society, the education metaverse effectively empowers decentralised knowledge co-creation in the process of knowledge production, dissemination and application. However, the knowledge concept of the education metaverse is a relative decentralisation, which still requires central institutions to play an appropriate role in the education ecology, classroom teaching and knowledge organization. A rational and critical investigation of the decentralised knowledge concept of the educational metaverse provides a reference for further promoting the high-quality and balanced development of education driven by the “Internet + Education”.

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    Education in Metaverse: The Status Quo and Innovation
    Lin Wang, Hongzhou Chen, Wei Cai
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (11): 38-51.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.11.004
    Abstract632)   HTML33)    PDF (3660KB)(285)      

    This article examines the educational practice and cutting-edge ideas of different actors under the concept of metaverse. We bring forward three levels of observation of education in Metaverse, namely, the changing structure empowered by decentralized technology, the altered knowledge and experience of education in metaverse, and the development of human-computer Interaction. We believe that, first, Web 3 Education will update the traditional educational model and highlight the publicity of education from the dimensions of DAO, Defi and DID. Second, video games have significant advantages in forging educational cognitive chains, expanding digital classroom narratives, and building ubiquitous learning mechanisms, and are important auxiliary educational resources in Metaverse. Finally, the new form of human-computer interaction broadens the boundaries of disciplines, and the university metaverse that takes place in the digital education community creates new connection possibilities for education and learning.

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    The Beginning of the Metaverse: Value Transformation of Music Education in the Post-digital Era
    Wei Guo
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (11): 52-66.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.11.005
    Abstract270)   HTML17)    PDF (792KB)(236)      

    In the post-digital era, daily life has been brought forward by digital technology, and a series of cultural implications and value innovations have been produced and evaluated. In the process of music learning and practice of music education, the individual-oriented principle in both teaching and learning is facing the crisis of contradiction between “human” and The Mega-data Times. Many anti-traditional representations outside the crisis can be regarded as the requirements of the value transformation from music learning to music education in the context of the new era. Based on the ecology of music education in the post-digital era, this paper focuses on the identity of the object, the attribute of the content and the positioning of the purpose—who I am, my music learning and what I can be—the connotation of the pursuit of three core values, and the necessity of the value transformation of music education in the post-digital era.

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    The Underlying Logic and Construction Path of Digital Pedagogy: On the Construction of Chinese Digital Pedagogy
    Guangbin Zhang, Kexun Xue
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (11): 67-84.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.11.006
    Abstract314)   HTML23)    PDF (762KB)(317)      

    The digital transformation of education is a profound educational reform, which has spawned a series of new phenomena and problems in education, nurtured new laws in education, and urgently needs the systematic theoretical research and overall practical guidance. Digital pedagogy, as an interdisciplinary practical science formed by the integration of education, computer science, information and communication science, aims to study the phenomena, problems, and laws of digital education, and answer questions about what and how to cultivate people in the digital age. This study takes the learning law as the starting point, the supporting discipline development of pedagogy and the development of paper, information, digital and other technologies as the main line, and reveals the historical inevitability of digital pedagogy. The return of education to the digital world, data as the new element of education, virtual space as the new space of education and the internal interactio among the three act as the underlying logic of digital pedagogy, and throughout the research. On this basis, it clarifies the nature and positioning of digital pedagogy, and puts forward the academic framework of business digitalization, organization digitalization and technology digitalization, the integration discourse system, and the big data research paradigm. On the basis of theoretical analysis, this paper puts forward the “four principles”, “three stages”, “four forces” and basic guarantee for the construction of Chinese-style digital pedagogy, with a view to providing practical guidance for exploring new laws of digital education, promoting digital pedagogy research and theoretical innovation of Chinese-style education modernization, leading the transformation and upgrading of education digitalization and high-quality development of digital education.

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    Strengthen Replication of Educational Quantitative Research in China
    Yi Li, Jianqing Zhang, Yanling Yang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (11): 85-96.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.11.007
    Abstract221)   HTML18)    PDF (949KB)(306)      

    In this study, the principle of replication, replication of research and repeated research were discriminated theoretically. Then it discussed three types of repeated research (exact, direct and conceptual) and two functions (validation and extension) and elaborated the meaning and value of replication. Based on that, this study took the repeated quantitative research published in 37 educational CSSCI journals from 2015 to 2020 as samples to analyze the current situation and the problems of replication for the educational quantitative research in China. The study found that it is not fully recognized that replication is the basic position of innovative research; the undeveloped foundation of quantitative research leads to the difficulty in conducting repeated researches; the failure of replication is misunderstood, which leads to the panic of ‘replication crisis’; the traditional thinking inertia hinders the original research teams to continue their original research interest. Accordingly, the study presented the following suggestions: reinforce understanding of the value of repeated research, establish incentive mechanism of repeated research; strengthen training of researchers in quantitative research methods, build an open science platform to turn the ‘black box’ into the ‘white box; overcome the stereotype of “success rate only”, build a stable research team to follow up and form research clusters.

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    A Philosophical Tracing of Learner Evaluation in Support of Individualized Development: Based on Husserl’s Phenomenological Analysis
    Qian Bai, Jiaying Hou, Yi Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (11): 97-107.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.11.008
    Abstract221)   HTML23)    PDF (669KB)(156)      

    The evaluation of learners’ individual development is an important issue to support the development of education, which needs a solid theoretical basis. However, the work in this area is far from enough. Combing the epistemological achievements of Husserl’s phenomenology, we find that the thoughts of time and occurrence, individualized construction, interactive subjectivity and the same world running through his logical system can be used as the starting point for thinking about the evaluation of learners’ individualized development, and can well explain the coordination between individualized development and the generality of teaching objectives. Marton F’s phenomenology can also be included as an explanatory tool. Therefore, on the basis of reviewing the achievements and shortcomings of the current individualized development evaluation, this paper explains the core idea of Husserl’s phenomenology, discusses the individualized development evaluation from three aspects: the timeliness of the evaluation process, the structure of the evaluation content and the relationship between the evaluation subjects, and gives a systematic explanation on the evaluation of learners’ individualized development based on the epistemological thinking of Husserl et al.

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    Justifying “Migration”: The Meaning and Effect of Proactive-education Migrating
    Sheng Cui, Qiuxiang Wu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (11): 108-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.11.009
    Abstract333)   HTML33)    PDF (1126KB)(256)      

    Education is an increasingly important factor in population migration, and there are groups migrated due to education. However, the impact of migration on students’ academic ability is not consistent. On the basis of clarifying migrant children, left-behind children, immigrant children, and immigrant children of rural migrant workers, this paper divided the groups of proactive-education migrating and passive-education migrating according to whether the main purpose of the migration involved education or not. And then, it explored the effect and mechanism of proactive-education migrating on academic ability. Based on the tracking data of China Education Panel Survey (CEPS), this paper found that proactive-education migrating could significantly improve students’ academic ability. Compared with different control groups, the positive effect of proactive-education migrating on the academic ability ranged from 0.06 to 0.08 standard scores. It also had a direct or indirect impact on academic ability through parent educational expectation and parent involvement. In addition, proactive-education migrating had a heterogeneous effect across different hukou groups and different inflow places. This paper attempts to separate the positive components of the migration effect to justify migration, and to provide migrating strategies for families with different backgrounds.

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    Subjective Rationality, Institutional Regulations, and the Rise and Fall of County High Schools: Based on the Perspective of Rational Choice Theory
    Zhihui Wu, Qin Wang, Hao Liang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (12): 1-12.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.12.001
    Abstract219)   HTML25)    PDF (777KB)(186)      

    The revitalization of county high schools is a major decision of the Party Central Committee and the State Council during the 14th Five-Year Plan period, and one of the key supports for building a high-quality education system and implementing the rural revitalization strategy. To effectively promote the revitalization of county high schools, it is necessary to reveal the micro logic of county high school development, analyze the institutional causes of county high school collapse and explore feasible paths to long-term revitalization from the dual perspectives of subject rationality and institutional regulation. According to rational choice theory, we find that under the guidance of the logic of promotion, three major subjects, namely, students’ parents, administration departments and high schools, will take the initiative to make rational actions of student flow, student retention and student competition, while institutional loopholes are the key reasons for the collapse of county high schools: the weak attempt and regulation of the system of social forces to run schools leads to the impact of market logic on county high schools; “county-based” funding system leads to huge disparity in funding for inter-county high school education; the lack of student source guarantee system leads to the disadvantaged position of county high schools in the market of student source competition. The relationship between subjective rationality and institutional regulations under the perspective of ephemerality presents a “two-way interaction of asynchronous changes”. In order to respect the law of rational choice of subjects and effectively close the loopholes of the system, it is necessary to introduce, retain and train a group of excellent county high school teachers, improve, implement and use an effective county high school system, and reform, build and create a good county high school ecology.

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    Tianxia-Curriculum: On the Fourfold Vision of Education of Future
    Zhengmei Peng, Xiaoyong Zhou, Yuan Gao, Qingtao Wang, Fangting Shi
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (12): 13-25.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.12.002
    Abstract200)   HTML29)    PDF (782KB)(211)      

    From the perspective of education for the future and the formation of the new generation, this study aims to collectively imagine and commit human society to positive actions for ecological civilization, human destiny community, and global common values. This paper extends the core socialist values of the individual, society, and nation to the ‘tianxia’ and makes them into a curriculum, based on the Chinese educational wisdom tradition of the “Tianxia-Curriculum”. Specifically, the four classics of Mencius, On Liberty, the Communist Manifesto, and Zhuangzi are used to reconstruct a new “Tianxia-Curriculum” with Chinese characteristics and to provide a philosophical anthropological foundation for a new humanities education for the future.

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    Ecopedagogy: Retrospect and Prospect
    Ruyu Hung
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (12): 26-33.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.12.003
    Abstract185)   HTML12)    PDF (595KB)(203)      

    Ecological crisis is one of the most urgent challenges that all human beings are facing. In response, there was an “ecological turn” in education and thereby the movement of “ecopdagogy” was taking shape in the late 20th century. This paper discusses the background, the history of formation, and the main ideas of ecopedagogy. There are two main views in terms of ecopedagogy: philosophical and critical ecopedagogy. In the former view, “ecosophy” and “ecophilia” are the cardinal ideas. The formation of philosophical ecopedagogy consists in the nineteenth century transcendentalism and naturalist idyllic literature. In the latter view, “eco–justice” is the core idea. The development of critical ecopedagogy is grounded on critical theory and critical pedagogy that aim to disentangle the socio-political webbing from environmental problems. This article intends to describe the formation of ecopedagogy and its implications for educational practice.

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    Education and Ecological Civilization: Based on the Changing Perspective of OECD on the Function of Education
    Wei Shen, Wanyue Chen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (12): 34-45.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.12.004
    Abstract131)   HTML9)    PDF (1336KB)(101)      

    What can education do in ecological civilization construction? By focusing on the work of OECD in the area of “Innovation and the future of education”, this study systematically reflects on OECD’s future-oriented skills in the context of Futures Literacy in Anticipation Theory, and clarifies the relationship between education and ecological civilization from OECD’s perspective. The study finds that OECD has proposed several future-competent competencies from a predictive perspective in response to changes in social and ecological systems, which continues the idea of education as a social function. Since 2018, OECD has started to use Anticipation Theory to develop multiple imaginations of the future and skills of education, which goes beyond the previous functional theory and highlights the feasibility and leadership of education in social and ecological systems. From OECD’s changing perspective and eclectic approach, the study believes that human beings are always the subject of ecological civilization construction, and that the path to ecological civilization construction has multiple possibilities and education can re-construct future when human beings have the knowledge and skills to “use-the-future”.

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    Constructing Common Worlds Pedagogies in the Crisis of Anthropocene: Commentary on Learning to Become with the World: Education for Future Survival by UNESCO
    Yun You, Muling Yu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (12): 46-57.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.12.005
    Abstract154)   HTML11)    PDF (761KB)(206)      

    Facing the increasingly severe ecological crisis of Anthropocene, education is expected to be an effective means to improve the living environment of human beings. However, modern environmental education has not led to a better world. In the UNESCO-commissioned report Learning to Become with the World: Education for Future Survival, Common Worlds Research Collective calls for reimagining and reconfiguring education that is shaped by Western dualism and anthropocentrism, which separate humans from the rest of the world. It advocates humans' learning to become with the world around us as an integral part, in order to achieve ‘ecological justice’. This report concisely embodies the concerns and ideas of common worlds pedagogies, which mainly draws on post-humanism, eco-feminism, and aboriginal indigenous cultures. While Chinese philosophical tradition shares characteristics with common worlds pedagogies, its uniqueness in ecological aesthetics may deepen the thinking of the relationality between human and non-human beings, and the way that education can contribute to their harmonious co-existence.

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    Wizard and Prophet: A Comparative Study of Two Philosophies, Initiatives, and Pedagogical Models in International Environmental Education
    Shaoyang Wu, Zhengmei Peng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (12): 58-73.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.12.006
    Abstract119)   HTML8)    PDF (1529KB)(129)      

    Two distinct environmental science perspectives dominate strategies for addressing the ecological crisis. The Prophets emphasize restraint and reduction, advocating for a harmonious coexistence between humans and nature, while the Wizards champion creation, ambition, and development, transforming threats into opportunities through technological innovation. This divergence is also mirrored in various environmental education initiatives. UNESCO’s advocacy for Sustainable Development Goals and a new social contract aligns closely with the Prophet’s emphasis on self-restraint and the pursuit of ecological justice. In contrast, the OECD’s capability initiative and its metric-driven approach reflect the Wizards’ reverence for technocentrism and instrumental rationality. This ideological split has further molded two distinct paths in environmental education practices: one emphasizing the cultivation of eco-friendly awareness and values, termed the disciplinary model, and the other focusing on nurturing environmental scientific literacy and advanced competencies, known as the empowerment model. There is a possibility of merging the two approaches in theory and practice, and their balance and integration can help build a sustainable future.

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    A Discussion on Ethical Education of Students’ Natural Responsibility in the Age of Carbon Neutrality
    Na Su, Xiaoying Han
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (12): 74-84.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.12.007
    Abstract93)   HTML5)    PDF (811KB)(89)      

    The natural environment on which humanity depends is facing an unprecedented crisis, and the “carbon-neutral era” that calls for sustainable development is approaching with an irresistible momentum, which requires humanity to focus on the long-term development of nature and future society. As the world responds to the ecological crisis, education is the key way to address the global ecological crisis since the Anthropocene, which follows the ethical approach to the ethics of responsibility. The “ethics of natural responsibility”, which emphasizes the goodness of motives and results of actions with nature as the purpose, has become a theoretical guide to rescue the development dilemma, which strongly demands that humans be responsible for the sustainable development of nature. In reality, the effectiveness of nature education needs to be improved, and the problem of “nature deficit” is still serious and far from what society expects and what nature education should be. Nature responsibility ethics education, which aims to cultivate young people to be responsible for nature, is an inevitable trend in the age of carbon neutrality, and can achieve the Pareto optimal state of nature education effectiveness. The responsible actors of nature responsibility ethics education can be collective or individual, and accordingly, there are collective and individual ways to implement nature responsibility ethics education. On the individual level, each individual as a citizen of society has the moral responsibility to protect nature; on the social level, the main entity that can effectively implement nature responsibility education is the government, and the specific implementers are mainly the schools and institutions at all levels organized by the government. Education on the ethics of natural responsibility requires training young people to care about the use of natural resources and the conservation of the environment and ecology, to recognize the beauty of nature outside of human society, to understand the relationship between the environment and the survival of plants and animals, to understand the efforts and achievements of the country in the conservation of natural resources, to understand their personal responsibility for the sustainable development of the country, and to actively practice their responsibility to protect the natural environment in the world they live in.

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    Is Weight Influenced by Peers: An Empirical Research Based on Classroom Units
    Sihui Du, Gang Cheng, Wenshan Yu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (12): 85-99.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.12.008
    Abstract122)   HTML17)    PDF (1037KB)(93)      

    The research of peer effects on weight is important for clarifying the generating process of abnormal weight, as well as promoting the social governance of adolescent physical health development. Based on the social interaction theory and a combination of data from the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 academic years of the China Education Panel Survey (CEPS), this study aimed to identify the weight peer effect of adolescents within classes and the underlying mechanisms. It was found that there was a weight peer effect within the class unit, with peer mean BMI and peer overweight and obesity rates significantly and positively affecting individual BMI. The results consistently held after controlling for contextual and corrlated effects, performing instrumental variable treatment, and conducting robustness tests. Further mechanism analysis showed that weight perception played a moderating role in the occurrence of the weight peer effect, and that overestimating one’s own weight significantly weakened the weight peer effect, while underestimating one’s own weight has no effect on it. Accordingly, it was demonstrated that the countermeasures against abnormal weight of adolescents in the school context have good externalities, and suggestions such as reasonable allocation of health education resources, enrichment of health education work content, and close attention to social experiences of student groups were proposed.

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    Why Education is Transcendent: The Construction and Characteristics of the Transcendent Theory:That’s Why We Need Lu Jie Today
    Jiangkun Zhang
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (12): 100-112.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.12.009
    Abstract152)   HTML11)    PDF (715KB)(235)      

    The Transcendent Theory is one of the most important academic criticisms and constructions of contemporary Chinese educators on realistic education. The problem of “no one”, that is, the problem that education alienates people and their whole life, is the object of reflection and criticism of The Transcendent Theory. Education is the education of “people”, and The Transcendent Theory responses to the problem of “no one” in education is based on the construction of “practical man” of the theory of human nature. Curing the problem of “no one” lies in “making people become transcendental beings”, that is, realizing “self-transcendence” and “transcending society”. For that, transcendental educational philosophy is a great effort to generate the possibility of human beings. As a defense and commitment to education, The Transcendent Theory has a tone of “intellectual honesty”. It’s helpful to break the illusion and prejudice in education. It is also of great value in solving modern educational problems. Recognizing The Transcendent Theory is a rational awareness of rethinking education, and it is also a possible way of having a good life.

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    Research on the Resource Allocation of Preschool Education in Urban and Rural Areas of China from 2021 to 2050 under the Three-child Policy
    Chen Huang, Ling Li
    Journal of East China Normal University(Educational Sciences)    2023, 41 (12): 113-126.   DOI: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2023.12.010
    Abstract193)   HTML13)    PDF (1816KB)(265)      

    Leslie matrix was used to establish a population prediction model. Based on the census data and a sampling survey of fertility intention, the population of urban and rural permanent residents of preschool education and the size of children in kindergartens, as well as the size of kindergartens, teachers, and total expenditure on preschool education in 2021-2050 were predicted. The results show that by 2035, after raising resource allocation standards, compared with 2020, 40,700 kindergartens will be built, while 1,0755,500 full-time teachers will be added and 909,200 child-care workers will be added, with an additional total expenditure of 365.211 billion yuan for preschool education. It is suggested to dynamically monitor the changes of school-aged population, scientifically distribute preschool education resources in advance, timely revise and adjust the supporting enrollment spaces of the residential population in urban and rural communities based on the consideration of urbanization process, rural revitalization strategy, COVID-19, implementation of the three-child policy and local realities, carry out follow-up inspection on the governance of supporting gardens in urban communities, construct supporting kindergartens in strict accordance with the standards, set up public kindergartens in remote rural areas where it is difficult to run kindergartens, explore the system of overall planning and adjustment of staffing to alleviate the pressure of shortage of preschool staffing, implement equal pay for equal work for irregular teachers, increase the teachers’ subsidies for working years, and strengthen provincial and municipal overall planning and improve the level of subjects guaranteeing financial investment in preschool education.

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